Presentation on theme: "1 Business Process Modeling (BPM) with Event Driven Process Chains and bflow* Toolbox www.bflow.org."— Presentation transcript:
1 Business Process Modeling (BPM) with Event Driven Process Chains and bflow* Toolbox www.bflow.org
2 What is BPM? Business Process Management Management approach: aligning all aspects of an organization to meet the needs of customers. Business Process Modeling All relevant aspects of a business process in a defined format (e.g. Including text, tables, charts)
3 Business Process Definition short... describes the steps that are necessary to achieve a business objective A little longer... is triggered by an event consists of a sequence of activities activities are carried out manually or by machine activities produce value (for the customers of the process)
4 Examples of Business Processes Processing an application for a business license Tendering for a construction project Processing of a claim (insurance) Opening an account (bank)
5 Different business processes – instance of a business process Order by Frieda Müller received Order by Hugo Becker received Order by Hugo Becker recorded Order by Frieda Müller recorded Capture order: Name: Frieda Müller Date: 16.4.2013 Article: Slippers Amount: 2 Capture order: Name: Hugo Becker Date: 17.4.2013 Article: Cowboyhut Amount: 1 Business Process Instance of the Process
6 Business process modeling – What? If you cannot describe what you are doing as a process, then you do not know what you're doing W. Edwards Demming, a business consultant and professor at Columbia University (1900-1993)
7 Business process modeling – What? Documentation of existing business processes (e.g. certifications or training) Analysis and optimization of business processes Redesign of business processes Simulation (egFor example, human resources planning) Process costing Communication between the department and software developers model-based development
8 Models are used for communication The primary purpose of models: communication tool Helps that all parties have a common understanding of the modeled reality. It follows: ► business process models should be easily understandable. ► For all involved, the models have the same meaning. ► standardized modeling languages
9 Business process models are used as reference GPM can be found in the agreements on how to work. GPM should be accessible to all interested parties (e.g. on the intranet) ► necessary changes in updates
10 Components of a business process Order of operations (control flow) Production and exchange of data (data flow) operational organization used equipment
11 Model A model is an abstraction that serves to understand a system before it is built.Because a model waives minor details, it can be manipulated more easily than the original. James Rumbaugh, co-founder of UML modeling language short: A model is a simplification of reality for a specific purpose
12 Purpose of modeling It makes no sense to create a model without knowing what purpose you want to achieve You need to know: Who should work with the model? What will be achieved by working with the model?
13 Abstraction in model The level of detail in the model is shown to be dependent on the purpose of the model The model can be shortened… e.g. Temperatures are not shown The model can be extended… Latitute and longitude exists in the model.
14 Modeling tasks Images of reality –Objective: Understanding the reality –The complexity is reduced (elimination of properties) Models for the to-be reality –Objective: Presentation of the designated state –Discussion of the allowed achievable –Planning is supported
15 Modeling purpose determines the type of the model Management: General Overview Who is responsible for which processes? How can the quality of implementation be measured? Staff executing the recurring standard processes: modeling at a detailed level What steps must be taken under what conditions and when? for implementation in a computer program: How states are stored in variables? Which requests (e.g. to services) exist?
17 Activities of process analysts Collection of business processes Objective: To understand how an organization works Means: study of existing process documentation, and documentation of computer programs, interviews, workshops, analysis of existing software, work reports, observation of staff Analysis of business processes Objective: to study how a process can be improved or can be optimally supported by IT Means: workshops, compare metrics, simulation, checklists Make proposals for the implementation of the measures Objective: To improve the process, IT support
18 Necessary skills for process analysts Capacity for abstraction in the analysis of processes (understand and describe processes to separate the important from the less important) excellent communication skills (asking the right questions and how to listen) Methodological knowledge and imagination to reshape and improve processes Knowledge of methods for the measurement of key figures in processes Knowledge of the application domain Accompanying the department in the implementation of technical and organizational changes
19 Quote about process analysts In our experience, about 70% of people who take this role is rather unsuitable. Mostly, because they lack the skills for adequate analytical assessment. The most important qualification of a process analyst is not sending but receiving." Jakob Freund / Bernd Rücker: «BPMN 2.0 Practical Guide» Hanser-Verlag 2010
21 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 (and optionally further) Process Map: What are the fundamental processes? How to break down into sub-processes? Flow modeling of a sub- process possibly more detailed modeling of individual activities Value chain diagrams Event driven process chains
22 Value Chain introduced in 1985 by Michael E. Porter shows the activities that are performed to produce a product / service in the company. In the manufacture of a product, for example, all the steps that the product passes through from raw material to delivered end product (from supplier to customer) are shown Modeling in value chain diagram (VCD)
23 Processes in the value chain primary processes control processes supporting processes
24 Primary Processes, Core Processes Primary processes (also: core processes) make a direct contribution to the creation or distribution of a product. focused on external customers Examples: –Order Processing –production –Purchase of raw material –Customer service –Marketing and Sales
25 Control processes Control processes (also: management processes, governance processes) Processes to operational planning, command and control Examples: –Strategy Development –Creating goals
26 Support Processes supporting processes (also: support processes) make no direct contribution to value creation focused on internal customers, support the primary processes Examples: –Financial accounting –Cost accounting –Human resources
27 Value chain diagram (VCD) in a production facility Managerial Processes Primary Processes Support Processes
28 Value chain diagram (VCD) in a hospital Source: Vollert / Hamm: Prozessorientierte und standardisierte Umsetzung von DGK-Leitlinien, Kardiologe 3 / 2009 Managerial Processes Primary Processes Support Processes
29 «Predecessor of» relationship From the examples we see that the relationship "is chronological predecessor" is represented differently by different authors. In many sources, the notation indicates that a previous relationship exists. In other sources, however, this is not the case, the previous relation is then represented by:
31 Ereignisgesteuerte Prozesskette (EPK) [Event-Driven Process Chain, EPC] Developed in 1992 at the University of Saarland in Germany (along with BPMN) the most common notation for business process modeling e.g. Used in SAP R/3 Graphical, semi-formal notation
32 Basic Components of EPCs: Functions and Events Functions an activity that has a beginning and an end e.g. «Check Application" Events State at a certain time May be the cause or result of a function e.g. «Request arrives", «Application is approved"
33 Succession of events and functions Arrows indicate the time-logical order between events and functions. "Request arrives" is the trigger for the "check request" "Approved application" is the result of the function "Check Request"
34 Events and functions alternate within EPC shows: "Events control the process" EPCs always begin with a start event (or more start events) shows: "What triggers the process?" EPCs are terminated by an end event (or more end events) shows: "What is the completion criteria of the process"
35 Trivial Events To make the model more compact, "trivial events" are often omitted.
36 Possible Naming Conventions Event as a trigger [Object] is [Verb in infinitive form] Event as a result [Object] is/was [Verb imn present perfect] Function [Object] [Verb in imperative] Infinitiv Important: Always name objects uniformly e.g. Always customer (rather than buyer etc.)
37 Modeling of Alternative Paths XOR-Connector Modeling one alternatife flow: Exactly one of several possible paths is taken
38 XOR-Connector in the example: either the item is in stock ► left path is traversed or it is not available ► right path traversed
39 XOR-Konnektor İn the example: either the article is available ► left path ( ) is traversed or the article is not available ► right path ( ) is traversed
40 Modeling of Parallel Executions AND-Connector More than one function can be performed simultaneously
41 AND-Connector The two paths are traversed in parallel: "Announce schedule on internet" can be executed at the same time with "send invitations"
42 AND-Connector The two paths are traversed in parallel: "Announce schedule on internet" can be executed at the same time with "send invitations"
43 Modeling of «One or More» OR-Konnektor Modeling one or more alternatife flow: Logic: More than one of the options can be processed in parallel - but at least one must be taken.
44 OR-Connector 3 ways to choose Case 1: left path Case 2: right path Case 3: both
45 How many possible sequences are there after OR?
46 Multiple Start Events Connectors can also be used to model more complex conditions for the start of a process
47 Multiple End Events: Example 1 three possible outcomes, Exactly one of them occurs.
48 Multiple End Events: Example 2 At the end of the process, both events have occurred.
49 Only functions make decisions! Rule: there shall not be an XOR or connector after events! In the model, the function for the decision is missing. Such a decision is an activity, so it must be modeled in a function!
50 Error is noticed by the semantic verification of bflow * Toolbox!
51 Corrected model: decision is taken by function
52 Prozesswegweiser und Funktionsverfeinerung Process Interface: Model A ends with Event 3 then it continues with Model B, which starts with Event 3 Sub-diagram: Function 2 from model A is shown in more detail in model C. Model A Model B Model C
53 Process interface and function refinement Model A Model B Model C
54 Modularization allows reuse - and avoids duplicate modeling
56 Syntax Rules - Events EPCs begin and end with events (or process interface that follow an event). Events have: –Exactly one incoming and exactly one outgoing arc, or –No incoming arc and exactly one outgoing arc (start event), or –Exactly one incoming arc and no outgoing arc (end event).
57 Syntax Rules - Functions Functions have exactly one incoming and exactly one outgoing arc. wrong!
58 Syntax Rules - Connectors Connectors have… either exactly one incoming arc and 2 outgoing arc (Split) Or 2 incoming arc and exactly one outgoing arc (Join)
59 Alternating Functions and Events Events and functions alternate. Intermediate connectors do not change this rule. If several functions executed in succession, "trivial events" between them can be omitted.
60 Events «decide things» Before XOR and OR split, there must be a function, not event.
69 Structured Modeling Some modeling guidelines require that connectors may be used so that split and join occur in pairs (For each split has exactly one join same type)
70 (Un) structured modeling Whenever possible, you should use only the 'structured' constructs (as shown in the last slide) In some cases (like the one shown below), an "unstructured" model is easier to read, in some cases it is the only way to represent the facts correctly
71 Good layout is essential for good readability of models! Main reading order from top to bottom Use symmetry Lines with minimal bend points minimize cross lines No parallel lines close to each other Both models are identical!
72 Main reading direction Often useful Position "Default case" [Happy Case] such that it can be immediately read from top to bottom Place exceptions on the side
74 Erweiterte EPK: zusätzliche Notationselemente Sequence of activities (control flow) Creation and exchange of data (data flow) Organizational Elements Resources used EPC eEPC
75 Creation and exchange of data Input: What are the data required to perform a function? Output: What data generated as a result of the execution of the function? Data (information objects) are present as: Paper documentFile
76 Input Output Control flow arrow Data flow arrow
77 What computer systems are used by a function? Applications Connection (no arrow!)
78 Organizational Elements Who is responsible for the execution of a function? Organizational unit (Department, unit, etc.) Location (e.g. Staff member) Person (e.g. «Mrs Horn»)
81 bflow* Toolbox Free EPC modeling tool –available free of charge, source code available based on the open Eclipse programming tool extensible through add-ons without the knowledge of Eclipse Programming www.bflow.org
82 Workspace defines the location at which bflow* stores the data Workspace
83 When you first start… Identify the location of the workspace (by default, it suggests a directory named «workspace» under the folder you placed your exe file) If you have a default place, check the checkbox and it will no longer ask at each run
84 Project The project in which related model files will be collected Project 1Project 2 Workspace
85 Creating a Project " File -> New -> Project "
86 Folder Can be used for further structuring within the project Good practice: Place subdiagram inside folders and create a folder and diagram hierarchy (with multiple levels of folders) Project 1Project 2 Folder A Folder B OrFolder C Workspace
87 Create New Folder File -> New -> Other General (double click to open) - Folder - Next
88 Models Can reside in the folders (Or directly in the project folder) Project 1Project 2 Folder A Folder B Folder C Arbeitsbereich
89 Package Explorer Working area Project Folder Subfolder in another folder File (Model)
90 Views Package explorer Quick navigation Palette More views
91 Navigation in large models Outline view Model Navigator: shows predecessors and successors of the selected model element
92 Background Validation Finds typical modeling errors highly recommended especially for beginners 92
99 Printing Models in Black and White Right-click on the model Style: select Black-White
100 Add Comments Right-click on the model Add - Note Note
101 Change fonts (1) Window - Show View - Properties (2) Mark the fonts to change (3) Make changes (choosing a font different than the default is not recommended.))
102 Mark model element pull the "touch points" Tip: You can also select multiple items (CTRL + click) and then resize it uniformly. Change size of model elements
103 Make model elements the same size Mark model elements using CTRL + click. The elements should get the size of the element marked last. Select Diagram – Make Same Size
104 Assign self defined attributes Open "Attribute View" if the view is not open: Window-Show-View-Other-Modeling Toolbox- Attribute View Mark model element Enter the name and value for the attribute Press the enter key New attribute (name and value) Already existing attributes
105 Important Keyboard Shortcuts in bflow* Toolbox F5 in the package view: Update view (necessary if models are copied manually into the workspace) CTRL-M in the model view: Zoom in/out CTRL-Z in the model view: undo last action F2 Rename the selected item CTRL-Enter when labeling a model element, line break
106 Copyright The presentation was created by Prof. Dr. Ralf Laue, University of Zwickau Information about the authors of images used can be found on: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blender3D_EarthQuarterCut.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GEO_Globe.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Earth_Western_Hemisphere.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dipole_field.PNG http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blender3D_EarthQuarterCut.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map-World-Timeszones.png
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