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Training Session 11.03.2015 Iran. Roadmap MAP Facts Political system and Economy Foreign relations Iraq Israel and Palestine Syria Saudi Arabia US UN,

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Presentation on theme: "Training Session 11.03.2015 Iran. Roadmap MAP Facts Political system and Economy Foreign relations Iraq Israel and Palestine Syria Saudi Arabia US UN,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Training Session 11.03.2015 Iran

2 Roadmap MAP Facts Political system and Economy Foreign relations Iraq Israel and Palestine Syria Saudi Arabia US UN, nuclear crisis and sanctions

3 Second-largest nation in Middle East Central Location in Eurasia-geopolitical importance

4 Facts Full name: Islamic Republic of Iran Population: 75.6 million 89% Shia Capital: Tehran Major religion: Islam Main exports: Petroleum, carpets, agricultural products Founder member of: UN, OIC(Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), OPEC

5 Political system(1) Historical moments 1906 first Parliament 1953 coup orchestrated by US and UK What followed was an increasingly autocratic rule 1979 Iranian Revolution-Iran becomes Islamic Republic System is a combination of Parliamentary democracy-Parliament and president democratically elected(current Hassan Rouhani) Religious theocracy-supreme leader(Ayatollah) elected by a ‘Council of Experts’(current Ali Khamenei

6 Political system(2) Supreme Leader-most powerful position in the state Appoints Commander of the armed forces Directors of national radio and television Heads of majour religious foundations Members of national security councils(defense, foreign affairs) Can declare war with 2/3 Parliamentary majority Stays away from everyday politics, but has great influence in all sectors Can release fatwas Incumbent: Ali Khamenei Predecessor: Ruhollah Khomeni

7 Political system(3) President-highest democratically elected position Answers to supreme leader Can sign treaties/negotiate with foreign countries and organisations Concerned with national budget and planning Appoints ministers(approval of Parliament) Does not control military forces-needs explicit approval from Supreme Leader Incumbent: Hassan Rouhani Predecessor: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad(screwed thing up in terms of IR)

8 Economy Mixed transition economy with large public sector Dominated by oil and gas production Affected by export sanctions Affected by falling oil prices Subsidies and price controls burden the economy Mismanagement in labour market-high unemployment 10.4% Main export partners: China, India, Turkey, South Korea and Japan Exports halved by imposition of sanctions

9 Foreign relations with Iraq 1980-1988- war between Iraq and Iran Relations have been tense ever since Better after fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003 However, some support was shown by Iran when Iraq was invaded in 2003 Condemned invasion and advocated for UN reconstruction Helped with reconstruction Non oil exports to Iraq $1.8 billion in 2007 and $2.3 billion in 2008

10 Foreign relations with Israel Bad relations since 1979 Iran initially opposed the Partition Plan of Palestine(through which Israel was created) Still Iran was one of the first state to recognize Israel as a state. They don’t recognise it anymore. Repeated mutual threats Ayatollah Khomeni declared Israel an ‘enemy of Islam’ Relations made worse by Iran funding Hamas(committed to destruction of Israel by Jihad) and Hezbollah Past president declared Israel should be ‘wiped off the map’

11 Foreign relations with Palestine Iran endorses the creation of a Palestinian state Sees Palestine as under occupation by the Zionist regime Support to Hamas has increased after them winning elections in the Gaza Strip in 2006

12 Foreign relations with Syria Strategic ally, acts as a buffer Iran is pro-Assad It has offered logistic and military support during the civil war Coordinated efforts against Israel and the US Cooperate in smuggling arms to Hezbollah in Lebanon

13 Foreign relations-Saudi Arabia Ideological tensions because of interpretation of Islam(Saudi Arabia is predominantly Sunni, while Iran is predominantly Shia) Tense relations also because Saudi Arabia has been traditionally close the the US and the UK(although it tends to distance itself from them in terms of foreign policies) Saudi Arabia does not like Iran supporting Assad

14 Foreign relations-US Very tense Coup in ’53 orchestrated by US and UK ’79-’91 American embassy hostage crisis 1988 Iranian passenger plane shot down Mahmoud Ahmadinejad(previous president) accused US of orchestrating the 9/11 attacks 2013 Obama-Rouhani phone call

15 Nuclear crisis and sanctions(1) Iran ratified the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons It promised that it would use the energy for peaceful purposes In 2003 evidence came out that Iran did not report on some enrichment and processing programmes

16 Nuclear crisis and sanctions(2) It refused controls by the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) In 2006 the UN started imposing sanctions Sanctions were tightened in 2010 Talks in 2011, 2013, and 2014 Iran argues for its right to produce energy

17 Nuclear crisis and sanctions(3) Sanctions imposed by the UN, US and the EU Include: export sanctions, trade sanctions, freezing of assets, banning Iranian banks, travel bans for state officials, arms embargos) Given that they have been imposed for a long time, their efficiency in influencing policy is questioned.

18 Nuclear crisis and sanctions(4) November 2014-Iran agreed to roll back part of its program in exchange for removal of some of the sanctions Talks deadline extended to July 2015

19 Past Motions THW lift sanctions of Iran THBT America should welcome the involvement of Iran in Iraq THBT western nations should launch pre-emptive air strikes against Iranian nuclear facilities THBT the West should actively include Iran in the resolution of the Syrian conflict. THBT Iran’s right to develop nuclear weapons should be abholded.

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