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Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)

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Presentation on theme: "Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)

2 Basic Ideas From the Neolithic Revolution
Geographic factors allowed for advances in agriculture that lead to stable food supplies, rising populations, and the development of society

3 Create a Chart Comparing Life Before and After Agriculture
Life Before Agriculture Life After Agriculture Food Supply Shelter Social Structure (government & religion included) Art & Innovation Specialization Language

4 Hominids “Great Apes” Refers to humans and their ancestors
Australopithecines – 4-1 million years ago Lucy is the most famous discovery of an Australopithecine. She was found in A complete, female skeleton dated to 3.5 million years ago

5 Paleolithic Era Paleolithic means “Old Stone Age”
2.5 million years ago – 8,000 years ago People of the Paleolithic Era: Homo-Habilis (2.5 million – 1.5 million years ago) used simple stone tools “man of skill” Homo-Erectus (1.6 mil. – 30,000 BC) predecessor to Homo-Sapiens “upright man” First to use fire, good hunters, and more advanced tools Neanderthal (200,000BC-30,000 BC) Powerfully built, heavy brows, big muscles Developed some form of religion DNA shows not an ancestor of humans

6 Cro-Magnon 40,000BC-8,000 BC These are the earliest Homo-Sapiens “wise man” Planned hunts, stalked, their population grew at a faster rate as their lives became easier Probably looked similar to me and you (brain size and capacity were smaller)

7 Life Before Steady Agriculture
People were Hunters and Gatherers They were Nomadic – travel from place to place in search of food Once the food in an area was consumed, man moved to a new area Also followed the migration patterns of animals Nomadic may not be a term that familiar to all students – particularly ELL students. Be sure to review it’s meaning and describe in detail if necessary. Additional questions you might want to ask about this life: What would someone’s life be like, living as a nomad? What kind of stability is there in a nomadic life? What kind of things could you do, not do

8 Shelters Before the Neolithic Revolution
Many nomadic people lived in shelters provided by nature (such as caves) Many people built very simple shelters made of wood and hides

9 Social Structure The typical social structure was built around the family There may have been groups of families together, known as a Clan

10 Art and Innovation Some drawings and artwork from the Paleolithic Age have been found Lascaux Cave paintings in France They used very primitive weapons and tools Some evidence of sewing needles The use of fire Simple stone tools


12 Specialized Labor The main priority for everyone at this time was finding food We call this Subsistence

13 Language/Communication
Only verbal communication was used (and it was probably fairly limited/basic) Symbols were used to mark places of importance

14 NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Neolithic means “New Stone Age”
8,000 BC – 3000 BC Something very important in the history of the world happens to start the “New Stone Age.” What is it? It changes everything. Why is this such a big change? How do you think it will change history?

15 Neolithic Revolution Went from food gatherers to food producers
Now had a steady source of food (what do you think this will lead to?) Domestication of animals for work and food The revolution happened independently all around the world at different times

16 Life After Steady Agriculture is Discovered
The Food Supply is the most important factor that changes People began to plant, tend, and harvest crops Animals were domesticated for food, and for use as beasts of burden Hunting was still used, but only to supplement the food supply Sometimes used slash and burn agriculture

17 Shelter After the Neolithic Revolution
Mud bricks are used as a building material Eventually stones would be quarried, and used as a building material Villages were located near fields, and other reliable food sources (rivers/seas)

18 Social Structure Social Structures became more complex, with many clans living in close proximity What do you think this development will lead to? Gender separation became more apparent Men: Farmed, herded, and hunted Women: Raised the children, cooked, and did jobs near the newly established homes

19 Social Structure (continued)
Governments are developed during this time to organize activity Religion is developed to help explain nature

20 Art and Innovation Carving and statuary, complex tools such as advances in weapons, plows pulled by animals, building techniques, cloth making and weaving Architecture and building for religious or common use

21 Specialization of Labor
Advances in Agriculture lead to more bountiful crops, so some people had to turn to other work (what do you think some of these advances were?) Some became artisans who made pottery, wove cloth, or made metal tools and weapons Regional resources were gathered and traded Trading involved these new products, as well as food 2 inventions helped expand trade (wheel and sail)

22 Language Development of pictographic languages (Egyptian Hieroglyphic) or written language. Developed to keep records concerning food storage & trade. Cuneiform was developed by Sumerian scribes around 3000 BC (this is where written history begins)

23 Villages Grow into Cities…Civilization Develops
Civilization- Complex culture with 5 characteristics 1) Advanced cities, (2) specialized workers, (3) complex institutions, (4) record keeping, (5) advanced technology

24 Characteristics of Civilization
Advanced Cities Having a larger population, but also being the center of trade and industry Specialized Labor Food surpluses freed up time for people to do other work Complex Institutions Religion and Government are examples of these (irrigation, ceremonies, and trade all needed some help) Social Classes started to be defined according to jobs Religion was based on things that affected crop rather simply nature or animals

25 Characteristics of Civilization (cont.)
Record Keeping Taxes, grain collection/storage, yearly rituals, and merchants tracking debts/payments/transactions Advanced Technology The Bronze Age (mixing copper and tin to create tools, weapons, and art from bronze) Irrigation, farming techniques, etc.

26 First Civilizations Sumer is the first region to show signs of civilization; Ur is the first major city to appear in Sumer (on the Euphrates) Hit their peak around 3000 BC Economy was based on bartering Wide range of crops Ziggurats were their temples

27 Possible Negatives Associated with Villages/Cities/Civilization
Natural disasters could destroy villages or farms Disease could spread more easily Fighting over good land would begin

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