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Budget Management (PERT Method & Contingency). Estimates “Trying to predict the future is like trying to drive down a country road at night with no lights.

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Presentation on theme: "Budget Management (PERT Method & Contingency). Estimates “Trying to predict the future is like trying to drive down a country road at night with no lights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Budget Management (PERT Method & Contingency)

2 Estimates “Trying to predict the future is like trying to drive down a country road at night with no lights while looking out the back window.” - Peter Drucker, management consultant, educator, and author

3 Registered Education Provider Materials in this class are based on the Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK ® Guide) – Fifth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

4 What Could Possibly Go Wrong? Our Goal is to Prevent Problems! Technical challenges Organizational changes Personnel transitions Equipment problems What is the impact on our project? Over Budget! Behind Schedule!

5 A project with a high degree of uncertainty The Polaris Missile …was delivered 3 years ahead of schedule! …and within budget!!

6 Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT)

7 Strategies for Positive Risks Opportunities Exploit – ensure the risk happens Share – allocate some or all to 3 rd party Enhance – increase the probability of an opportunity Accept - willing to take advantage if it comes along

8 Strategies for Negative Risks Threats Avoid – change PM plan to eliminate Transfer – shift all or some to 3 rd party Mitigate – reduce probably and/or impact to within acceptable limits Accept – no action; deal with risks as they occur

9 Uncertainty Known Unknowns Contingency Reserve ◦ Part of the cost baseline ◦ May change as project progresses ◦ Risk response is acceptance –Mitigation and contingency plans are documented Management Reserve ◦ Unforeseen work that is within scope ◦ Part of project budget ◦ Requires approved change –Added to cost baseline as used

10 Estimating Analogous Cost Estimating ◦ May be less accurate than other methods ◦ May take less time and cost less to do than other methods Parametric Cost Estimating ◦ Increased accuracy possible ◦ Depends on data and infrastructure built into process Bottom-up Estimating ◦ Estimate each work package ◦ For greater accuracy keep breaking it down

11 Three-Point Estimating Consider estimate uncertainty (RISK) Improve accuracy  Most Likely  Optimistic  Pessimistic Triangular Distribution E = (O + M + P)/3 Beta Distribution (PERT) E = (O + 4M + P)/6

12 Variance

13 Project Cost Management The cost of the resources needed to complete project activities. Equipment Material People

14 Expected Monetary Value EMV = Probability x Impact Probability: may be calculated or brainstormed Impact: Pessimistic minus PERT

15 PERT Estimate PERT Estimate = (P + 4xML + O)/6

16 Calculating Contingency PERT + EMV = Plan = 393

17 Abbreviated Process Create WBS Estimate Work Packages Resources and Relationships Identify Risks Calculate EMV Manage Critical Path!

18 Create WBS

19 Abbreviated Process Create WBS Estimate Work Packages Resources and Relationships Identify Risks Calculate EMV Manage Critical Path!

20 Estimate Work Packages

21 Abbreviated Process Create WBS Estimate Work Packages Resources and Relationships Identify Risks Calculate EMV Manage Critical Path!

22 Performance Measurement Baseline TASKDurationPredecessor A4Milestone B3 C1A D2B E1C F2C G7D, E H5E

23 Precedence Diagram

24 Apply Logical Predecessors

25 Abbreviated Process Create WBS Estimate Work Packages Resources and Relationships Identify Risks Calculate EMV Manage Critical Path!

26 PERT Estimating Contingency Event ProbabilityImpactEMV A50.0%5628 B25.0%5314 C30.0%186 D75.0%3527 E40.0%4418 F25.0%359 G50.0%11357 H65.0%6140

27 Abbreviated Process Create WBS Estimate Work Packages Resources and Relationships Identify Risks Calculate EMV Manage Critical Path!

28 Identify Risks PERTEstimateStandardDeviationContingency TASKMLOPPERT[P-O]/6 PERT + 1σ PERT + 2σ PERT + 3σProbabilityImpactEMV (σ) A %5628 B %5314 C %186 D %3527 E %4418 F %359 G %11357 H %6140 SUM1, ,4601, ,1601,2711, Estimate1, ,4601,045 1,1601,2711,381 1,244 Contingency0(210) PERT Estimate = (P + 4xML + O)/6

29 Abbreviated Process Create WBS Estimate Work Packages Resources and Relationships Identify Risks Calculate EMV Manage Critical Path!

30 Critical Path

31 Critical Chain Method “Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion.” - Parkinson's law

32 Gantt Chart

33 Schedule The TRUTH about SCHEDULES! Schedules are a project management tool!

34 MANAGING the Critical Path! Fast-Tracking Can tasks be done in parallel? Do the original constraints still exist? Crashing Are resources available? Are there “hidden” costs or risks?

35 Lather…Rinse…Repeat Review WBS Re-Estimate Work Packages Resources and Relationships Assess Risks Calculate Expected Monetary Value Manage Critical Path! Progressive Elaboration

36 Quote “Everyone needs deadlines.” - Walter “Walt” Elias Disney, animator, cartoonist and director

37 Contact Information (http://www.leadershiptechniquesllc.com) Lisa Hammer, PMP: (301) David B. Newman, PMP: (240)

38 Customized Seminars and Consulting Services Reliable - Dynamic – Relevant “No one would have crossed the ocean if he could have gotten off the ship in the storm.” - Charles Kettering, American inventor


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