# Chapter 6: Binary Trees.

## Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Binary Trees."— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 6: Binary Trees

Objectives Looking ahead – in this chapter, we’ll consider
Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees Implementing Binary Trees Searching a Binary Search Tree Tree Traversal Insertion Deletion Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Objectives (continued)
Balancing a Tree Self-Adjusting Trees Heaps Treaps k-d Trees Polish Notation and Expression Trees Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees
While linked lists, stacks, and queues are useful data structures, they do have limitations Linked lists are linear in form and cannot reflect hierarchically organized data Stacks and queues are one-dimensional structures and have limited expressiveness To overcome these limitations, we’ll consider a new data structure, the tree Trees consist of two components, nodes and arcs (or edges) Trees are drawn with the root at the top, and “grow” down The leaves of the tree (also called terminal nodes) are at the bottom of the tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
Trees can be defined recursively as follows: A tree with no nodes or arcs (an empty structure) is an empty tree If we have a set t1… tk of disjoint trees, the tree whose root has the roots of t1… tk as its children is a tree Only structures generated by rules 1 and 2 are trees Every node in the tree must be accessible from the root through a unique sequence of arcs, called a path The number of arcs in the path is the path’s length A node’s level is the length of the path to that node, plus 1 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
The maximum level of a node in a tree is the tree’s height An empty tree has height 0, and a tree of height 1 consists of a single node which is both the tree’s root and leaf The level of a node must be between 1 and the tree’s height Some examples of trees are shown in Figure 6.1 Fig. 6.1 Some examples of trees Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
The number of children of a given node can be arbitrary Using trees may also to improve the process of searching for elements In order to find a particular element in a list of n elements, we have to examine all those before that element in the list This holds even if the list is ordered On the other hand, if the elements of a list are stored in a tree that is organized in a predetermined fashion, the number of elements that must be looked at can be substantially reduced Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
The order of nodes in the figure below doesn’t achieve anything, because there is no consideration of searching incorporated into its design However, by applying a consistent ordering to the nodes, considerable savings in searching can be achieved Fig. 6.3 Transforming (a) a linked list into (b) a tree Again, notice from this Figure that nodes can have any number of children. Several algorithms exist that are based on trees that have specific numbers of leaves. In this discussion, however, we are going to focus on binary trees. Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
A binary tree is a tree where each node has only two children, designated the left child and the right child These children can be empty; Figure 6.4 shows examples of binary trees Fig. 6.4 Examples of binary trees An important attribute of binary trees is the number of leaves This is useful in assessing efficiency of algorithms Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
As specified earlier, the level of a node is the number of arcs between it and the root, plus 1 The root is at level 1, its children at level 2, etc. So if each node at any given level (except the last) had two children, there would be 20 nodes at level 1, 21 nodes at level 2, etc. In general, there would be 2i nodes at level i + 1 A tree that exhibits this is called a complete binary tree In such a tree, all nonterminal nodes have both children, and all leaves are on the same level Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
Because leaves can occur throughout this tree (except at level 1), there is no general formula to calculate the number of nodes However, it can be approximated: For all the nonempty binary trees whose nonterminal nodes have exactly two nonempty children, the number of leaves m is greater than the number of nonterminal nodes k and m = k + 1 This holds trivially for the tree consisting of only the root Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
For any given tree for which the condition holds, attaching two leaves to an existing leaf will make it nonterminal This decreases the leaf nodes by 1 and increases the number of nonterminals by 1 However, the two new leaves increase the number of leaves by 2, so the relation becomes (m – 1) + 2 = (k + 1) + 1 This simplifies to m = k + 1, which is the desired result This means that an i + 1 level complete decision tree has 2i leaves and 2i – 1 nonterminal nodes, totaling 2i+1 – 1 nodes Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
Fig. 6.5 (a) Adding a leaf to tree, (b) preserving the relation of the number of leaves to the number of nonterminal nodes Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees (continued)
In a binary search tree (or ordered binary tree), values stored in the left subtree of a given node are less than the value stored in that node, and values stored in the right subtree of a given node are greater than the value stored in that node The values stored are considered unique; attempts to store duplicate values can be treated as an error The meanings of the expressions “less than” and “greater than” will depend on the types of values stored Fig. 6.6 Examples of binary search trees Figure 6.6 shows examples of binary search trees; notice figure 6.6c is the tree from figure 6.3a, optimized. Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Implementing Binary Trees
We can use arrays or linked structures to implement binary trees If using an array, each element stores a structure that has an information field and two “pointer” fields containing the indexes of the array locations of the left and right children The root of the tree is always in the first cell of the array, and a value of -1 indicates an empty child Fig. 6.7 Array representation of the tree in Figure 6.6c Using this implementation, the tree from figure 6.6c can be implemented using the array shown in figure 6.7. Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Implementing Binary Trees (continued)
Implementing binary tree arrays does have drawbacks We need to keep track of the locations of each node, and these have to be located sequentially Deletions are also awkward, requiring tags to mark empty cells, or moving elements around, requiring updating values Consequently, while arrays are convenient, we’ll usually use a linked implementation In a linked implementation, the node is defined by a class, and consists of an information data member and two pointer data members The node is manipulated by methods defined in another class that represents the tree The code for this is shown in Figure 6.8 on pages Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Searching a Binary Search Tree
Locating a specific value in a binary tree is easy: Fig. 6.9 A function for searching a binary search tree For each node, compare the value to the target value; if they match, the search is done If the target is smaller, we branch to the left subtree; if larger, we branch to the right If at any point we cannot proceed further, then the search has failed and the target isn’t in the tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Searching a Binary Search Tree (continued)
Using this approach and referring to Figure 6.6c, we can find the value 31 in only three comparisons Finding (or not finding) the values 26 – 30 requires the maximum of four comparisons; all other values require less than four This also demonstrates why a value should occur only once in a tree; allowing duplicates requires additional searches: If there is a duplicate, we must either locate the first occurrence and ignore the others, or We must locate each duplicate, which involves searching until we can guarantee that no path contains another instance of the value This search will always terminate at a leaf node Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Searching a Binary Search Tree (continued)
The number of comparisons performed during the search determines the complexity of the search This in turn depends on the number of nodes encountered on the path from the root to the target node So the complexity is the length of the path plus 1, and is influenced by the shape of the tree and location of the target Searching in a binary tree is quite efficient, even if it isn’t balanced However, this only holds for randomly created trees, as those that are highly unbalanced or elongated and resemble linear linked lists approach sequential search times Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal Tree traversal is the process of visiting each node in a tree data structure exactly one time This definition only specifies that each node is visited, but does not indicate the order of the process Hence, there are numerous possible traversals; in a tree of n nodes there are n! traversals Two especially useful traversals are depth-first traversals and breadth-first traversals Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Breadth-First Traversal Breadth-first traversal proceeds level-by-level from top-down or bottom-up visiting each level’s nodes left-to-right or right-to-left This gives us four possibilities; a top-down, left-to-right breadth-first traversal of Figure 6.6c yields 13, 10, 25, 2, 12, 20, 31, 29 This can be easily implemented using a queue If we consider a top-down, left-to-right breadth-first traversal, we start by placing the root node in the queue We then remove the node at the front of the queue, and after visiting it, we place its children (if any) in the queue This is repeated until the queue is empty Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Breadth-First Traversal (continued) An implementation of this is shown in Figure 6.10 Fig Top-down, left-to-right, breadth-first traversal implementation Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Breadth-First Traversal (continued) The following diagram shows a traversal of the tree from Figure 6.6c, using the queue-based breadth-first traversal The queue (middle) and output (right) from a breadth-first traversal of the tree from Figure 6.6c (left) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Depth-First Traversal Depth-first traversal proceeds by following left- (or right-) hand branches as far as possible The algorithm then backtracks to the most recent fork and takes the right- (or left-) hand branch to the next node It then follows branches to the left (or right) again as far as possible This process continues until all nodes have been visited While this process is straightforward, it doesn’t indicate at what point the nodes are visited; there are variations that can be used We are interested in three activities: traversing to the left, traversing to the right, and visiting a node These activities are labeled L, R, and V, for ease of representation Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Depth-First Traversal (continued) Based on earlier discussions, we want to perform the traversal in an orderly manner, so there are six possible arrangements: VLR, VRL, LVR, LRV, RVL, and RLV Generally, we follow the convention of traversing from left to right, which narrows this down to three traversals: VLR – known as preorder traversal LVR – known as inorder traversal LRV – known as postorder traversal These can be implemented straightforwardly, as seen in Figure 6.11 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Fig Depth-first traversal implementations Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Depth-First Traversal (continued) While the code is simple, the power lies in the recursion supported by the run-time stack, which places a heavy burden on the system To gain more insight into the behavior of these algorithms, let’s consider the inorder routine In this traversal, if the tree is nonempty, we traverse the left subtree of the node, then visit the node, then traverse the right subtree The output from the inorder traversal can be seen in figure The individual steps labeled in the figure are described in detail on pages 226 and 227. Fig Inorder tree traversal Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Depth-First Traversal (continued) Because of the order of the recursion in the code, the V and R steps are held pending until the L step completes This is the function of the stack, to “remember” the backtrack point, so that after a left traversal ends, the routine can back up to visit the branch point node, and then proceed to the right This is illustrated in Figure 6.13, where each node is labeled with the activities “LVR”, and they are scratched out as they are performed for a given node To see how this works, we can observe the operation of the runtime stack shown in Figure 6.14 on page 230; the numbers in parentheses refer to return addresses indicated in the code on page 228 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Fig Details of several of the first steps of inorder traversal Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Depth-First Traversal (continued) Now let’s consider nonrecursive implementations of the traversal algorithms As we’ve learned, recursive algorithms tend to be less efficient than their nonrecursive versions So we need to determine if it is useful to pursue nonrecursive versions of the traversal algorithms Let’s first consider a nonrecursive version of the preorder algorithm, shown in Figure 6.15 While still readable, it makes extensive use of the stack, and the number of calls in the processing loop is actually twice the number in the recursive version of the code, which is hardly an improvement Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Fig A nonrecursive implementation of preorder tree traversal Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Depth-First Traversal (continued) Recursive algorithms can easily be derived from one another by simply transposing the function calls This is not the case with the nonrecursive algorithms, however; the order of the calls and their interaction with the stack is critical So the inorder and postorder nonrecursive algorithms have to be developed separately Fortunately, creating a postorder algorithm can be accomplished easily by noting that an LRV traversal is simply a reversed VRL traversal This is a right-to-left preorder traversal, so we can adapt the preorder algorithm to create the postorder one This will require two stacks to handle the reversal process from preorder to postorder Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Depth-First Traversal (continued) We can utilize a single stack, however, if we push the node based on the number of descendants it has We can push the node once before traversing its left subtree, and then again before traversing its right subtree An auxiliary pointer is used to keep track of the two cases Nodes with one descendant get pushed only once, and leaf nodes are not put on the stack This approach is the basis for the code in Figure 6.16 Inorder traversal is also complicated; the algorithm in Figure 6.17 is both hard to follow and hard to understand without documentation Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Fig A nonrecursive implementation of postorder tree traversal Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Fig A nonrecursive implementation of inorder tree traversal Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Threaded Trees The previous algorithms were all characterized by the use of a stack, either implicitly through the system, or explicitly in code In both cases, additional processing time is required to handle stack operations, and memory has to be allocated for the stack In extreme cases where the tree is highly skewed, this can be a serious processing concern A more efficient implementation can be achieved if the stack is incorporated into the design of the tree itself This is done by using threads, pointers to the predecessor and successor of a node based on an inorder traversal Trees using threads are called threaded trees Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Threaded Trees (continued) To implement threads, four pointers would be needed for each node, but this can be reduced by overloading the existing pointers The left pointer can be used to point to the left child or the predecessor, and the right pointer can point to the right child or successor This is illustrated in Figure 6.18(a) The figure suggests that threads to both predecessors and successors need to be used, but this is not always true Figure 6-18b shows the inorder traversal of a threaded tree, using only successor threads Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Threaded Trees (continued) Fig (a) A threaded tree and (b) an inorder traversal’s path in a threaded tree with right successors only The implementation of this is relatively simple; the traversal is indicated by the dashed lines in Figure 6.18b Only a single variable is needed for this; no stack is required However, the memory savings will be highly dependent on the implementation, shown in Figure 6-19 on pages 235 and 236 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Threaded Trees (continued) We can also use threads to support preorder and postorder traversal In preorder, the existing threads can be used to determine the appropriate successors Postorder requires somewhat more work, but is only slightly more complicated to accomplish Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Tree Transformation The approaches to traversal thus far considered have used stacks to support the traversal or incorporated the stack into the tree Both of these have memory overhead that can impact the efficiency of the algorithms However, it is possible to carry out traversals without using stacks or threads These algorithms rely on making temporary changes in the tree structure during traversal, and restoring the structure when done One elegant algorithm to accomplish this was developed by Joseph M. Morris in 1979 and is shown here for inorder traversal Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Tree Transformation (cont’d) The algorithm is based on the observation that inorder traversal is very simple for trees that have no left children (see Figure 6.1e) Since no left subtree has to be considered, the LVR traversal reduces to VR Morris’s algorithm utilizes this observation by modifying the tree so that the node being processed has no left child This allows the node to be visited and then the right subtree can be investigated Since this changes the tree’s structure, the traversal can only be done once, and information must be kept to restore the original tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Tree Transformation (cont’d) The algorithm can be described as follows: MorrisInorder() while not finished if node has no left descendant visit it; go to the right; else make this node the right child of the rightmost node in its left descendant; go to this left descendant; Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Tree Transformation (cont’d) An implementation of this algorithm is shown in Figure 6.20 Fig Implementation of the Morris algorithm for inorder traversal Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Tree Traversal (continued)
Stackless Depth-First Traversal: Tree Transformation (cont’d) Details of the traversal are shown in Figure 6-21 (page 239); letters for the subfigures are referred to in the process steps on pages 237 and 238 Preorder and postorder traversals can be implemented in a similar fashion The preorder traversal requires moving the visit() operation from the inner else to the inner if Postorder requires additional restructuring of the tree, as described on page 239 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Insertion Searching a binary tree does not modify the tree
Traversals may temporarily modify the tree, but it is usually left in its original form when the traversal is done Operations like insertions, deletions, modifying values, merging trees, and balancing trees do alter the tree structure We’ll look at how insertions are managed in binary search trees first In order to insert a new node in a binary tree, we have to be at a node with a vacant left or right child This is performed in the same way as searching: Compare the value of the node to be inserted to the current node If the value to be inserted is smaller, follow the left subtree; if it is larger, follow the right subtree If the branch we are to follow is empty, we stop the search and insert the new node as that child Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Insertion (continued)
This process is shown in Figure 6.22; the code to implement this algorithm shown in Figure 6.23 Fig Inserting nodes into binary search trees Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Insertion (continued)
Fig Implementation of the insertion algorithm Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Insertion (continued)
In looking at tree traversal, we considered three approaches: stack-based, thread-based, and via transformations Stack based traversals don’t change the trees; transformations change the tree but restore it when done Threaded approaches, though, do modify the tree by adding threads to the structure While it may be possible to add and remove the threads as needed, if the tree is processed frequently, we might want to make the threads a permanent part of the tree This requires incorporating threads into the insertion process Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Insertion (continued)
The algorithm for inserting a node in a threaded tree is a simple modification of the original function that adjusts the threads where needed The implementation of this algorithm is shown in Figure 6.24 on page 242; the first insertions are shown in Figure 6.25 Fig Inserting nodes into a threaded tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Deletion Deletion is another operation essential to maintaining a binary search tree This can be a complex operation depending on the placement of the node to be deleted in the tree The more children a node has, the more complex the deletion process This implies three cases of deletion that need to be handled: The node is a leaf; this is the easiest case, because all that needs to be done is to set the parent link to null and delete the node (Figure 6.26) The node has one child; also easy, as we set the parent’s pointer to the node to point to the node’s child (Figure 6.27) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.27 Deleting a node with one child
Deletion (continued) Fig Deleting a leaf Fig Deleting a node with one child The third case, and most difficult to handle, is when the node has two children, as there is no one-step process; we’ll consider two options Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Deletion (continued) Deletion by Merging
The first approach, deletion by merging, works by making one tree out of the node’s two subtrees and attaching it to the node’s parent This is accomplished by recalling that the value of every node in the right subtree is greater than the value of every node in the left subtree So the rightmost node of the left subtree will be the largest value in that subtree, and it will become the parent of the right subtree To do this, we start at the root of the left subtree and follow right links until we encounter a node with an empty right pointer This node will then set that pointer to the right subtree, and the parent of the left subtree is promoted to replace the deleted node This entire operation is shown in Figure 6.28; Figure 6.29 (pages 245 and 246) shows the code for the algorithm Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.28 Summary of deleting by merging
Deletion (continued) Deletion by Merging (continued) Fig Summary of deleting by merging The individual steps in the process are shown in Figure 6.30 The numbers in the figure correspond to the numbers in the comments of the code in Figure 6.29 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.30 Details of deleting by merging
Deletion (continued) Fig Details of deleting by merging Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Deletion (continued) Deletion by Merging (continued)
The tree that results from merging may have a very different structure from the original tree In some cases it can be taller, even skewed; occasionally it can be shorter This does not mean the algorithm is inefficient; but we do need to try and find a way to maintain some type of balance in the tree Figure 6.31 illustrates these issues; 6.31a shows the type of imbalance that may occur, and 6.31b shows a “shorter” tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Deletion (continued) Fig The height of a tree can be (a) extended or (b) reduced after deleting by merging Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Deletion (continued) Deletion by Copying
Another approach to handling deleting is called deletion by copying and was proposed by Thomas Hibbard and Donald Knuth in the 1960s Initially, this works much like the merging process We locate the node’s predecessor by searching for the rightmost node in the left subtree The key of this node replaces the key of the node to be deleted We then recall the two simple cases of deletion: if the rightmost node was a leaf, we delete it; if it has one child, we set the parent’s pointer to the node to point to the node’s child This way, we delete a key k1 by overwriting it by a key k2 and then deleting the node holding k2 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.32 Implementation of an algorithm for deleting by copying
Deletion (continued) Deletion by Copying (continued) This algorithm is implemented by two functions, the first of which is shown in Figure 6.32 Fig Implementation of an algorithm for deleting by copying Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Deletion (continued) Deletion by Copying (continued)
The second function works like the merging function of Figure 6.29, except it calls the deleteByCopying()function rather than deleteByMerging() A trace of this process is shown in Figure 6.33 The numbers in the diagrams refer to the numbers in the code of Figure 6.32 This algorithm avoids the height increase problem of merging, but problems can still result Since the algorithm always deletes the immediate predecessor of the key being replaced, the left subtree can shrink while the right subtree is unchanged, making the algorithm asymmetric Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Figure 6.33 Deleting by copying
Deletion (continued) Figure 6.33 Deleting by copying Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Deletion (continued) Deletion by Copying (continued)
Eventually the tree becomes unbalanced to the right, and the right subtree is bushier and larger than the left A simple improvement can make this symmetric; we alternately delete the node’s predecessor from the left subtree and its successor from the right subtree This provides significant improvements; however the analysis has proven to be extremely complex, and most studies focus on simulations Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree Two arguments have been presented in favor of trees:
They represent hierarchical data particularly well Searching trees is much faster than searching lists However, this second point depends on the structure of the tree As we’ve seen, skewed trees search no better than linear lists Three situations are presented in Figure 6.34 A fairly well-balanced tree (Figure 6.34a) A right unbalanced tree (Figure 6.34b) A right skewed tree (Figure 6.34c) Neither of the last two situations occur in balanced trees Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
Fig Different binary search trees with the same information A binary tree is height balanced (or simply, balanced) if the difference in height of the subtrees of any node in the tree is zero or one It is perfectly balanced if it is balanced and all leaves are on one or two levels Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The number of nodes that can be stored in binary trees of different heights is shown in Figure 6.35 Fig Maximum number of nodes in binary trees of different heights From this we can see that if we store n elements in a perfectly balanced tree, the height is lg 𝑛+1 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
So storing 10,000 items in such a tree gives us a height of lg 10,001 = = 14 From the standpoint of searching, this means if items are stored in a perfectly balanced tree, we’ll need to look at 14 items to find a particular one To find the item in an equivalent linked list would require 10,000 tests in the worst case So constructing a balanced tree, or modifying one to make it balanced, is worth the effort Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
There are many techniques for balancing a tree Some monitor the tree as items are added, and restructure the tree when it becomes unbalanced Others reorder the data being processed and then build the tree, if the reordering leads to the construction of a balanced tree We’ll first consider a process based on this latter technique In looking at Figure 6.34, notice that the structure of the trees resulted from the order in which the data was placed In 6.34c, data was in ascending order, resulting in a right skewed tree In 6.34b, “B” arrived first, and since only “A” is less than “B”, all the other nodes were placed in the right subtree In 6.34c, the root was near the middle of the list, resulting in a more balanced tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
This last arrangement suggests using an algorithm based on the binary search technique to construct the tree The data is stored in an array as it arrives, then sorted The element in the middle of the array is designated as the root The elements in the middle of the left and right subarrays become the roots of the left and right subtrees, etc. As this proceeds we build the tree one level at a time; first the root, then its left and right children, etc. If we modify this to insert the root, then its left child, then the left child’s child, etc., we can create a simple recursive algorithm Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
template <class T> void BST<T>::balance(T data[], int first, int last) { if (first <= last) { int middle = (first = last)/2; insert(data[middle]); balance(data, first, middle-1); balance(data, middle+1, last); } An application of this algorithm is shown in Figure 6.36 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
Fig Creating a binary search tree from an ordered array Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
This algorithm does suffer from one significant drawback All the data needs to be in the array before the tree can be created So it can be unsuitable for a tree that needs to be used while it is being constructed On the other hand, an unbalanced tree can be balanced easily by carrying out an inorder traversal and writing the output to an array This array can then be used to create a balanced version of the tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The DSW Algorithm The previous algorithm is rather inefficient due to the need for an auxiliary array to handle data storage during construction or reorganization of the tree Thus it should only be used for fairly small trees There are other algorithms that use little extra storage and do not require sorting, however One such algorithm was developed by Colin Day and modified by Quentin F. Stout and Bette L. Warren; it is called the DSW algorithm Key to the behavior of this algorithm is the idea of rotation, introduced by Adel’son-Vel’skii and Landis in 1962 Two types of rotation can occur, left and right, which are symmetric Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The DSW Algorithm (continued) The right rotation of a node Ch around its parent Par is performed as follows: rotateRight(Gr, Par, Ch) if Par is not the root of the tree //i.e.,if Gr is not null grandparent Gr of child Ch becomes Ch’s parent; right subtree of Ch becomes left subtree of Ch’s parent Par; node Ch acquires Par as its right child; The steps of this are shown in Figure 6.37; note that the heart of this process is the third step, when parent and child swap roles The first and second steps ensure that the tree remains a search tree after the rotation is completed Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The DSW Algorithm (continued) Fig Right rotation of child Ch about parent Par Essentially, the algorithm transforms an arbitrary binary search tree into a linked list-like structure called a backbone or vine This is further transformed into a perfectly balanced tree by rotating every second node of the backbone around its parent Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The DSW Algorithm (continued) The algorithm to create the backbone, which is the first step of the process, is as follows: createBackbone(root) tmp = root; while (tmp != 0) if tmp has a left child rotate this child about tmp; // hence the left child // becomes parent of tmp set tmp to the child that just became parent; else set tmp to its right child; Figure 6.38 illustrates the operation of this algorithm; notice since rotation requires knowing about the parent of tmp, another pointer has to be used Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
Fig Transforming a binary search tree into a backbone Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The DSW Algorithm (continued) In the second step of the transformation, the backbone is transformed into a perfectly balanced tree In each pass down the backbone, every second node is rotated about its parent The first pass handles the difference between the number of nodes in the backbone and the number of nodes in the closest complete binary tree Overflowing nodes are treated separately An example of this is shown in Figure 6.39 The backbone from Figure 6.38e is transformed in the first pass to the backbone of Figure 6.39b; then two additional passes are executed Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The DSW Algorithm (continued) Fig Transforming a backbone into a perfectly balanced tree In these diagrams, the nodes being promoted one level by left rotations are shown as squares The circles are the parents about which they are rotated Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
The DSW Algorithm (continued) The algorithm for this operation is shown following: createPerfectTree() n = number of nodes; m = ; make n-m rotations starting from the top of backbone; while(m > 1) m = m / 2; make m rotations starting from the top of backbone; Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees The balancing algorithms we’ve looked at so far can potentially involve the entire tree However, rebalancing can be performed locally if the insertions or deletions impact only a portion of the tree One well-known method is based on the work of Adel’son-Vel’skii and Landis, and is named for them: the AVL tree An AVL tree (also called an admissible tree) is one where the height of the left and right subtrees of every node differ by at most one Examples of AVL trees are shown in Figure 6.40 Numbers in the nodes are the balance factors, which is the difference between the height of the right and left subtrees and should be +1, 0, or -1 for AVL trees Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) Fig Examples of AVL trees Notice that while the definition of an AVL tree is the same as that of a balanced tree, the model implicitly includes the balancing techniques In addition, the process of balancing an AVL tree does not guarantee a perfectly balanced tree The minimum number of nodes in an AVL tree is determined by: AVLh = AVLh-1 + AVLh-2 + 1 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) In this recurrence relation, the initial values are AVL0 = 0 and AVL1 = 1 From this, we can derive the bounds on the height (h) of the AVL tree based on the number of nodes (n): lg(n + 1) < h < 1.44 lg(n + 2) – 0.328 Recall that for a perfectly balanced tree, h = lg n+1 If any node in an AVL tree has its balance factor become less than -1 or greater than 1, it has to be balanced There are four situations in which a tree can become unbalanced; two are symmetrical to the other two, so we only need to look at two cases These two cases are illustrated in Figure 6.41 and 6.42 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) The first case, shown in Figure 6.41, occurs when a node is inserted in the right subtree of the right child Fig Balancing a tree after insertion of a node in the right subtree of node Q The subtrees involved in the rotation have their heights indicated After a new node is inserted somewhere in the right subtree of Q to unbalance the tree, Q rotates around is parent P to rebalance the tree This is illustrated in Figure 6.41b and Figure 6.41c Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) The second case, shown in Figure 6.42, occurs when a node is inserted in the left subtree of the right child, and is more complicated Fig Balancing a tree after insertion of a node in the left subtree of node Q A node is inserted in Figure 6.42a, resulting in the tree in Figure 6.42b The derail of this is in Figure 6.42c; note the subtrees of R could be reversed, giving R a value of -1 The imbalance is solved by a double rotation: first R around Q (Figure 6.42d), then R around P (Figure 6.42e) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) These examples treat P as a stand-alone tree; however it could be part of a larger tree, perhaps a child of another node As Figures 6.41 and 6.42 imply, the changes made to the subtree originally rooted at P are sufficient to restore balance to the tree The problem then is to find the node P in the tree that becomes imbalanced after an insertion This can be accomplished by moving back up the tree from the point of insertion, updating the balance factors until one becomes ± 2 This node then becomes P, the root of the subtree that needs to be rebalanced The algorithm to accomplish the balance updates is shown as pseudocode on pages 258 and 259 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) Figure 6.43 illustrates what happens when a node is inserted and the resulting updates cause a node to become imbalanced Figure 6.43 An example of inserting (b) a new node in (a) an AVL tree, which requires one rotation (c) to restore the height balance It is also possible that an insertion will only cause the balance factors to be updated; in this case the path is followed back to the root This is shown in Figure 6.44 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) Fig In an (a) AVL tree a (b) new node is inserted requiring no height adjustments Deleting a node may require more work The deleteByCopying()algorithm is applied to delete the node The balance factors of all nodes from the parent of the deleted node to the root are then updated Each node whose balance factor becomes ± 2 will be rebalanced Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) This must be done for the entire path because deletion may not cause an imbalance in a parent, but in a grandparent We’ll only consider those cases (four, with four symmetric cases) which necessitate immediate rotation In each case, the assumption is the left child of the node P is deleted These cases are illustrated in Figure 6.45 on page 261 In the first case, P’s balance factor is +1, and its right child, Q, is also at +1; this is shown in Figure 6.45a Deleting a node from P’s left child leads to the tree in Figure 6.45b, with P at +2; this is rebalanced by rotating P around Q (Figure 6.45c) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) In the second case, P’s balance factor is +1, and its right child, Q, is 0; this is shown in Figure 6.45d Deleting a node from P’s left child leads to the tree in Figure 6.45e, with P at +2; this is rebalanced as in the first case by rotating P around Q (Figure 6.45f) So the first two cases, with Q either +1 or 0, can be handled in the same way If the initial balance factor of Q is -1, which is true in the other two cases, the process of rebalancing is more complex The third case arises when the left subtree of Q, rooted at R, has a balance factor of -1 (Figure 6.45g) Rebalancing after deletion requires a double rotation; first of R about Q and then of R about P (Figures 6.45h and 6.45i) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Balancing a Tree (continued)
AVL Trees (continued) The fourth case is similar to the third, but differs in that the balance factor of R is +1, rather than -1 However, rebalancing can be done with the same two rotations as the third case so the third and fourth can be handled together (Figures 6.45j – l) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Self-Adjusting Trees The focus of our efforts in balancing trees has been to keep the trees properly structured Consequently, whenever a newly inserted node threatens a tree’s balance, action is taken to correct the imbalance This can be done for the entire tree, using the DSW technique, or locally, using the AVL process Is correcting the imbalance always necessary? Since trees are used to handle items quickly, it is the speed of operations and not the tree’s structure that is critical Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Consider the idea that not all items in a tree are likely to be used with equal frequency If we keep track of the most frequently accessed items, and structure the tree to improve access to them, we can improve performance This is the basis for self-adjusting trees The strategy is to migrate up the tree those elements used most often, creating a “priority tree” Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

We can keep track of frequency in a number of ways Each node could have a counter to record accesses; the tree could be rearranged to move highest counts up in the tree A second approach is based on the assumption that an item that has been accessed will be accessed soon again Each time an element is accessed, it is moved up the tree New elements are simply added where appropriate without restructuring Although this could promote infrequently accessed objects, over a period of use the more frequently used items will occupy the higher levels of the tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Self-Restructuring Trees Brian Allen, Ian Munroe, and James Bitner proposed a strategy with two possibilities, shown in Figure 6.46 Single rotation – if an element in a child is accessed, rotate the child around the parent, unless it is the root (Figure 6.46a) Moving to the root – the parent-child rotation is repeated until the element that was accessed is the root (Figure 6.46b) Fig Restructuring a tree by (a) using a single rotation or (b) moving to the root when accessing node R Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Self-Restructuring Trees (continued) In the single-rotation approach, the more often an item is accessed the closer it moves to the root, so access to the element improves With move-to-the-root, the assumption is the accessed element will be accessed soon again, so it immediately moves to the root Even if the item isn’t used right away, it will remain close to the root for further access Unfortunately, these strategies don’t work well in the case of skewed trees such as we’ve seen earlier; although they will improve slowly This situation is displayed in Figure 6.47 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Self-Restructuring Trees (continued) Fig (a–e) Moving element T to the root and then (e–i) moving element S to the root Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Splaying Robert Tarjan and Daniel Sleator developed an alternative to the move-to-the-root technique in 1985 Called splaying, it applies single rotations in pairs; using an order determined by the links between child, parent, and grandparent First we distinguish from among three cases, based on the relationship between a node R, its parent Q, and grandparent P (if they exist) Case 1 – The root node is R’s parent Case 2 – Called the homogeneous configuration, R is the left child of Q, and Q is the left child of P (or, R and Q are right children) Case 3 – Called the heterogeneous configuration, R is the right child of Q and Q is the left child of P (or R is the left child of Q and Q is the right child of P) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Splaying (continued) The algorithm to manipulate the node in the tree is as follows: Splaying (P,Q,R) while R is not the root if R’s parent is the root perform a singular splay, rotate R about its parent; (Figure 6.48a) else if R is in a homogeneous configuration with its predecessors perform a homogeneous splay, first rotate Q about P and then R about Q; (Figure 6.48b) else // R is in a heterogeneous configuration with its predecessors perform a heterogeneous splay, first rotate R about Q and then about P; (Figure 6.48c) Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Splaying (continued) Fig Examples of splaying Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Splaying (continued) The difference in applying this technique to the tree of Figure 6.47a is shown on Figure 6.49 In accessing the node T in the fifth level of the tree, the shape is improved a great deal; after accessing R, the improvement is dramatic Fig Restructuring a tree with splaying (a–c) after accessing T and (c–d) then R Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Splaying (continued) Even though splaying is a combination of two rotations (except when next to the root), they are not necessarily bottom-up For homogeneous cases (left-right or right-right), the parent and grandparent node are rotated, then the node and its parent The effect of this is both to move the node towards the root and to flatten the tree, which improves access Splaying focuses on the elements rather than tree shape, so typically it performs better when some elements are used more frequently If all the elements are accessed with about the same frequency, it will not be as useful In those cases an alternative approach that focuses on balancing the tree is better Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Splaying (continued) A modification called semisplaying is illustrated in Figure 6.48b It requires one rotation for a homogeneous splay, and continue splaying with the parent of the node, rather than the node itself Figure 6.50 illustrates the application of semisplaying The tree of Figure 6.49a becomes more balanced after accessing node T using this technique (Figures 6.50a – c) After T is accessed a second time, the resulting tree (Figure 6.50d) is structurally similar to Figure 6.46a Although theoretical results are favorable, empirical results for various trees show that AVL tress work better than self-modifying ones; many times even a regular binary tree outperforms these Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Splaying (continued) Fig (a–c) Accessing T and restructuring the tree with semisplaying; (c–d) accessing T again Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps A heap is a special type of binary tree with the following properties: The value of each node is greater than or equal to the values stored in its children The tree is perfectly balanced, and the leaves in the last level are leftmost in the tree This actually defines a max heap; if “greater than” is replaced by “less than” in the first property, we have a min heap Thus the root of a max heap is the largest element, and the root of a min heap the smallest If each nonleaf of a tree exhibits the first property, the tree exhibits the heap property Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.51 Examples of (a) heaps and (b–c) nonheaps
Heaps (continued) Figure 6.51 exhibits some examples; those in Figure 6.51a are heaps, while those in Figure 6.51b violate the first property and those in Figure 6.51c violate the second Fig Examples of (a) heaps and (b–c) nonheaps Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) Heaps can be implemented as arrays
As an example, consider the array data=[ ] represented as a nonheap tree in Figure 6.52 Fig The array [ ] seen as a tree The arrangement of the elements reflects the tree from top-to- bottom and left-to-right Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) We can define a heap as an array heap of length n where heap[i] > heap[2i + 1], for 0 < i < (n – 1)/2 and heap[i] > heap[2i + 2], for 0 < i < (n – 2)/2 Elements in a heap are not ordered; we only know the root is the largest and the descendants are less than or equal to it The relationship between siblings or between elements in adjacent subtrees is undetermined All we are aware of is that there is a linear relationship along the lines of descent, but lateral lines are ignored Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.53 Different heaps constructed with the same elements
Heaps (continued) This is why, although all the trees in Figure 6.53 are heaps, Figure 6.53b is ordered the best Fig Different heaps constructed with the same elements Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) Heaps as Priority Queues
Heaps are ideal for implementing priority queues We saw linked lists used to do this in section 4.3, but for large amounts of data, they can become inefficient Because heaps are perfectly balanced trees, the inherent efficiency of searching such structures makes them more useful We will need a couple of routines to enqueue and dequeue elements on the priority queue, though To enqueue, the node is added at the end of the heap as the last leaf If the heap needs to be restructured to preserve the heap property, it can be done by moving the node from last leaf towards the root Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) Heaps as Priority Queues (continued)
The enqueuing algorithm is as follows: heapEnqueue(el) put el at the end of the heap; while el is not in the root and el > parent(el) swap el with its parent; This is illustrated in Figure 6.54a, where the node 15 is added to the heap Because this destroys the heap property, 15 is moved up the tree until it is either the root or finds a parent greater than or equal to 15 This is reflected in Figure 6.54b-d Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.54 Enqueuing an element to a heap
Heaps (continued) Heaps as Priority Queues (continued) Fig Enqueuing an element to a heap Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) Heaps as Priority Queues (continued)
Dequeuing an element from a heap simply removes the root (since it is the largest value) and replacing it by the last leaf Since this will most likely violate the heap property, the node is moved down the tree to the appropriate location The algorithm for this looks like: heapDequeue() extract the element from the root; put the element from the last leaf in its place; remove the last leaf; // both subtrees of the root are heaps p = the root; while p is not a leaf and p < any of its children swap p with the larger child; Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.55 Dequeuing an element from a heap
Heaps (continued) Heaps as Priority Queues (continued) This is shown in Figure 6.55; 20 is dequeued and 6 put in its place This is then swapped with 15 (the larger child) and again with 14 Fig Dequeuing an element from a heap Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) Heaps as Priority Queues (continued)
The last three lines of this dequeuing algorithm can be used as a stand-alone routine to restore the heap property if it is violated by the root by moving it down the tree; a coded form is shown below: Fig Implementation of an algorithm to move the root element down a tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) Organizing Arrays as Heaps
As we’ve seen, heaps can be implemented as arrays, but not all arrays are heaps In some circumstances, though, we need to organize the contents of an array as a heap, such as in the heap sort One of the simpler ways to accomplish this is attributed to John Williams; we start with an empty heap and sequentially add elements This is a top-down technique that extends the heap by enqueuing new elements in the heap This process is described on page 273 and illustrated in Figure 6.57 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Organizing arrays as heaps
Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Heaps (continued) Organizing Arrays as Heaps (continued)
A bottom-up approach that starts by forming small heaps and merging them into larger heaps was proposed by Robert Floyd The algorithm follows: FloydAlgorithm(data[]) for i = index of the last nonleaf down to 0 restore the heap property for the tree whose root is data[i] by calling moveDown(data, i, n-1); Figure 6.58 (page 275) shows an example of transforming the array data[] = [ ] into a heap The process is described in detail on pages Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Organizing arrays as heaps
Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Treaps Heaps suffer from one significant problem
While they allow rapid access to the largest (or smallest) element in the heap, accessing any other element is awkward As we’ve seen binary search trees are ideal for searching, but can lose this efficiency if they aren’t kept balanced To take advantage of the strengths of both of these data structures, we can create a treap A treap is a binary search tree that associates priorities with elements and organizes itself into a heap according to these priorities The heap in this case preserves only the heap property Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Treaps (continued) An example of this is shown in Figure 6.59 (page 278), where the binary search tree (6.59a) is combined with a max-heap (Figure 6.59b) to form the treap (6.59c) When an item is inserted, a priority is generated, and then the element is added as a leaf If the new node’s priority is larger than its parent, it is rotated around the parent; this is repeated until the parent’s priority is larger (or the new node becomes the root) Figures 6.59d-j shows this process first for the node G with a priority of 17, and then for node J with priority 25 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Treaps (continued) Deleting a node from a treap requires rotating the node with the child of higher priority, and continuing this until only one child is left or the node becomes a leaf This is illustrated in Figure 6.59j-l, where node J is deleted by first rotating it with M, and then deleting it It is also possible to process treaps without storing the priorities in the nodes One approach uses a hash function, h, on the key value, K, to generate the priority h(K) Another approach uses an array to store the nodes Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Treaps (continued) A treap that behaves like a min-heap stores only the index of the location the element occupies, which serves as its priority To insert an item, an index i is generated, subject to i < n (the number of elements in the treap and array) If i = n, the element is placed in the nth location in the array and inserted into the treap Otherwise the element in position i is moved to position n (with priority n) through rotations and the new element is inserted in that position with priority i To delete an item, it is first deleted from the treap, and then removed from the array The item in position n is then rotated to this position (upward in the treap) Insertion is illustrated in figure 6.60 on page 279. Deletion is illustrated in figures 6.60i-k. Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

K-d Trees In the binary search trees we’ve looked at, a single key has been used to perform all operations in the tree It is possible to use multiple keys and still retain the pure binary tree form, however One approach, developed by Jon Bentley in 1975, is the multidimensional (k-dimensional) binary search tree or K-d tree The multidimensionality refers to the items stored in the tree and not the tree itself These structures are often used in multi-key searches such as range searches and nearest neighbor searches Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

K-d Trees (continued) If we consider points in a Cartesian plane, each point is characterized by two values, the x and y coordinates If we used a binary tree to store the points, we could use either coordinate as a key to determine the location to insert the point, or a concatenation of both To use both keys separately in descending binary tree, the x coordinate can be used on odd levels and the y on even levels The structure of this tree is illustrated by the example shown on the left in Figure 6.61 “A” is the root, so a vertical line corresponding to its x coordinate is drawn through it Nodes to the left are in the left subtree, and those to the right are in the right subtree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

K-d Trees (continued) On the next level, the y coordinate is used, so horizontal lines are drawn through “G” and “B” Points below are in the left subtree of the node, and points above are in the right subtree This continues until all nodes are processed The tree corresponding to this partitioning is shown on the right of Figure 6.61 The values for the coordinates are based on a 100 x 100 square; generally there is no limitation in size and the points can be anywhere on the plane Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Fig. 6.61 An example of a 2-d tree
K-d Trees (continued) Fig An example of a 2-d tree We can generalize a k-d tree to store any number of keys of any type For example, the database table on the left of Figure 6.62 can be represented using the 3-d tree on the right The name is used on level 1, YOB on level 2 and salary on level 3; name would be used again on level 4, etc. Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

K-d Trees (continued) A pseudocode algorithm for insertion is shown on page 281 To search for a particular item in a k-d tree (an exact match), we use the same technique as in a binary search The major difference is that at each level, we have to use the appropriate key, and all keys have to match We can also use the k-d tree to output items in a particular range (called a region query) For a given node, we first check that the element is within a specified region We then check the element’s key, and if it is in the range specified for the key, we continue with both children Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

K-d Trees (continued) If the key is above the lower bound, but not smaller then the upper bound, we only check the left subtree Likewise, if the key is below the upper bound, but not larger than the lower bound, we check the right subtree Pseudocode for this procedure is shown on page 282 Deletion of a node in a k-d tree is more complicated than a standard binary tree due to the placement of predecessors and successors In Figure 6.61, for example the immediate predecessor of “A” is “H”, not “G” as would be determined in a binary algorithm The problem is that at the level “G” is at, y keys are used, so there may be nodes in the left subtree with larger x values Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

K-d Trees (continued) So to find a node with a smaller x coordinate, we have to investigate both subtrees In general, if an immediate successor with respect to a given key is to be found, then if we are at a node on a level where that key is used, we can examine the right subtree Otherwise we will need to examine both subtrees If the node, p, doesn’t have a right subtree, then we examine the left subtree to find the smallest node, q Information from q is copied over the information in p, the left subtree of p becomes the right subtree of p, and then q is deleted This is illustrated in Figure 6.63 on page 284 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

K-d Trees (continued) A pseudocode algorithm for the deletion process is shown on page 285 Notice that when deleting the root, on levels using the x coordinate (except the root level) only left subtrees need be looked at This is shown in Figure 6.63a and 6.63c for the value (20, 40); the right subtree is not searched In general, in a k-d tree only for nodes on every kth level are their right subtrees not searched Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees
One of the more significant applications of binary trees is the explicit representation of arithmetic, relational, and logical expressions Polish notation, developed by Jan Lukasiewicz in the 1920s, is a special notation for symbolic logic that allows us to eliminate all parentheses from formulas While the resulting formulas were less readable, with the advent of computers the technique proved to be very useful For the sake of readability and avoiding ambiguity, we write formulas with extra symbols like parentheses Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
However, if we are only concerned with ambiguity, as in a compiler, we can omit the extra symbols This requires we rearrange the symbols used in the formulas So how does Polish notation work? If we consider an expression like 2 – 3 ∙ 4 + 5, the results will depend on the order the operations are executed Based on the traditional hierarchy, multiplication is done first, then addition and subtraction from left to right, yielding -5 However, doing the addition and subtraction before multiplication yields -9; multiplying and adding before subtraction gives us -15 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
A computer doesn’t know what the default order of operations is, and unlike humans, can’t use parentheses to override default behavior So all expressions a compiler encounters need to be broken down unambiguously and put into proper order This is where Polish notation comes in handy; using it we can create an expression tree that defines the order of operations Using this, the three expressions we’ve seen can be represented by the three trees in Figure 6.64 Notice that with the trees, there is no ambiguity; the final result can only be determined from the intermediate results Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Fig Examples of three expression trees and results of their traversals Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Notice no parentheses are used, but there is no ambiguity This structure can be retained even when the tree is linearized by traversing the tree and output the symbols based on the traversal order The three relevant traversals are preorder, inorder, and postorder, which are shown in Figure 6.64 Notice that traversing each tree using inorder produces the same expression, implying inorder isn’t useful to us The other two are however, so we can use them to create unambiguous expressions Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Because of the usefulness and importance of these traversals, the results they produce are given names to distinguish them Preorder traversals produce prefix notation, where the operator precedes the operands it works on, such as in LISP Postorder traversals generate postfix notation, where the operator follows the operands it works on, such as in Forth Inorder traversals create infix notation, where the operator is in between its operands It is the infix notation form that we are most familiar with in reading and creating expressions Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Operations on Expression Trees As we’ve already seen, binary trees can be created top-down or bottom-up We seen the first technique applied in dealing with tree insertion; the second approach will be used to create expression trees while scanning infix expressions left to right The critical part of this is retaining the precedence of operators, as was shown in Figure 6.64 This is simple if parentheses are not allowed, so the algorithm needs to be able to handle an arbitrary depth of nesting in expressions An ideal method for doing this is through recursion; the interpreter from the case study in chapter 5 will be modified to create a tree constructor Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Operations on Expression Trees (continued) As the trees in Figure 6.64 show, each node is either an operator or an operand; these can all be represented as strings using the class: class ExprTreeNode { public: ExprTreeNode (char *k, ExprTreeNode *l, ExprTreeNode *r) { key = new char[strlen(k) +1]; strcpy (key, k); left = l; right = r; } private: char *key; ExprTreeNode *left, *right; Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Operations on Expression Trees (continued) The expressions that are converted to trees use the same syntax as the expressions in the chapter 5 case study, so the same syntax diagrams can be used Based on those diagrams, a class ExprTree can be defined in which methods for factors and terms can be defined using the pseudocode shown on page 288 It turns out that the tree form of expressions is ideal for generating assembly code in compilers; the pseudocode from the ExprTree class to do this is shown on page 289 Using this, the expression (var2 + n) * (var2 + var1)/5 becomes the tree in Figure 6.65, and the generatecode() function creates the intermediate code following the tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Operations on Expression Trees (continued) Figure 6.65 An expression tree Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

Polish Notation and Expression Trees (continued)
Operations on Expression Trees (continued) Expression trees can be used for a number of other symbolic manipulations, such as differentiation Rules for differentiation are illustrated in Figure 6.66 and the pseudocode that follows it on page 290 Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, Fourth Edition

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