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Project Management: A Managerial Approach 4/e By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Presentation prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Project Management: A Managerial Approach 4/e By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Presentation prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Management: A Managerial Approach 4/e By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Presentation prepared by RTBM WebGroup

2 Project Management A Managerial Approach Chapter 8 Scheduling

3 zA schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable zIt serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling project activity zTaken together with the plan and budget, it is probably the major tool for the management of projects Chapter 8-1

4 Scheduling zIn a project environment, the scheduling function is more important than it would be in an ongoing operation zProjects lack the continuity of day-to- day operations and often present much more complex problems of coordination Chapter 8-2

5 Scheduling zThe basic approach of all scheduling techniques is to form a network of activity and event relationships zThis network should graphically portray the sequential relations between the tasks in a project zTasks that must precede or follow other tasks are then clearly identified, in time as well as function Chapter 8-3

6 Scheduling zSuch networks are a powerful tool for planning and controlling a project and have the following benefits: yIt is a consistent framework for planning, scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the project yIt illustrates the interdependence of all tasks, work packages, and work elements yIt denotes the times when specific individuals must be available for work on a given task Chapter 8-4

7 Scheduling zNetwork benefits (cont.): yIt aids in ensuring that the proper communications take place between departments and functions yIt determines an expected project completion date yIt identifies so-called critical activities that, if delayed, will delay the project completion time yIt identifies activities with slack that can be delayed for specific periods without penalty Chapter 8-5

8 Scheduling zNetwork benefits (cont.): yIt determines the dates on which tasks may be started - or must be started if the project is to stay on schedule yIt illustrates which tasks must be coordinated to avoid resource timing conflicts yIt illustrates which tasks may run, or must be run, in parallel to achieve the predetermined project completion date yIt relieves some interpersonal conflict by clearly showing task dependencies Chapter 8-6

9 Network Techniques: PERT and CPM zWith the exception of Gantt charts, the most common approach to scheduling is the use of network techniques such as PERT and CPM zThe Program Evaluation and Review Technique was developed by the U.S. Navy in 1958 zThe Critical Path Method was developed by DuPont, Inc during the same time period Chapter 8-7

10 Network Techniques: PERT and CPM zPERT has been primarily used for research and development projects zCPM was designed for construction projects and has been generally embraced by the construction industry zThe two methods are quite similar and are often combined for educational presentation Chapter 8-8

11 Terminology zActivity - A specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to complete zEvent - The result of completing one or more activities. An identifiable end state occurring at a particular time. Events use no resources. zNetwork - The combination of all activities and events define the project and the activity precedence relationships Chapter 8-9

12 Terminology zPath - The series of connected activities (or intermediate events) between any two events in a network zCritical - Activities, events, or paths which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project. A project’s critical path is understood to mean that sequence of critical activities that connect the project’s start event to its finish event Chapter 8-10

13 Terminology zAn activity can be in any of these conditions: yIt may have a successor(s) but no predecessor(s) - starts a network yIt may have a predecessor(s) but no successor(s) - ends a network yIt may have both predecessor(s) and successor(s) - in the middle of a network zThe interconnections depend on the technological relationships described in the action plan Chapter 8-11

14 Drawing Networks zActivity-on-Arrow (AOA) networks use arrows to represent activities while nodes stand for events zActivity-on-Node (AON) networks use nodes to represent activities with arrows to show precedence relationships zThe choice between AOA and AON representation is largely a matter of personal preference Chapter 8-12

15 Drawing Networks Chapter 8-13

16 Gantt Charts zThe Gantt chart shows planned and actual progress for a number of tasks displayed against a horizontal time scale zIt is an effective and easy-to-read method of indicating the actual current status for each set of tasks compared to the planned progress for each item of the set zIt can be helpful in expediting, sequencing, and reallocating resources among tasks zGantt charts usually do not show technical dependencies Chapter 8-14

17 Scheduling Chapter 8-15

18 Gantt Charts zThere are several advantages to the use of Gantt charts: yEven though they may contain a great deal of information, they are easily understood yWhile they may require frequent updating, they are easy to maintain yGantt charts provide a clear picture of the current state of a project yThey are easy to construct Chapter 8-16

19 Summary zScheduling is particularly important to projects because of the complex coordination problems zThe network approach to scheduling offers a number of specific advantages of special value for projects zCritical project tasks typically constitute fewer than 10 percent of all the project tasks Chapter 8-17

20 Summary zAlthough research indicates technological performance is not significantly affected by the use of PERT/CPM, there did seem to be a significantly lower probability of cost and schedule overruns zNetwork techniques can adopt either an activity-on-node or activity-on-arc framework without significantly altering the analysis Chapter 8-18

21 Summary zNetworks are usually constructed from left to right, indicating activity precedence and event times as the network is constructed zGantt charts are closely related to network diagrams, but are more easily understood and provide a clearer picture of the current state of the project Chapter 8-19

22 Scheduling Questions?

23 Scheduling Picture Files

24 Scheduling Figure 8-1

25 Scheduling Figure 8-2

26 Scheduling Figure 8-3

27 Scheduling Figure 8-5

28 Scheduling Figure 8-6

29 Scheduling Figure 8-7

30 Scheduling Figure 8-8

31 Scheduling Figure 8-9

32 Scheduling Figure 8-10

33 Scheduling Figure 8-11

34 Scheduling Figure 8-12

35 Scheduling Figure 8-13

36 Scheduling Figure 8-14

37 Scheduling Figure 8-15

38 Scheduling Figure 8-16

39 Scheduling Figure 8-17

40 Scheduling Figure 8-20

41 Scheduling Figure 8-21

42 Scheduling Figure 8-22

43 Scheduling Figure 8-23

44 Scheduling Figure 8-24

45 Scheduling Figure 8-25

46 Scheduling Figure 8-26

47 Scheduling Figure 8-27

48 Scheduling Figure 8-28

49 Scheduling Figure 8-30

50 Scheduling Table Files

51 Scheduling

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57 Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.


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