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Chapter 3 Enabling Technologies 1 Zhenlong Li, Qunying Huang and Zhipeng Gui Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Enabling Technologies 1 Zhenlong Li, Qunying Huang and Zhipeng Gui Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, 2013. Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Enabling Technologies 1 Zhenlong Li, Qunying Huang and Zhipeng Gui Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

2 Learning Objective 2 Develop basic understanding of cloud computing enabling technologies: 1.Hardware advancements 2.Computing technologies 3.Virtualization 4.Distributed file system 5.Web x.0 technologies Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

3 Learning Modules 1.Hardware advancements 2.Computing technologies 3.Virtualization 4.Distributed file system 5.Web x.0 technologies 6.Discussion 3 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

4 Hardware advancements: Multi-core and Many-core Technologies Single-core and multi-thread computing model is unable to meet the intensive computing demand Multi-core CPU was first used in late 1900s Characterized by low electricity consumption, efficient space utilization, and favorable performance Help cloud providers build energy-efficient and high performance data centers 4 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

5 Hardware advancements: Networking Cloud computing provides services in a multi-tenant environment where network is serving as the “glue” function.  Cloud services are delivered to cloud consumers through network.  Private cloud, public cloud and hybrid cloud are defined by the networking relationship between cloud consumers and providers. 5 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

6 Hardware advancements: Storage and Smart Devices Cloud storage is a virtualized extensible resource. Cloud services usually need a large volume of storage to ensure elastic support for consumers. The fast developing hard-drive technologies meet the storage need of cloud computing. Smart devices accelerate the development of cloud computing by enriching its access channels for cloud consumers. 6 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

7 Learning Modules 1.Hardware advancements 2.Computing technologies 3.Virtualization 4.Distributed file system 5.Web x.0 technologies 6.Discussion 7 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

8 Computing technologies: Distributed Computing Paradigm Distributed computing: utilize computing capacity from multiple distributed computers to address larger computational problems. Distributed computing is the most obvious predecessor technology that enabled the inception of cloud computing. Distributed computing: an infrastructure that delivers storage and compute resources. Cloud computing: make extensive and highly virtualized resources easily available and scalable over the Internet as services. 8 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

9 Computing technologies: Computing Architecture Model Client/Server (C/S) model offering a central repository of computers personal computers and workstations serving as terminals Browser/Server (B/S) model web browser is used as the client program unifying different client programs in the C/S model simplifying the system development, maintenance and usage B/S is the key computing architecture model in the evolution of cloud computing 9 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

10 Learning Modules 1.Hardware advancements 2.Computing technologies 3.Virtualization 4.Distributed file system 5.Web x.0 technologies 6.Discussion 10 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

11 Virtualization: Implementation Hypervisor establishes an abstraction layer between the VMs and the underlying hardware. Hypervisor captures CPU instructions, and acts as a coordinator for instructions to access hardware controllers and peripherals. 11 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

12 Virtualization: Implementation Full virtualization Based on the host/guest paradigm Each guest runs on a virtual imitation of the hardware layer Para-virtualization Attempts to provide most functions directly from the underlying hardware instead of abstracting it Overcomes performance overhead introduced by the hypervisor in a full virtualization approach Hardware virtualization A virtualization solution when the hypervisor is embedded in the circuits of a hardware component 12 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

13 Virtualization: Solutions HypervisorCloud ServicesVirtualization ApproachSoftware Type XenAmazon EC2, GoGrid, 21vianet CloudEx, RackSpace Mosso Para-virtualizationOpen Source KVMCloudStack, NimbusFull-virtualizationOpen Source VirtualBox Full-virtualizationOpen Source SmartOSJoyentA combination of hardware and OS virtualization Open Source Virtual PCMicrosoft AzurePara-virtualizationCommercial VMwareAT&T Synaptic, Verizon CaaS Full-virtualizationCommercial 13 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

14 Learning Modules 1.Hardware advancements 2.Computing technologies 3.Virtualization 4.Distributed file system 5.Web x.0 technologies 6.Discussion 14 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

15 Distributed File System (DFS) DFS allows access to files from multiple hosts, via a computer network. DFS enables multiple machines to share files and storage resources. DFS usually serves on the top of local file systems (lower level file system). The client nodes do not have direct access to the underlying block storage but interact over the network using a protocol. Cloud computing utilizes the distributed data storage technology to store data. 15 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

16 DFS: Google File System(GFS) Developed by Google for large distributed data- intensive applications. Major difference compared to Network File System(NFS)  Bigger chunks: Google chunk size is 64MB. This design is more suitable for big file and then provides better IO performance.  Multiple data replication: to guarantee the reliability, GFS provides at least 3 data redundancies.  Not local caching: unlike NFS which offer local caching at client side, GFS doesn’t support local caching. 16 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

17 DFS: Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) An open source distributed file system designed to run on commodity hardware. HDFS is designed considering the following characteristics:  Failures are normal rather than the exception;  Large data sets (huge file size, typical in GB to TB);  Streaming data access, e.g., file is sequential read;  Append to write;  Hundreds of concurrent write accesses;  Bandwidth is more important than latency;  Moving computation is cheaper than moving data. 17 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

18 Learning Modules 1.Hardware advancements 2.Computing technologies 3.Virtualization 4.Distributed file system 5.Web x.0 technologies 6.Discussion 18 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

19 Web x.0: The evolution of Web Web 1.0 emerged as early as 1993 the web pages are static Web 2.0. first coined in 2004, the web pages are dynamic and editable Web 3.0 aims to make the Web more intelligent also called Intelligence Web Web 4.0 still a developing conception, no clear and exact definition is formed yet 19 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

20 Web x.0: Web Services A web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network SOAP-based web services: Web Services Description Language (WSDL) Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) XML is extensively used REST-based web services: retrieve information through simple HTTP methods such as GET, POST, PUT and DELETE. E.g. Google APIs, Yahoo APIs and OGC services 20 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

21 Web x.0: Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) A SOA-based system is comprised of many loosely coupled services. Benefits of using SOA: Component reusing Existing system integration Language and platform independent 21 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

22 Web x.0: Cloud computing and SOA Cloud computing, to a large extent, leverages the concept of SOA, especially in the SaaS and PaaS layers. They have different emphasis: -- SOA is an architecture focusing on answering the question of “how to develop applications”. -- Cloud computing is an infrastructure emphasizing on the solution of “how to deliver applications”. 22 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

23 Learning Modules 1.Hardware advancements 2.Computing technologies 3.Virtualization 4.Distributed file system 5.Web x.0 technologies 6.Discussion 23 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

24 Discussion Questions 1.Please enumerate the key enabling technologies of cloud computing from the aspects of hardware, computing, file system and the Web. 2.Why many-core technology could help cloud providers build energy-efficient data centers? 3.Why networking is important to cloud computing? 4.What is virtualization and how it helps enable cloud computing? Please enumerate five virtualization solutions. 5.What are the major differences between a distributed file system (DFS) and a traditional file system? Please give two examples of DFS. 6.Please enumerate the development stages of the Web. 7. What are the characteristics of SOA and how SOA relates to cloud computing? 24 Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp

25 References 1.Aghaei, S., M. A. Nematbakhsh, and H. K. Farsani "Evolution Of The World Wide Web: From Web 1.0 To Web 4.0." International Journal of Web & Semantic Technology (IJWesT) 3, no Benslimane, D., S. Dustdar, and A. Sheth "Services mashups: The new generation of web applications." Internet Computing, IEEE 12, no. 5: Borthakur, D "The hadoop distributed file system: Architecture and design." Hadoop Project Website 11: Chai, L., Q. Gao, and D. K. Panda "Understanding the impact of multi-core architecture in cluster computing: A case study with intel dual-core system." In Cluster Computing and the Grid, CCGRID Seventh IEEE International Symposium on, pp IEEE. 5.Foster, I., Y. Zhao, I. Raicu, and S. Lu "Cloud computing and grid computing 360-degree compared." In Grid Computing Environments Workshop, GCE'08, pp Ieee. 6.Ghemawat, S., H. Gobioff, and S. Leung "The Google file system." In ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 37, no. 5, pp ACM. 7.Mell, P., and T. Grance "The NIST definition of cloud computing (draft)." NIST special publication 800: Pase, D. M., and M. A. Eckl "A comparison of single-core and dual-core Opteron processor performance for HPC."IBM xSeries Performance Development and Analysis. 9.Shvachko, K., H. Kuang, S. Radia, and R. Chansler "The hadoop distributed file system." In Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST),IEEE 26th Symposium on, pp IEEE. 10.Sagona, P "A preliminary performance analysis of medical image registration on single-core and multi-core clusters." Lecture Notes in Computer Science. doi 10, no : Shakian, A Oracle Cloud File System. Oracle White Paper.http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/products/cloud-storage/cloudfs-overview-wp pdf? ssSourceSiteId=ocomen(Accessed March 12, 2013).http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/products/cloud-storage/cloudfs-overview-wp pdf? ssSourceSiteId=ocomen 12.Sahoo, J., S. Mohapatra, and R. Lath "Virtualization: A survey on concepts, taxonomy and associated security issues." In Computer and Network Technology (ICCNT), 2010 Second International Conference on, pp IEEE. 13.T OGRAPH, B., and Y. RICHARD MORGENS " Cloud computing." Communications of the ACM 51, no Vaquero, L. M., L. Rodero-Merino, J. Caceres, and M. Lindner " A break in the clouds: towards a cloud definition." ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 39, no. 1: Youseff, L., M. Butrico, and D. D. Silva "Toward a unified ontology of cloud computing." Grid Computing Environments Workshop.GCE'08.IEEE. 16.Yeager, P. S. "A distributed file system for distributed conferencing system." PhD diss., University of Florida, Z. Li, Q. Huang and Z. Gui, Chapter 3 Enabling technologies, In Spatial Cloud Computing: a practical approach, edited by C.Yang, Q. Huang, Z. Li, C. Xu, K. Liu, CRC Press: pp


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