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MGMT 483 Week 8.  A schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable  It serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling.

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Presentation on theme: "MGMT 483 Week 8.  A schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable  It serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling."— Presentation transcript:

1 MGMT 483 Week 8

2  A schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable  It serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling project activity  One of the major project management tools  Work changes daily so a detailed plan is essential  Not all activities on a project need to be scheduled to the same level of detail Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

3  Most scheduling is based on network diagrams  The diagram shows activity and event relationships and graphically portrays the sequential relationship between the tasks in a project  Clearly shows precedence – tasks that must come before or after other tasks Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

4  Consistent framework for planning, scheduling, monitoring and controlling the project  Shows interdependence of tasks  Shows when resources are needed  Ensures proper communication between parties to the project  Determines expected completion date  Identifies critical activities and those with slack Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

5  Around since the 1950s – 2 approaches initially  Critical Path Method (CPM)  Program Evaluation and Review Technique  Microsoft Project (and other software) have blended CPM and PERT into one approach Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley. CPMRenamed Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) Uses Activity-on-Node (AON) network diagrams PERTRenamed Arrow Diagram Method (ADM) Uses Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) network diagrams

6  Activity - A specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to complete  Event - The result of completing one or more activities  Network - The combination of all activities and events that define a project  Drawn left-to-right  Connections represent predecessors Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

7  Path - A series of connected activities  Critical - An activity, event, or path which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project  Critical Path - The path through the project where, if any activity is delayed, the project is delayed  There is always a critical path  There can be more than one critical path Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

8  Sequential Activities - One activity must be completed before the next one can begin  Parallel Activities - The activities can take place at the same time  Immediate Predecessor - That activity that must be completed just before a particular activity can begin Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

9  PERT / ADM: Activity on Arrow - Arrows represent activities while nodes stand for events  CPM / PDM: Activity on Node - Nodes stand for events and arrows show precedence Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

10 Figure 8-3 Figure 8-2 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

11  Begin with START activity  Add activities without precedents  There will always be one  May be more  Add activities that have those activities as precedents  Continue until all activities are added Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

12  A simple example  Question 1 – page 374  Question 7 – page 374 (do an AON diagram) Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

13 Figure 8-12 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

14 Table 8-1 This table shows a simple project with 10 activities and their predecessors, plus 3 time estimates for completion of the activities. Draw the AON diagram – without the time estimates

15 Figure 8-14 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

16  The next step is to calculate expected activity completion times from the data in Table 8-1  a=optimistic time estimate  b=pessimistic time estimate  m=most likely time estimate Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley. Expected time

17 Table 8-2 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

18 Figure 8-15 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley. The nodes now show the activity, plus the Expected time, followed by the Variance Treating the expected times as certain - how long will it take to complete the project? What is the critical path – ie the longest path through the project

19  The project will take 43 days (this is the shortest time it can possibly take)  The critical path is a – d – j  If any of these activities take longer than the expected time, the project will be late Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

20  Question 8 – page 375 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

21 Figure 8-16 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley. ES = Earliest Start EF = Earliest Finish LS = Latest Start LF = Latest Finish

22  Slack (aka, Float) – In the previous section, the earliest possible dates for each activity were determined.  By starting the analysis at the end of the network and working through it backwards, the latest possible dates for each activity can be determined.  The difference between the early dates and the late dates is float or slack.  Activities on the critical path have zero float. Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

23 Table 8-3 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

24

25  Problem 19 on page 377 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

26  Precedence Diagramming – The Precedence Diagram Method allows for additional relationships to be established between activities. They are:  Finish to Start – The successor activity cannot begin until the predecessor finishes. This is the most common relationship depicted in networks.  Start to Start – The successor activity cannot begin until the predecessor begins.  Finish to Finish – The successor activity cannot finish until the predecessor activity finishes.  Start to Finish – The successor activity cannot finish until the predecessor activity starts. This relationship is rarely used. Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

27 Figure 8-17 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

28 Figure 8-18 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

29 Figure 8-19 Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

30  The chance of completing a project within a given time period can be calculated.  The project activities are assumed to be statistically independent  The variance of a set of activities is equal to the sum of the variances of the individual activities  We are particularly interested in variances on the critical path Meredith & Mantel (2009) Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed. Wiley.

31  The chance of meeting a particular project duration can be calculated as: D = the desired project completion time µ = the critical time of the project, the sum of the TEs for activities on the critical path = the variance of the critical path, the sum of the variances of activities on the critical path Z = the number of standard deviation of a normal distribution (the standard normal deviate)


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