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Supervised by :Dr.ASHRAF MAZKOR Done by : Mayada Ahmed al-masre 0801043 ROUTING PROTOCOL.

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Presentation on theme: "Supervised by :Dr.ASHRAF MAZKOR Done by : Mayada Ahmed al-masre 0801043 ROUTING PROTOCOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supervised by :Dr.ASHRAF MAZKOR Done by : Mayada Ahmed al-masre ROUTING PROTOCOL

2 Presentation points Routers and the routing table. Routing Table (Router conf). Static and Dynamic Routing Routing protocols. Routing protocols classification(Glossary). Interior gatway protocols (IGP).  Distance vector protocols.  Linked state protocols and Routing Process Exterior gateway protocols.

3 Routers and the routing table A router : is a computer, which have many of the same HW and SW components that are found in other computers including : CPU, RAM, ROM, OS.  we can say the router is a computer with an OS and hardware designed for the routing process specialize in sending packets over the data network. RAM is used to store these components:  IOS (Internetwork Operating System).  Running Configuration File.  IP Routing Table.  Others...

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5 Presentation points Routers and the routing table. Routing Table (Router conf). Static and Dynamic Routing Routing protocols. Routing protocols classification(Glossary). Interior gatway protocols (IGP).  Distance vector protocols.  Linked state protocols and Routing Process Exterior gateway protocols.

6 Routing Table (router conf. ) Used to store route information about directly :  A directly connected network.  A remote network.  Information about the networks :  network address and subnet mask  IP address of next-hop router.  The router interface.  Each router interface is a member of a different network.  Activated (no shutdown command ). R1(config)#interface Serial0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address R1(config-if)#no shutdown

7 Presentation points Routers and the routing table. Routing Table (Router conf). Static and Dynamic Routing Routing protocols. Routing protocols classification(Glossary). Interior gatway protocols (IGP).  Distance vector protocols.  Linked state protocols and Routing Process Exterior gateway protocols.

8 Static and Dynamic Routing

9 Presentation points Routers and the routing table. Routing Table (Router conf). Static and Dynamic Routing Routing protocols. Routing protocols classification(Glossary). Interior gatway protocols (IGP).  Distance vector protocols.  Linked state protocols and Routing Process Exterior gateway protocols.

10 Routing protocols Set of processes, algorithms, and messages that are used to exchange routing information and populate the routing table. The purpose of a routing protocol :  Discovery of remote networks  Maintaining up-to-date routing information  Choosing the best path to destination networks Operations of a dynamic routing protocol :  The router sends and receives routing messages on its interfaces.  The router shares routing messages and routing information with other routers that are using the same routing protocol.  Routers exchange routing information to learn about remote networks.  When a router detects a topology change the routing protocol can advertise this change to other routers.

11 Routing protocols classification Why, What, When

12 Some Glossary Autonomous System (AS) - known as a routing domain - is a collection of routers under a common administration. Convergence :when all routers' routing tables are at a state of consistency(network has converged when all routers have complete and accurate information about the network). wildcard-mask : is the inverse of the subnet mask.

13 Some Glossary Administrative distance (AD) : is an integer value from 0 to 255. The lower the value the more preferred the route source Metric : a value used by routing protocols to determine, which path or which routes are better than others (when multiple paths to the same remote network)  Hop count. (RIP, IGRP & EIGRP)  Bandwidth  Load balancing.  Delay.  Reliability.  Cost.

14 Presentation points Routers and the routing table. Routing Table (Router conf). Static and Dynamic Routing Routing protocols. Routing protocols classification(Glossary). Interior gatway protocols (IGP).  Distance vector protocols.  Linked state protocols and Routing Process Exterior gateway protocols.

15 Routing protocols classification

16 Interior Gatway Protocols (IGP) Distance vector protocols : router which use distance vector routing protocols knows 2 things: Distance to final destination. Vector, or direction, traffic should be directed. Distance vector protocols properties :  Simple implementation and maintenance .  Low resource requirement .  Slow convergence .  Limited scalability .  Routing loop .  RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, and EIGRP

17 RIPv1RIPv2 Difference A classful. Does not support subnets or VLSM Does not send subnet mask in routing update (30 seconds, by default) Routing updates are broadcast A classless. Next hop address is included in updates Routing updates are multicast The use of authentication is an option Automatically summarize classful routes More 2 extensions in message format (subnet mask field, next hop ) Similarities  Hop count is used as the metric for path selection(Max hop count=15)  RIP’s default administrative distance (AD)is 120  2 message types : Request and Response message ( subnet mask field, next hop )  Use of timers to prevent routing loop  Use of split horizon or split horizon with poison reverse  Use of triggered updates RIPv1, RIPv2

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19 IGRP, and EIGRP IGRPEIGRP Difference Bandwidth, delay, load and reliability are used to create a composite metric. Routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds. Metrics :bandwidth,Delay,reliability load. no periodic updates. automatically summarize routes at classfull boundaries. Encrypt routing information. Metrics: Bandwidth, delay, reliability, load uses PDM (Protocol Dependent Modules) to route several different protocols Similarities  IGRP is the predecessor of EIGRP and is now obsolete.  Packet Types (Hello, Update,Acknowledgment ).

20 IGRP, and EIGRP Router(config )#router eigrp autonomous-system Router(config-router)#network network-address [wildcard-mask]

21 Routing protocols classification

22 Interior Gatway Protocols (IGP) Linked state protocols: (SPF,if not necessarily the path with the least number of hops) and the routers use a database to construct a topology map of the network.  Link :This is an interface on a router.  Link state : This is the information about the state of the links. Builds Topological map and fast Convergence and Use of LSP .  Solution (LSA flooding ) Designated router (DR) : Router with the highest OSPF interface priority, and Backup designated router (BDR) Router can independently determine the shortest path to every network . Memory,Processing and Bandwidth Requirements . OSPF ( Open Shortest Path First )and IS_IS().

23 Link-State(LS) Routing Process 1. Each routers learns about its own directly connected networks 2. LS routers exchange hello packet to “meet” other directly connected LS routers. 3. Each router builds its own Link State Packet (LSP) which includes information about neighbors such as neighbor ID, link type, & bandwidth. 4. After the LSP is created the router floods it to all neighbors who then store the information and then forward it until all routers have the same information. 5. Once all the routers have received all the LSPs, the routers then construct a topological map of the network which is used to determine the best routes to a destination

24 Link-State(LS) DB

25 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF ) R1(config)#router ospf process-id Router(config-router)#network network-address wildcard-ask area area-id OSPF uses cost as the metric when cost =( 108 / bandwidth)

26 The Practical To Clarify

27 Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS_IS ) Metric : maximum path value (default), and three optional metrics (costs): delay, expense, and error. Packet Header Format: hello,(LSPs), and (SNPs)

28 Routing protocols classification

29 Exterior gateway protocols protocols can routing between different AS, commonly used between hosts on the Internet to exchange routing table information which contain :  list of known routers.  addresses they can reach  Cost metric. Packet format : message type. Ex.:Border Gateway Protocol ( BGP)

30 Routing protocols classification

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32 Routing protocol (Under study( future work How migrating EIGRP to OSPF. OLSR ( Optimized Link State Routing protocol ) was used as a routing protocol and NRL Mobile Network Emulator (MNE) for dynamic topology control and manipulation. Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) was defined as an extension to the OSPF unicast routing protocol Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM) works with all existing unicast routing protocols.

33 Conclusions Static Routing: Minimal CPU processing, administrator to understand, Easy to configure and more secure. But Configuration and maintenance is time-consuming,manual reconfiguration. Dynamic (Interior And Exterior )  Distance vector routing protocols : routes are advertised as vectors of distance & direction. incomplete view of network topology. Generally, periodic updates.  Link state routing protocols : complete view of network topology is created. updates are not periodic. Difficulty: All nodes need to have a consistent view of the network

34 Conclusions Confusion about the terms routed protocol and routing protocol is common.  ROUTED PROTOCOLS are nothing more than data being transported across the networks.  ROUTING PROTOCOLS are the software that allow routers to dynamically advertise and learn routes. According to the scale of network, you can select different protocol. Some routing protocols are designed for use within an organization, while other routing protocols are designed for use between organizations.

35 Thank you  ANY QUESTION


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