Presentation on theme: "Project Management: A Managerial Approach Chapter 8 Scheduling."— Presentation transcript:
Project Management: A Managerial Approach Chapter 8 Scheduling
Overview WBS to Schedule Process PERT Schedule Types CPM
Scheduling A schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable It serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling project activity Taken together with the plan and budget, it is probably the major tool for the management of projects
Scheduling In a project environment, the scheduling function is more important than it would be in an ongoing operation Projects lack the continuity of day-to- day operations and often present much more complex problems of coordination Chapter 8-2
Scheduling The basic approach of all scheduling techniques is to form a network of activity and event relationships This network should graphically portray the sequential relations between the tasks in a project Tasks that must precede or follow other tasks are then clearly identified in time as well as function Chapter 8-3
Types of Scheduling Operation Scheduling: a type of scheduling that assigns jobs to machines or workers to job. Operation schedule is crucial because many performance measures such as on-time delivery, inventory levels, the manufacturing cycle time, cost and quality, relate directly to the scheduling of each production lot. Workforce Scheduling: a type of scheduling that determine when employee work. Workforce scheduling is equally crucial because measures of performance such as customer waiting time, waiting-line length, utilization, cost, and quality related to the availability of the servers Chapter 8-2
Techniques of Scheduling Gantt Chart Network Techniques: PERT & CPM Both of the techniques is called diagramed technique of scheduling which possesses the following benefits: –It is a consistent framework for planning, scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the project –It illustrates the interdependence of all tasks, work packages, and work elements Chapter 8-2
Scheduling Network benefits (cont.): –It aids in ensuring that the proper communications take place between departments and functions –It determines an expected project completion date –It identifies so-called critical activities that, if delayed, will delay the project completion time –It identifies activities with slack that can be delayed for specific periods without penalty Chapter 8-5
Scheduling Network benefits (cont.): –It determines the dates on which tasks may be started or must be started if the project is to stay on schedule –It illustrates which tasks must be coordinated to avoid resource timing conflicts –It illustrates which tasks may run, or must be run, in parallel to achieve the predetermined project completion date –It relieves some interpersonal conflict by clearly showing task dependencies Chapter 8-6
Gantt chart Advantages -Gantt charts are quite commonly used. They provide an easy graphical representation of when activities (might) take place. -Simple& quickest method. Limitations - Do not clearly indicate details regarding the progress of activities - Do not give a clear indication of interrelation ship between the separate activities
Simple Schedule – Gantt Chart
Network Techniques: PERT and CPM With the exception of Gantt charts, the most common approach to scheduling is the use of network techniques such as PERT and CPM The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) was developed by the U.S. Navy in 1958 The Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed by DuPont, Inc during the same time period Chapter 8-7
Network Techniques: PERT and CPM PERT has been primarily used for research and development projects CPM was designed for construction projects and has been generally embraced by the construction industry The two methods are quite similar and are often combined for educational presentation Chapter 8-8
Scheduling Terminology Activity - A specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to complete Event - The result of completing one or more activities. An identifiable end state occurring at a particular time. Events use no resources. Network - The combination of all activities and events define the project and the activity precedence relationships
Scheduling Terminology Path - The series of connected activities (or intermediate events) between any two events in a network Critical - Activities, events, or paths which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project. A project’s critical path is understood to mean that sequence of critical activities that connect the project’s start event to its finish event Chapter 8-10
Scheduling Terminology An activity can be in any of these conditions: –It may have a successor(s) but no predecessor(s) - starts a network –It may have a predecessor(s) but no successor(s) - ends a network –It may have both predecessor(s) and successor(s) - in the middle of a network
Steps in CPM Scheduling 1. Specify the individual activities. 2. Determine the sequence of those activities. 3. Draw a network diagram. 4. Estimate the completion time for each activity. 5. Identify the critical path (longest path through the network) 6. Update the CPM diagram as the project progresses.
Drawing Networks Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) networks use arrows to represent activities while nodes stand for events Activity-on-Node (AON) networks use nodes to represent activities with arrows to show precedence relationships The choice between AOA and AON representation is largely a matter of personal preference Chapter 8-12
The Project Network Use of nodes and arrows Arrows An arrow leads from tail to head directionally –Indicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part of the work. Nodes A node is represented by a circle - Indicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or finish.
Activity on Node & Activity on Arrow Activity on Node - A completion of an activity is represented by a node Activity on Arrow - An arrow represents a task, while a node is the completion of a task - Arrows represent order of events
Activity Code ActivityDuration in daysDepends on APrepare Technical Specifications BTender Processing25A CRelease of work order3B DSupply of Boiler equipment60C ESupply of Auxiliaries20C FSupply of pipes & pipe fittings10C GCivil Work15C HInstallation of Auxiliary equipment & piping 5E,F&G IInstallation of Boiler10D&H JTesting and commissioning2I Requirements:1. Draw a network diagram 2. Find out the critical Path.
Hypothetical Network G B H I A D 6 StartC E F J End