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CMSC 341 Graphs 3

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Adjacency Table Implementation Uses table of size |V| |V| where each entry (i,j) is boolean –TRUE if there is an edge from vertex i to vertex j –FALSE otherwise –store weights when edges are weighted a b e cd a be cd

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3 Adjacency Table (cont.) Storage requirement: Performance:

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4 Adjacency List Keep list of adjacent vertices for each vertex. –Array of lists of indices: Each element of array[i] is a list of the indices of the vertices adjacent to vertex i. –List of lists: The i-th element of L is associated with vertex v i and is a List L i of the elements of L adjacent to v i. –Lists in Array (NIL sentinels): Each entry a[i,j] is either the index of the j-th vertex adjacent to vertex I or a NIL sentinel indicating end-of-list. –Lists in Array (with valence array): Instead of using NIL sentinels to mark the end of the list in the array, a separate array Valence is kept indicating the number of entries in each row of the array.

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5 Adjacency Lists (cont.) Storage requirement: Performance: Array of List ofLists in Lists in Lists Lists Array (NIL) Array (val)

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6 Directed Acyclic Graphs A directed acyclic graph is a directed graph with no cycles. A partial order R on a set S is a binary relation such that –for all a S, aRa is false (irreflexive property) –for all a,b,c S, if aRb and bRc then aRc is true (transitive property) To represent a partial order with a DAG: –represent each member of S as a vertex –for each pair of vertices (a,b), insert an edge from a to b if and only if aRb.

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7 More Definitions Vertex i is a predecessor of vertex j if and only if there is a path from i to j. Vertex i is an immediate predecessor if vertex j if and only if (i,j) is an edge in the graph. Vertex j is a successor of vertex i if and only if there is a path from i to j. Vertex j is an immediate predecessor if vertex i if and only if (i,j) is an edge in the graph.

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8 Topological Ordering A topological ordering of the vertices of a DAG G=(V,E) is a linear ordering such that, for vertices i,j V, if i is a predecessor of j, then i precedes j in the linear order.

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9 Topological Sort void TopSort(Graph G) { unsigned int counter = 1 ; Queue q = new Queue(); Vertex indegree[|V|]; for each Vertex v { indegree[v] = getInDegree(v); if (indegree[v] == 0) q.enqueue(v); } while (!q.isEmpty()){ v = q.dequeue(); Put v on the topological ordering; counter++; for each Vertex v adjacent from v { indegree[w] -=1; if (indegree[w]==0) q.enqueue(w); } if (counter <= G.numVertices()) declare an error -- G has a cycle }

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10 TopSort Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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