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§2 Topological Sort 〖 Example 〗 Courses needed for a computer science degree at a hypothetical university How shall we convert this list into a graph? 1/17

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§2 Topological Sort AOV Network ::= digraph G in which V( G ) represents activities ( e.g. the courses ) and E( G ) represents precedence relations ( e.g. means that C1 is a prerequisite course of C3 ). C1C3 i is a predecessor of j ::= there is a path from i to j i is an immediate predecessor of j ::= E( G ) Then j is called a successor ( immediate successor ) of i Partial order ::= a precedence relation which is both transitive ( i k, k j i j ) and irreflexive ( i i is impossible ). Feasible AOV network must be a dag (directed acyclic graph). Note: If the precedence relation is reflexive, then there must be an i such that i is a predecessor of i. That is, i must be done before i is started. Therefore if a project is feasible, it must be irreflexive. 2/17

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§2 Topological Sort 【 Definition 】 A topological order is a linear ordering of the vertices of a graph such that, for any two vertices, i, j, if i is a predecessor of j in the network then i precedes j in the linear ordering. 〖 Example 〗 One possible suggestion on course schedule for a computer science degree could be: 3/17

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§2 Topological Sort Note: The topological orders may not be unique for a network. For example, there are several ways (topological orders) to meet the degree requirements in computer science. Goal Test an AOV for feasibility, and generate a topological order if possible. void Topsort( Graph G ) { int Counter; Vertex V, W; for ( Counter = 0; Counter < NumVertex; Counter ++ ) { V = FindNewVertexOfDegreeZero( ); if ( V == NotAVertex ) { Error ( “Graph has a cycle” ); break; } TopNum[ V ] = Counter; /* or output V */ for ( each W adjacent to V ) Indegree[ W ] – – ; } /* O( |V| ) */ T = O( |V| 2 ) 4/17

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§2 Topological Sort Improvement: Keep all the unassigned vertices of degree 0 in a special box (queue or stack). v1v1 v2v2 v6v6 v7v7 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 void Topsort( Graph G ) { Queue Q; int Counter = 0; Vertex V, W; Q = CreateQueue( NumVertex ); MakeEmpty( Q ); for ( each vertex V ) if ( Indegree[ V ] == 0 ) Enqueue( V, Q ); while ( !IsEmpty( Q ) ) { V = Dequeue( Q ); TopNum[ V ] = ++ Counter; /* assign next */ for ( each W adjacent to V ) if ( – – Indegree[ W ] == 0 ) Enqueue( W, Q ); } /* end-while */ if ( Counter != NumVertex ) Error( “Graph has a cycle” ); DisposeQueue( Q ); /* free memory */ } 0 v1v1 Indegree 1 v2v2 2 v3v3 3 v4v4 1 v5v5 3 v6v6 2 v7v7 v1v1 0 v2v2 1 21 0 v5v5 0 v4v4 1 v6v6 0 v3v3 2 0 v7v7 1 0 T = O( |V| + |E| ) Home work: p.339 9.2 What if a stack is used instead of a queue? 5/17 Mistakes in Fig 9.4 on p.289

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms Given a digraph G = ( V, E ), and a cost function c( e ) for e E( G ). The length of a path P from source to destination is (also called weighted path length). 1. Single-Source Shortest-Path Problem Given as input a weighted graph, G = ( V, E ), and a distinguished vertex, s, find the shortest weighted path from s to every other vertex in G. v1v1 v2v2 v6v6 v7v7 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 2 4 2 1310 2 5 8 4 6 1 v1v1 v2v2 v6v6 v7v7 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 2 4 2 1 3 –10 2 5 8 4 6 1 Negative-cost cycle Note: If there is no negative-cost cycle, the shortest path from s to s is defined to be zero. 6/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms Unweighted Shortest Paths v1v1 v2v2 v6v6 v7v7 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 0 0: v 3 1: v 1 and v 6 1 1 2: v 2 and v 4 2 2 3: v5v5 and v 7 3 3 Sketch of the idea Breadth-first search Implementation Table[ i ].Dist ::= distance from s to v i /* initialized to be except for s */ Table[ i ].Known ::= 1 if v i is checked; or 0 if not Table[ i ].Path ::= for tracking the path /* initialized to be 0 */ 7/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms void Unweighted( Table T ) { int CurrDist; Vertex V, W; for ( CurrDist = 0; CurrDist < NumVertex; CurrDist ++ ) { for ( each vertex V ) if ( !T[ V ].Known && T[ V ].Dist == CurrDist ) { T[ V ].Known = true; for ( each W adjacent to V ) if ( T[ W ].Dist == Infinity ) { T[ W ].Dist = CurrDist + 1; T[ W ].Path = V; } /* end-if Dist == Infinity */ } /* end-if !Known && Dist == CurrDist */ } /* end-for CurrDist */ } The worst case: v1v1 v2v2 v6v6 v7v7 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 v9v9 v8v8 T = O( |V| 2 ) If V is unknown yet has Dist < Infinity, then Dist is either CurrDist or CurrDist+1. 8/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms Improvement void Unweighted( Table T ) { /* T is initialized with the source vertex S given */ Queue Q; Vertex V, W; Q = CreateQueue (NumVertex ); MakeEmpty( Q ); Enqueue( S, Q ); /* Enqueue the source vertex */ while ( !IsEmpty( Q ) ) { V = Dequeue( Q ); T[ V ].Known = true; /* not really necessary */ for ( each W adjacent to V ) if ( T[ W ].Dist == Infinity ) { T[ W ].Dist = T[ V ].Dist + 1; T[ W ].Path = V; Enqueue( W, Q ); } /* end-if Dist == Infinity */ } /* end-while */ DisposeQueue( Q ); /* free memory */ } v1v1 v2v2 v6v6 v7v7 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 0 v1v1 Dist Path v2v2 0 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 v6v6 v7v7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v3v3 v7v7 1 v3v3 v1v1 1 v3v3 v6v6 1 1 2 2 v1v1 v2v2 2 2 v1v1 v4v4 3 3 v2v2 v5v5 3 3 v4v4 T = O( |V| + |E| ) 9/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms Dijkstra’s Algorithm ( for weighted shortest paths ) Let S = { s and v i ’s whose shortest paths have been found } For any u S, define distance [ u ] = minimal length of path { s ( v i S ) u }. If the paths are generated in non-decreasing order, then the shortest path must go through ONLY v i S ; Why? If it is not true, then there must be a vertex w on this path that is not in S. Then... u is chosen so that distance[ u ] = min{ w S | distance[ w ] } (If u is not unique, then we may select any of them) ; /* Greedy Method */ if distance [ u 1 ] ). 10/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms void Dijkstra( Table T ) { /* T is initialized by Figure 9.30 on p.303 */ Vertex V, W; for ( ; ; ) { V = smallest unknown distance vertex; if ( V == NotAVertex ) break; T[ V ].Known = true; for ( each W adjacent to V ) if ( !T[ W ].Known ) if ( T[ V ].Dist + Cvw < T[ W ].Dist ) { Decrease( T[ W ].Dist to T[ V ].Dist + Cvw ); T[ W ].Path = V; } /* end-if update W */ } /* end-for( ; ; ) */ } v1v1 v2v2 v6v6 v7v7 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 2 4 2 1310 2 5 8 4 6 1 0 v1v1 Dist Path v2v2 v3v3 v4v4 v5v5 v6v6 v7v7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2v1v1 1v1v1 3v4v4 3v4v4 9v4v4 5v4v4 8v3v3 6v7v7 /* not work for edge with negative cost */ Please read Figure 9.31 on p.304 for printing the path. /* O( |V| ) */ 11/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms Implementation 1 V = smallest unknown distance vertex; /* simply scan the table – O( |V| ) */ T = O( |V| 2 + |E| ) Good if the graph is dense Implementation 2 V = smallest unknown distance vertex; /* keep distances in a priority queue and call DeleteMin – O( log|V| ) */ Decrease( T[ W ].Dist to T[ V ].Dist + Cvw ); /* Method 1: DecreaseKey – O( log|V| ) */ T = O( |V| log|V| + |E| log|V| ) = O( |E| log|V| ) /* Method 2: insert W with updated Dist into the priority queue */ /* Must keep doing DeleteMin until an unknown vertex emerges */ Good if the graph is sparse T = O( |E| log|V| ) but requires |E| DeleteMin with |E| space Other improvements: Pairing heap (Ch.12) and Fibonacci heap (Ch. 11) Home work: p.339 9.5 Find the shortest paths p.340 9.10 Modify Dijkstra’s algorithm 12/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms Graphs with Negative Edge Costs Hey I have a good idea: why don’t we simply add a constant to each edge and thus remove negative edges? Too simple, and naïve… Try this one out: 1 34 2 2 – 2 2 1 void WeightedNegative( Table T ) { /* T is initialized by Figure 9.30 on p.303 */ Queue Q; Vertex V, W; Q = CreateQueue (NumVertex ); MakeEmpty( Q ); Enqueue( S, Q ); /* Enqueue the source vertex */ while ( !IsEmpty( Q ) ) { V = Dequeue( Q ); for ( each W adjacent to V ) if ( T[ V ].Dist + Cvw < T[ W ].Dist ) { T[ W ].Dist = T[ V ].Dist + Cvw; T[ W ].Path = V; if ( W is not already in Q ) Enqueue( W, Q ); } /* end-if update */ } /* end-while */ DisposeQueue( Q ); /* free memory */ } /* negative-cost cycle will cause indefinite loop */ /* no longer once per edge */ /* each vertex can dequeue at most |V| times */ T = O( |V| |E| ) 13/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms Acyclic Graphs If the graph is acyclic, vertices may be selected in topological order since when a vertex is selected, its distance can no longer be lowered without any incoming edges from unknown nodes. T = O( |E| + |V| ) and no priority queue is needed. Application: AOE ( Activity On Edge ) Networks —— scheduling a project vjvj a i ::= activity Signals the completion of a i EC[ j ] \ LC[ j ] ::= the earliest \ latest completion time for node v j CPM ( Critical Path Method ) Lasting Time Slack Time EC Time LC Time Index of vertex 14/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms 〖 Example 〗 AOE network of a hypothetical project 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 start finish a0=6 a1=4 a2=5 a3=1 a4=1 a5=2 a6=9 a7=7 a8=4 a9=2 a10=4 Calculation of EC: Start from v0, for any a i =, we have 0 6 4 5 7 7 16 14 18 a11=0 Dummy activity Calculation of LC: Start from the last vertex v8, for any a i =, we have 18 16 14 7 7 5 66 0 Slack Time of = 2 3 2 Critical Path ::= path consisting entirely of zero-slack edges. 15/17

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§3 Shortest Path Algorithms 2. All-Pairs Shortest Path Problem For all pairs of v i and v j ( i j ), find the shortest path between. Method 1 Use single-source algorithm for |V| times. T = O( |V| 3 ) – works fast on sparse graph. Method 2 O( |V| 3 ) algorithm given in Ch.10, works faster on dense graphs. 16/17

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Detailed requirements can be downloaded from http://10.71.45.99/list.asp?boardid=47 http://10.71.45.99/list.asp?boardid=47 Courseware Download Don’t forget to sign you names and duties at the end of your report. Due: Thursday, December 7th, 2006 at 10:00pm §3 Shortest Path Algorithms Laboratory Project 5 Saving James Bond 17/17

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