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Palenque: Astronomical-Solar Orientation of Pakal Tomb Jaroslav Klokočník, Astronomical Institute, Czech Aacdemy of Sciences Ondřejov Observatory CZ 251.

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Presentation on theme: "Palenque: Astronomical-Solar Orientation of Pakal Tomb Jaroslav Klokočník, Astronomical Institute, Czech Aacdemy of Sciences Ondřejov Observatory CZ 251."— Presentation transcript:

1 Palenque: Astronomical-Solar Orientation of Pakal Tomb Jaroslav Klokočník, Astronomical Institute, Czech Aacdemy of Sciences Ondřejov Observatory CZ Ondřejov, Czech Republic, EU, Jan Kostelecký, Research Institute for Geodesy, Topography and Cartography, CZ Zdiby 98, Czech Republic, EU, © Astronomický ústav AV ČR

2 mapa lokalit

3 Palenque: the Pyramid with Temple of Inscriptions and Pakal tomb inside

4 Pacal and his tomb in Palenque Reign July 29, 615 – August 31, 683 GMT Full name K'inich Janaab' Pakal Born March 24, 603 GMT Died March 31, 683 GMT Buried Temple of the InscriptionsTemple of the Inscriptions, PalenquePalenque Predecessor Sak K'uk‘Sak K'uk‘ Successor K'inich Kan B'alamK'inich Kan B'alam GMT???

5 Example of failure of GMT to predict solar eclipse DK D31 (F 52) BB MD = JD = = GMT Nov 755 Vol June 1275 Fuls Mucke Hermann, Meeus, Jean Canon of solar eclipses –2003 to Astro. Buro, Hasenwartgasse, Wien; 2nd ed., Vienna, 1983.

6 Interesting consequence for “the end of the world 2012” is that it is postponed from Dec 21, 2012 to Dec 14, GMT means Goodman-Martínez-Thompson correlation ( days), B&B means Böhm and Böhm correlation ( day). The difference GMT-BB= = days = years B&B: Klokočník J, Kostelecký J, Böhm V, Böhm B, Vondrák J, Vítek F 2008 Correlation between the Mayan calendar and ours: Astronomy helps to answer why the most popular correlation (GMT) is wrong, Astronom. Nachrichten (AN) 329, 4, , DOI /asna a

7 Pacal and his tomb in Palenque Reign July 22, 615 – August 24, 787 B&B Full name K'inich Janaab' Pakal Born March 17, 707 B&B Died March 24, 787 B&B Buried Temple of the InscriptionsTemple of the Inscriptions, PalenquePalenque Predecessor Sak K'uk‘Sak K'uk‘ Successor K'inich Kan B'alamK'inich Kan B'alam

8 Palenque, Pacal tomb astronomical-solar orientation ??? Stingl M 1971 Tajemství indiánských pyramid, Orbis Praha, in Czech

9 J. Skidmore, priv. commun. 2000, resources/maps (© 2000, E. Barnhart)

10 Precise compass Directions ±1 degree Calibration by GPS baselines NGDC (National Geophysical Data Center) NOAA Satellite and Information Service,

11 cos a = - sin δ / cos φ

12 Measurements in Palenque We measured with the precise compass inside the crypt, around the sarcophagus, but there was a problem: at the entrance to the crypt, there was a steel lintel which disturbed measurements with the compass to a distance ~1-1.5 m, so on this side of the tomb the measurements with compass were impossible. Results of measurements: Magnetic azimuth of the longer side of the sarcophagus is 21±1 deg (East of North)

13 Measurements in Palenque Results of measurements: Magnetic azimuth long side of 21±1 deg (East of North), after the correction to the astronomical azimuth is 24±2 deg, acounting for all sources of errors. Conclusion: Agreement with the expected value for the hypothetical astronomical-solar-solstice orientation, deg, is perfect. Two baselines were deployed, as long as possible (e.g. between the Temple of the Cross and the Plaza, and between the Palace and the Temple of the Inscriptions), to keep error of the final astronomical azimuth computed from such measurements as low as possible. The precision of coordinates with the handy GPS was about ±10 m in 2003 and ~3-5 m in 2010.

14 Palenque, Pacal tomb astronomical-solar orientation !!! degrees

15

16 Concluding remarks We proved that Pakal’s tomb in the Mayan city of Palenque has astronomical-solar orientation. The long axis of the crypt is directed degrees east of astronomical north. This axis is perpendicular to the direction of sunset at the summer solstice or sunrise at the winter solstice. The result has accuracy not worse than ±2 degrees.

17 Astronomický ústav AV ČR, Česká republika, EU


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