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Data Structures 4 Lists and Linked List Data Structures Prof A Alkhorabi

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4- 2 Overview List concepts. List applications. A list ADT: requirements, contract. Implementations of lists: using arrays, linked lists. Linked lists: singly-linked –Insertion. –Deletion. –List Traversal Doubly-linked Lists

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 3 List concepts (1) A list is a sequence of elements, whose order is significant. Elements can be added and removed anywhere in the list. The length of a list is the number of elements it contains. An empty list has length zero. The concatenation of lists l 1 and l 2 is a list containing all the elements of l 1 followed by all the elements of l 2. Traversal of a list (or iterating over a list) means visiting each of the list’s elements in turn, in some desired order.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 4 List concepts (2) Notation for lists: «a, b, …, z». The empty list is « ». –List notation is used here, but not supported by C++. Examples of lists: fibonacci= «1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 44, 65» birthdays= «2001-02-23, 2001-05-05, 2001-11-05» tour= «GLA, LHR, CDG, GLA» hamlet1= «‘to’, ‘be’, ‘or’, ‘not’, ‘to’, ‘be’» hamlet2= «‘that’, ‘is’, ‘the’, ‘question’» Concatenation of hamlet1 and hamlet2: «‘to’, ‘be’, ‘or’, ‘not’, ‘to’, ‘be’, ‘that’, ‘is’, ‘the’, ‘question’»

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 5 Lists vs. linked lists Do not confuse the list ADT with a linked-list data structure. A list ADT can be implemented using different data structures (arrays, linked lists). Linked-list data structures can be used to implement many ADTs (e.g., stacks, queues, sets). جواب 1

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 6 List applications A sentence is a list of words. –The order of words is significant. –The same word can occur more than once in a sentence. An itinerary is a list of places visited on a tour. –The order of places is significant. –The same place can occur more than once in an itinerary. A log is a list of event records (e.g., equipment faults). –The event records are in time order.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 7 Example: simple text editor (1) Consider a simple text editor that supports insertion and deletion of complete lines only. The user can load text from a file, or save the text to a file. The user can select any line of the text: –directly (e.g., by a mouse-click) –by searching for the next line matching a given search string. The user can delete the selected line. The user can insert a new line, either before or after the selected line.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 8 Example: simple text editor (2) We can represent the text being edited by: –a list of lines, text –the number of the selected line, sel (where 0 sel < length of text lines, or sel = –1 if text is empty) We can implement the user commands straightforwardly in terms of list operations, e.g.: –Delete: remove line sel of text. –Insert before: add the new line as line sel of text, then increment sel. –Insert after: increment sel, then add the new line as line sel of text. –Save: traverse text, writing each line to the output file.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 9 List ADT: requirements Requirements: 1)It must be possible to make a list empty. 2)It must be possible to test whether a list is empty. 3)It must be possible to obtain the length of a list. 4)It must be possible to add an element anywhere in a list. 5)It must be possible to remove an element anywhere in a list. 6)It must be possible to inspect or update an element anywhere in a list. 7)It must be possible to concatenate lists. 8)It must be possible to test lists for equality. 9)It must be possible to traverse a list. جواب 2

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 10 List ADT: contract (1) Possible contract: class List { // Each List object is an indexed list whose // elements are objects. ////////// Accessors ////////// bool IsEmpty (); // Return true if and only if this list is empty. int Size (); // Return this list’s length.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 11 List ADT: contract (2) Possible contract (continued): void Get (int i); // Return the element with index i in this list. bool Equals (List that); // Return true if and only if this list and that list have the // same length, and each element of this list equals the // corresponding element of that.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 12 List ADT: contract (3) Possible contract (continued): //////////// Transformers //////////// void Clear (); // Make this list empty. void Set (int i, Elem elem); // Replace the element at index i in this list by elem. // The element could be a structure or a single piece of Info void Add (int i, Elem elem); // Add elem as the element with index i in this list. void Add (Elem elem); // Add elem after the last element of this list.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 13 List ADT: contract (4) Possible contract (continued): void AddAll (List that); // Add all the elements of that after the last element of // this list. void Del (int i); // Remove the element with index i in this list. }

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 14 List traversal Traverse a data structure is to visit its components (elements, nodes), almost serially To traverse array a : for (int i = 0; i < a.Length; i++) … a[i] … We could mimic this to traverse list : for (int i = 0; i < list.Size(); i++) … list.Get(i) … … list.Set(i, x) … This traversal has time complexity O(n 2 ), if G et and S et is O(n) each. جواب 4

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 15 Linked Data Structures Linked data structures (or simply data structures), are structures represent objects linked in one of the following types: Linear data structures: –Linked lists: single, double, circular. –Stack. –Queue. Non-Linear data structures : –Tree: binary, multi-branch. –Graph.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 16 Implementation Any of the above mentioned data structures can also be implemented in one of the following ways: –Arrays –Pointers (known as linked list method)

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 17 Implementation of lists using SLLs Represent an (unbounded) list by: –a variable length –a SLL, with links first and last to both ends: Invariant: element first elementlast element Empty list: Illustration: GLALHRCDGGLA

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 18 Linked lists (1) A linked list consists of a sequence of nodes connected by links, plus a header. Each node (except the last) has a successor, and each node (except the first) has a predecessor. Each node contains a single element (object or value), plus links to its successor and/or predecessor. antbatcatantbatcat header null link node element link

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 19 Linked lists (2) The length of a linked list is the number of nodes. An empty linked list has no nodes. In a linked list: –We can manipulate the individual elements. –We can manipulate the links, thus changing the linked list’s very structure! (This is impossible in an array.)

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 20 Singly-linked lists (1) A singly-linked list (SLL) consists of a sequence of nodes, connected by links in one direction only. Each SLL node contains a single element, plus a link to the node’s successor (or a null link if the node has no successor). A SLL header contains a link to the SLL’s first node (or a null link if the SLL is empty). pigdogratcatdog

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 21 Singly-linked lists (2) A C++ structure is used to implement a SLL node: // SLL Node declaration struct SLLNode{ char Data[10]; // Node Information SLLNode* Next; // Node Communication (SLL-Link) };

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 22 Singly-linked lists (3) A C++ class is used to implement the Single Linked List: // SLL declaration class SingleLinkedList { private: SLLNode *First, *Last; int Length; public: //////////// Constructor //////////// SingleLinkedList () { First = Last = NULL; Length = 0;} ; … }; SLL methods (to follow)

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 23 antbatcat first Example: SLL traversal A method (in class SLL ) to traverse an SLL: // Traverse the SLL and print its Nodes void SingleLinkedList::PrintList(){ SLLNode* curr = First; // Start from first node while(curr){ cout Data Next; } cout << endl; } Animation: antbatcat first curr antbatcat first curr antbatcat first curr antbatcat First curr

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 24 Example: SLL manipulation (Swaping) A method (in class SLL ) to swap an SLL’s first and second nodes: void swapFirstTwo () { // Swap this SLL’s 1st and 2nd nodes (assuming length > 1). SLLNode* Second; Second = First -> Next; First -> Next = Second -> Next; Second -> Next = First; First = Second; } Animation: antbatcat first antbatcat first second antbatcat first second antbatcat first second antbatcat First Second

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 25 Insertion Problem: Insert a new element at a given point in a linked list. Four cases to consider: 1)insertion in an empty linked list; 2)insertion before the first node of a nonempty linked list; 3)insertion after the last node of a nonempty linked list; 4)insertion between nodes of a nonempty linked list. The insertion algorithm needs links to the new node’s successor and predecessor. We will consider case 2 and 4 in our SLL.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 26 SLL insertion (1) SLL insertion algorithm: To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by First: 1.Make ins a link (pointer) to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is before the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 27 SLL insertion (2) Animation (insertion before first node): batcat first To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. ant batcat first ins To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. ant batcat first ins To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. ant batcat first ins To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. ant batcat first To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is after the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 28 SLL insertion (3) Animation (insertion after intermediate node): dogfox first To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. pred dogfox first To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. eel predins dogfox first To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. eel predins dogfox first To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is before the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. eel predins dogfox first To insert elem at a given point in the SLL headed by first: 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem and successor null. 2.If the insertion point is after the first node: 2.1.Set node ins’s successor to first. 2.2.Set first to ins. 3.If the insertion point is after the node pred: 3.1.Set node ins’s successor to node pred’s successor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to ins. 4.Terminate. eel

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 29 SLL insertion (4) The following C++ inserting method adds a node at the end of SLL : void Add(char* c) { SLLNode* p;// 1. Declare a pointer to the node type p = new SLLNode; // 2. Allocate memory to the new node // 3. Fill Node strcpy( p -> Data, c); p -> Next = NULL; // 4. Link the Filled Node to the Linked List if(Length == 0) First = p;// If SLL is empty p will be the first else Last->Next = p;// Otherwise put p after Last Last=p; Length++; }

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 30 Deletion Problem: Delete a given node from a linked list. Three cases to consider for deletion of a singleton node; 1)deletion of the first node; 2)deletion of the last node; 3)deletion of an intermediate node. The deletion algorithm needs links to the deleted node’s successor and predecessor. We will consider case 1 and 3 in our SLL.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 31 SLL deletion (1) SLL deletion algorithm: To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. But there is no link from node del to its predecessor, so step 3.1 can access del’s predecessor only by following links from first!

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 32 SLL deletion (2) Animation (deleting the first node): To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. antbatcat first del To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. antbatcat first delsucc To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. antbatcat first delsucc To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. antbatcat first garbage

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 33 Example: SLL manipulation (1) Instance method (in class SLL ) to delete an SLL’s first node: void DeleteFirst () { // Delete this SLL’s first node (assuming length > 0). First = First -> Next; } Animation: antbatcat first antbatcat First

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 34 SLL deletion (3) Animation (deleting an intermediate (or last) node): To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. dogeelfox first del To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. dogeelfox first delsucc To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. dogeelfox first delsuccpred To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. dogeelfox first delsuccpred To delete node del from the SLL headed by first: 1.Let succ be node del’s successor. 2.If del = first: 2.1.Set first to succ. 3.Otherwise (if del first): 3.1.Let pred be node del’s predecessor. 3.2.Set node pred’s successor to succ. 4.Terminate. dogeelfox first garbage

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 35 Example: SLL manipulation (2) Instance method (in class SLL ) to delete an SLL’s second node: void deleteSecond () { // Delete this SLL’s second node (assuming length > 1). SLLNode* Second; Second = First -> Next; First -> Next = Second -> Next; } Animation: antbatcat first antbatcat first second antbatcat First Second

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 36 SLL deletion (4) Analysis: Let n be the SLL’s length. Step 3.1 must visit all nodes from the first node to the deleted node’s predecessor. There are between 0 and n–1 such nodes. Average no. of nodes visited = (n – 1)/2 Time complexity is O(n).

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 37 SLL deletion (5) The following method deletes the node of an SLL which carry the string similar to what is pointed to by c pointer: void SingleLinkedList::Del(char* c) { SLLNode* p=First, *q; if( !strcmp (p->Data, c)) { First=First->Next; delete p; Length--; } else{ while (p){ q = p; p = p->Next; if( !strcmp (p->Data, c)) { q->Next=p->Next; delete p; p=NULL; Length--; } } } } Example: SLL_CPP.CPPSLL_CPP.CPP

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 38 The SLL class can be tested through the following main() function: void main() { SingleLinkedList SLL1; //1 SLL1.Add("Salem");SLL1.PrintList(); //2 cout<< "No of nodes in SLL = " << SLL1.size() << endl; SLL1.Add("Ahmed");SLL1.PrintList(); //3 SLL1.Add("Ali"); SLL1.PrintList(); //4 SLL1.Add("Omar");SLL1.PrintList(); //5 cout<< "No of nodes in SLL = " << SLL1.size() << endl << endl; cout<< "Person in First node of SLL is " << SLL1.get(0) << endl; cout<< "Person in Second node of SLL is " << SLL1.get(1) << endl; cout<< "Person in Third node of SLL is ” << SLL1.get(2) << endl; cout<< "Person in Fourth node of SLL is " << SLL1.get(3) << endl << endl; SLL1.Del("Salem"); SLL1.PrintList();//6 SLL1.Del("Ali"); SLL1.PrintList(); //7 cout<< "No of nodes in SLL = " << SLL1.size() << endl; }

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 39 The Output is: Salem No of nodes in SLL = 1 Salem Ahmed Salem Ahmed Ali Salem Ahmed Ali Omar No of nodes in SLL = 4 Person in First node of SLL is Salem Person in Second node of SLL is Ahmed Person in Third node of SLL is Ali Person in Fourth node of SLL is Omar Ahmed Ali Omar Ahmed Omar No of nodes in SLL = 2

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 40 Doubly-linked lists (1) A doubly-linked list (DLL) consists of a sequence of nodes, connected by links in both directions. Each DLL node contains a single element, plus links to the node’s successor and predecessor (or null link(s)). The DLL header contains links to the DLL’s first node (or null link if the DLL is empty). pigdogratcatdog

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 41 Doubly-linked lists (2) C++ structure implementing DLL node: // DLL Node declaration struct DLLNode{ char Data[10]; // Node Information DLLNode * Next, *Pred; // Node Communication (DLL-Link) };

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 42 Doubly-linked lists (3) C++ class implementing a DLL: // DLL declaration class DoubleLinkedList { private: DLLNode *First, *Last; int Length; public: //////////// Constructor //////////// DoubleLinkedList () { First = Last = NULL; Length = 0;} ; … }; DLL methods (to follow)

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 43 antbatcat first last Example: DLL traversal Instance method (in class DLL ) to traverse a DLL, from last node to first: public void printLastToFirst () { // Print all elements in this DLL, in last-to-first order. for (DLLNode curr = Last; curr != Null; curr = curr -> pred) cout Data; } Animation: curr antbatcat first last curr antbatcat first last curr antbatcat first last curr antbatcat First Last

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 44 Example: DLL manipulation (1) Instance method (in class DLL ) to delete a DLL’s first node: public void deleteFirst () { // Delete the DLL’s first node (assuming length > 0). DLLNode *Second; Second = First -> Next; Second -> Pred = Null; First = Second; } Animation: antbatcat first last second antbatcat first last second antbatcat first last Second antbatcat First Last

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 45 Example: DLL manipulation (2) Instance method (in class DLL ) to delete a DLL’s last node: public void deleteLast () { // Delete this DLL’s last node (assuming length > 0). DLLNode* Last2; Last2 = Last -> Pred; Last2 -> Next = Null; Last = Last2; } Animation: antbatcat first last Last2 antbatcat first last Last2 antbatcat first last Last2 antbatcat First Last

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 46 DLL insertion (4) Animation (insertion before the first node): To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. batcat first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins ant batcat first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins ant batcat first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins ant batcat first last succ To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins ant batcat first last succ To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ant batcat first last

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 47 DLL insertion (5) Animation (insertion after the last node): To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. batcat first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins dog batcat first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins dog batcat first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins dog batcat first last succ To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins dog batcat first last succ To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. dog batcat first last

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 48 To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. fox dog first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins fox dog eel first last To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins fox dog eel first last DLL insertion (6) Animation (insertion between nodes): To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins fox dog eel first last succ To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. ins fox dog eel first last succ To insert elem at a given point in the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Make ins a link to a newly-created node with element elem, predecessor null, and successor null. 2.Insert ins at the insertion point in the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Let succ be ins’s successor (or null if ins has no successor). 4.Insert ins after node succ in the backward SLL headed by last. 5.Terminate. fox dog eel first last

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 49 DLL deletion (1) DLL deletion algorithm: To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate.

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 50 To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. antbatcat first last del To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. pred antbatcat first last succ del DLL deletion (2) Animation (deleting the first (but not last) node): To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. pred antbatcat first last succ del To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. pred antbatcat first last succ del To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. antbatcat first last

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 51 DLL deletion (3) Animation (deleting an intermediate node): To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. del fox dogeel first last To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. del fox dogeel first last predsucc To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. del fox dogeel first last predsucc To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. del fox dogeel first last predsucc To delete node del from the DLL headed by (first, last): 1.Let pred and succ be node del’s predecessor and successor. 2.Delete node del, whose predecessor is pred, from the forward SLL headed by first. 3.Delete node del, whose successor is succ, from the backward SLL headed by last. 4.Terminate. fox dogeel first last Example: DLL_CPP.cpp

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Prof A Alkhorabi 4- 52 Comparison of insertion and deletion algorithms AlgorithmSLLDLL InsertionO(1) DeletionO(n)O(n)O(1)

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