Presentation on theme: "Project Management: A Managerial Approach"— Presentation transcript:
1Project Management: A Managerial Approach Chapter 8Scheduling
2OverviewWBS to Schedule ProcessPERTSchedule TypesCPM
3SchedulingA schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetableIt serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling project activityTaken together with the plan and budget, it is probably the major tool for the management of projects
4SchedulingIn a project environment, the scheduling function is more important than it would be in an ongoing operationProjects lack the continuity of day-to-day operations and often present much more complex problems of coordinationChapter 8-2
5SchedulingThe basic approach of all scheduling techniques is to form a network of activity and event relationshipsThis network should graphically portray the sequential relations between the tasks in a projectTasks that must precede or follow other tasks are then clearly identified in time as well as functionChapter 8-3
6Types of SchedulingOperation Scheduling: a type of scheduling that assigns jobs to machines or workers to job. Operation schedule is crucial because many performance measures such as on-time delivery, inventory levels, the manufacturing cycle time, cost and quality, relate directly to the scheduling of each production lot.Workforce Scheduling: a type of scheduling that determine when employee work. Workforce scheduling is equally crucial because measures of performance such as customer waiting time, waiting-line length, utilization, cost, and quality related to the availability of the serversChapter 8-2
7Techniques of Scheduling Gantt ChartNetwork Techniques: PERT & CPMBoth of the techniques is called diagramed technique of scheduling which possesses the following benefits:It is a consistent framework for planning, scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the projectIt illustrates the interdependence of all tasks, work packages, and work elementsChapter 8-2
8SchedulingNetwork benefits (cont.):It aids in ensuring that the proper communications take place between departments and functionsIt determines an expected project completion dateIt identifies so-called critical activities that, if delayed, will delay the project completion timeIt identifies activities with slack that can be delayed for specific periods without penaltyChapter 8-5
9Scheduling Network benefits (cont.): It determines the dates on which tasks may be started or must be started if the project is to stay on scheduleIt illustrates which tasks must be coordinated to avoid resource timing conflictsIt illustrates which tasks may run, or must be run, in parallel to achieve the predetermined project completion dateIt relieves some interpersonal conflict by clearly showing task dependenciesChapter 8-6
10Gantt chart Advantages Limitations Gantt charts are quite commonly used. They provide an easy graphical representation of when activities (might) take place.Simple& quickest method.LimitationsDo not clearly indicate details regarding the progress of activitiesDo not give a clear indication of interrelation ship between the separate activities
12Network Techniques: PERT and CPM With the exception of Gantt charts, the most common approach to scheduling is the use of network techniques such as PERT and CPMThe Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) was developed by the U.S. Navy in 1958The Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed by DuPont, Inc during the same time periodChapter 8-7
13Network Techniques: PERT and CPM PERT has been primarily used for research and development projectsCPM was designed for construction projects and has been generally embraced by the construction industryThe two methods are quite similar and are often combined for educational presentationChapter 8-8
14Scheduling Terminology Activity - A specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to completeEvent - The result of completing one or more activities. An identifiable end state occurring at a particular time. Events use no resources.Network - The combination of all activities and events define the project and the activity precedence relationships
15Scheduling Terminology Path - The series of connected activities (or intermediate events) between any two events in a networkCritical - Activities, events, or paths which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project. A project’s critical path is understood to mean that sequence of critical activities that connect the project’s start event to its finish eventChapter 8-10
16Scheduling Terminology An activity can be in any of these conditions:It may have a successor(s) but no predecessor(s) - starts a networkIt may have a predecessor(s) but no successor(s) - ends a networkIt may have both predecessor(s) and successor(s) - in the middle of a network
17Steps in CPM Scheduling 1. Specify the individual activities.2. Determine the sequence of those activities.3. Draw a network diagram.4. Estimate the completion time for each activity.5. Identify the critical path (longest path through the network)6. Update the CPM diagram as the project progresses.
18Drawing NetworksActivity-on-Arrow (AOA) networks use arrows to represent activities while nodes stand for eventsActivity-on-Node (AON) networks use nodes to represent activities with arrows to show precedence relationshipsThe choice between AOA and AON representation is largely a matter of personal preferenceChapter 8-12
19The Project Network Use of nodes and arrows Arrows An arrow leads from tail to head directionallyIndicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part of the work.Nodes A node is represented by a circle- Indicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or finish.
20Activity on Node & Activity on Arrow - An arrow represents a task, while a node is the completion of a task- Arrows represent order of eventsActivity on Node- A completion of an activity is represented by a node
21Requirements: 1. Draw a network diagram 2. Find out the critical Path. Activity CodeActivityDuration in daysDepends onAPrepare Technical Specifications10-----BTender Processing25CRelease of work order3DSupply of Boiler equipment60ESupply of Auxiliaries20FSupply of pipes & pipe fittingsGCivil Work15HInstallation of Auxiliary equipment & piping5E,F&GIInstallation of BoilerD&HJTesting and commissioning2Requirements: 1. Draw a network diagram2. Find out the critical Path.
22Hypothetical Network G B H I A D Start C E F J End 10 25 3 60 20 15 5