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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-1 International Business Environments and Operations, 13/e Global Edition Part Three Theories and Institutions: Trade.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-1 International Business Environments and Operations, 13/e Global Edition Part Three Theories and Institutions: Trade."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-1 International Business Environments and Operations, 13/e Global Edition Part Three Theories and Institutions: Trade and Investment

2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-2 Chapter 8 Cross- National Cooperation and Agreements

3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-3 Chapter Objectives To identify the major challenges of the World Trade Organization To discuss the pros and cons of global, bilateral, and regional integration To describe the static and dynamic impact of trade agreements on trade and investment flows To define different forms of regional economic integration To compare and contrast different regional trading groups, including but not exclusively the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) To describe other forms of global cooperation such as the United Nations and the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-4 Economic Integration Approaches to economic integration may be: Bilateral integration- two countries cooperate closely, usually in the form of tariff reductions. Regional integration- a group of countries located in the same geographic proximity decide to cooperate, i.e. the European Union. Global integration- countries worldwide cooperate through the WTO.

5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-5 The World Trade Organization GATT: Predecessor to the WTO Most Favored Nation Dispute Settlement The Rise of Bilateral Agreements

6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-6 Regional Economic Integration Regional trade agreements—integration confined to a region and involving more than two countries. Geographic proximity is an important reason for economic integration.

7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-7 Major Types of Economic Integration Free trade area—no internal tariffs. Customs union—no internal tariffs plus common external tariffs. Common market—customs union plus factor mobility.

8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-8 Effects of Integration Static Effects Dynamic Effects Trade Creation Trade Diversion Economies of Scale Increased Competition

9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-9 Major Regional Trading Groups European Union North American Free Trade Agreement The Americas: CARICOM, MERCOSUR, CAN, LAIA ASEAN APEC The African Union

10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-10 European Union Predecessors Organizational Structure The Single European Act Monetary Union Expansion Bilateral Agreements

11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-11 How to Do Business with the EU: Implications for Corporate Strategy Companies need to determine where to produce products. Companies need to determine what their entry strategy will be. Companies need to balance the commonness of the EU with national differences.

12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-12 North American Free Trade Agreement Includes Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Went into effect on January 1, 1994. Involves free trade in goods, services, and investment. Is a large trading bloc but includes countries of different sizes and wealth.

13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-13 NAFTA Rational U.S.-Canadian trade is the largest bilateral trade in the world. The United States is Mexico’s and Canada’s largest trading partner.

14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-14 Rules of Origin and Regional Content Rules of origin-goods and services must originate in North America to get access to lower tariffs. Rules of Regional Content-50 % of the net cost of most products must come from the NAFTA region

15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-15 Impact of NAFTA Wages, Investment, and Labor: An abundance of cheap labor and lax environmental standards has enticed U.S. companies to invest heavily in Mexico A major challenge to NAFTA is illegal immigration.

16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-16 How to Do Business with NAFTA: Implications for Corporate Strategy Predictions and Outcomes –Companies would look at NAFTA as one big regional market –U.S. companies would run Canadian and Mexican companies out of business once the markets opened up –Mexico looked at as a consumer market rather than a production location

17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-17 Regional Economic Integration in the Americas The Caribbean Community CARICOM MERCOSUR The Andean Community (CAN) Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)

18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-18 Economic Integration in Central America and the Caribbean

19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-19 Latin American Economic Integration

20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-20 Regional Economic Integration in Asia Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam

21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-21

22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-22 Calls for Closer Cooperation Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Challenges to Solidity –Lack of binding treaties Goal of “Open Regionalism” –Trade liberalization to non-APEC countries on an unconditional, MFN, or reciprocal basis

23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-23 Regional Economic Integration in Africa There are several African trade groups, but they rely more on their former colonial owners and other developed markets for trade than they do on each other.

24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-24 Future: Will the WTO Overcome Bilateral and Regional Integration Efforts? Regional integration might actually help the WTO achieve its objectives NAFTA and the EU will continue to develop stronger linkages and expand Regional integration in Africa will continue at a slow pace due to the existing political and economic problems there

25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-25 Other Forms of International Cooperation The United Nations Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Global Compact

26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-26 Commodity Agreements Commodities-raw materials or primary products that enter into trade, such as metals or agricultural products. Many commodity agreements now exist for the purpose of: Discussing issues Disseminating information Improving product safety

27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-27 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Price Controls and Politics Output and Exports The Downside of High Prices

28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 8-28 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

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