Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 The United Nations I34033 Liu yaozong."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 19 The United Nations I34033 Liu yaozong
United Nations United Nations is made up of group of international institutions -World Health Organization (WHO) -International Labour Organization (ILO), -Programmes and -Funds such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Maintain global peace and enhance. UN was set up to correct the problems of its predecessor The League of Nations.
A brief history 24 October 1945 by 51 countries-UN formed As a result of initiatives taken by the governments of the states that had led the war against Germany and Japan Four purpose: to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. In many way, the UN was set up to correct the problems of its predecessor, the League of Nations.
Four purpose: - to maintain international peace and security; - to develop friendly relations among nations; -to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; -and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. In many way, the UN was set up to correct the problems of its predecessor, the League of Nations. The UN has six main organs: the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Secretariat, the Economic and Social Council, the trusteeship Council, and the International Court of Justice.
Principle organs 1.The Security Council Five permanent members namely US, UK, France, Russia, and China. 5 have the veto power, decision controlling, major power of the UN Chapter VI, Chapter VII, international peace, peace keeping mission. 2. The General Assembly A parliament of nations. 2/3 nations, decision on peace and security. Consider any matters regard to international cooperation, peace keeping. 3. The secretariat Carries out administrative work of the UN as directed by the General Assembly, the Security Council. Pan-Ki Moon 4. The Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC) To coordinate the economic and social work of the UN and the other organs. Responsible for overseeing the activities of a large number of other institution known as the UN system.
The UN and the maintenance of international peace and security The performance of the United Nations in questions of peace and security has been shaped by the global political context. The Cold War drew special attention. A series of improvisation to address matters of peace and security. Peace keeping troops on behalf of the Security Council. The new peace keeping was the product of a greater preparedness to intervene within states. International stability more than international affairs. The new focus on individual rights was a significant change. The international environment had change. The process of decolonization had privileged statehood over justice.
The UN and intervention within state Intervention was traditionally defined as deliberate incursion into a state without its consent by some outside agency, in orders to change the functioning, policies, and goals of its government and achieve effect that favour the intervening agency. States are equal members of international society, and were equal with regard to international law. To improve internal justice for individuals would indicate a movement towards global governance and away from unconditional sovereignty. The UN does not have a monopoly on peace operations. While the UN often provides legitimation, operations are sometimes conducted by regional organizations involving the UN with non-UN actors.
The UN and economic and social questions. Aggression between states, civil conflict within states, threats emanating from non-state actors, threats relating to economic and social conditions within states. Financial crisis in the regular Assessed Budget for the UN and peacekeeping operations. Stimulated a renewed interest in translating broad socio- economic concerns into more specific manageable programs. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
The reform process in the economic and social arrangements of the United Nation Country level - NGOs and state actors Headquarters level - Economic and social council
Discussion ： Why is UN necessary? Case one: The Veto power - The United Nations Security Council consists of fifteen nations, five of which are permanent: France, Russia, China, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The other ten nations are elected to serve two-year terms. The five permanent members enjoy the luxury of veto power; when a permanent member vetoes a vote, the Council resolution cannot be adopted, regardless of international support. Even if the other fourteen nations vote yes, a single veto will beat this overwhelming show of support. - 15 yes = 1 no?? Case two: The Rwandan issue - In January of 1994, a cable was sent from the Canadian Force Commander to the UN headquarters detailing the imminent threat of genocide by Hutu mobs on Tutsi minorities. The Security Council never received the cable, and the notice was largely ignored. Following the loss of eighteen American servicemen in the Battle of Mogadishu, the United States was largely unwilling to help in any intervention. Most shocking in this series of events is the abandonment of a school by Belgian peacekeepers after ten soldiers were murdered. Thousands had flocked to the school for UN protection, and roaming gangs of Hutu supporters killed nearly all of them. Close to one million Rwandans were killed in the genocide, amounting to twenty percent of the population.