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Project Scheduling: Networks, Duration Estimation, and Critical Path 09-01.

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Presentation on theme: "Project Scheduling: Networks, Duration Estimation, and Critical Path 09-01."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Scheduling: Networks, Duration Estimation, and Critical Path 09-01

2 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 9 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology. Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks. Develop an activity network using Activity-on- Node (AON) techniques. Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques

3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 9 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes. Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined. Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates. Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path

4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Scheduling Project scheduling requires us to follow some carefully laid-out steps, in order, for the schedule to take shape. Project planning, as it relates to the scheduling process, has been defined by the PMBoK as: The identification of the project objectives and the ordered activity necessary to complete the project including the identification of resource types and quantities required to carry out each activity or task

5 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Scheduling Terms Successors Predecessors Network diagram Serial activities Concurrent activities E D C B A F 09-05

6 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Scheduling Terms E D C B A F Merge activities Burst activities Node Path Critical Path 09-06

7 FIGURE 9.2 Alternative Activity Networks for Term Paper Assignment Network Diagrams Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-07

8 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall AOA Versus AON The same mini-project is shown with activities on arc… C E D B F E C D B F …and activities on node

9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Node Labels Early Start Activity Float Activity Descriptor Late Start ID Number Activity DurationLate Finish Early Finish 09-9

10 FIGURE 9.4 Activity Node Labels Using MS Project Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11 FIGURE 9.5 Serial Activities Serial activities are those that flow from one to the next, in sequence Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

12 FIGURE 9.6 Activities Linked in Parallel (Concurrent) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall When the nature of the work allows for more than one activity to be accomplished at the same time, these activities are called concurrent and parallel project paths are constructed through the network.

13 FIGURE 9.7 Merge Activity Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

14 FIGURE 9.8 Burst Activity Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-14

15 FIGURE 9.10 Complete Activity Network Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-15

16 FIGURE 9.11 Developing the Activity Network Using MS Project Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

17 Duration Estimation Methods Past experience Expert opinion Mathematical derivation – Beta distribution Most likely (m) Most pessimistic (b) Most optimistic (a) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-17

18 FIGURE 9.14 Symmetrical (Normal) Distribution for Activity Duration Estimation Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-18

19 FIGURE 9.15 Asymmetrical (Beta) Distribution for Activity Duration Estimation Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-19

20 Activity Duration and Variance Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Table 9.2

21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Constructing the Critical Path Forward pass – an additive move through the network from start to finish Backward pass – a subtractive move through the network from finish to start Critical path – the longest path from end to end which determines the shortest project length 09-21

22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Rules for Forward/Backward Pass Forward Pass Rules (ES & EF) ES + Duration = EF EF of predecessor = ES of successor Largest preceding EF at a merge point becomes EF for successor Backward Pass Rules (LS & LF) LF – Duration = LS LS of successor = LF of predecessor Smallest succeeding LS at a burst point becomes LF for predecessor 09-22

23 Project Delta Information Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Table 9.4

24 FIGURE 9.16 Partial Project Activity Network with Task Durations Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-24

25 FIGURE 9.18 Activity Network with Forward Pass Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

26 FIGURE 9.19 Activity Network with Backward Pass Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

27 FIGURE 9.20 Project Network with Activity Slack and Critical Path Note: Critical path is indicated with bold arrows Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

28 FIGURE 9.24 AON Network with Laddering Effect Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

29 Laddering Activities Project ABC can be completed more efficiently if subtasks are used A(3)B(6)C(9) ABC=18 days Laddered ABC=12 days A 1 (1)A 2 (1)A 3 (1) B 1 (2)B 2 (2)B 3 (2) C 1 (3)C 2 (3)C 3 (3) 09-29

30 FIGURE 9.25 Example of a Hammock Activity Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

31 Reducing the Critical Path Eliminate tasks on the CP Convert serial paths to parallel when possible Overlap sequential tasks Shorten the duration on critical path tasks Shorten early tasks longest tasks easiest tasks tasks that cost the least to speed up 09-31

32 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 1. Understand and apply key scheduling terminology. 2. Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks. 3. Develop an activity network using Activity-on- Node (AON) techniques. 4. Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques

33 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 5. Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes. 6. Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined. 7. Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates. 8. Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path

34 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-34


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