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1 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Topics Introduction to information Space The concept of meta-object and meta-model Introduction to Perspective, Classification.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Topics Introduction to information Space The concept of meta-object and meta-model Introduction to Perspective, Classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Topics Introduction to information Space The concept of meta-object and meta-model Introduction to Perspective, Classification and “The Tyranny of Words” Basic meta-object inventory –Containers of normalized Knowledge –Also the basic components from which more complex knowledge is configured

2 5/4/ :38 page 2# © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta BEHAVIOR RESPONSE TO A GIVEN STIMULUS –HIT METAL SHEET: it bends –HIT GLASS SHEET: it breaks INVOLVES OBJECTS, EVENTS, CHANGE CHANGE INVOLVES TIME TECHNIQUES FOR REPRESENTING BEHAVIOR –BLACK BOX »“INPUT-OUTPUT” VIEW –NODE BRANCH »“ERD TYPE” TECHNIQUES

3 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta DISCRETE CHANGE ATTRIBUTE VALUES & RELATIONSHIPS CHANGE IN RESPONSE TO DISCRETE EVENTS CONSTRAINTS ON ENTITIES CHANGE IN RESPONSE TO DISCRETE EVENTS Time slice (a single state of an instance of an object) OBJECT CLASS Present Past V1 V2 V3 V4 V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance Time V1 V2 V3 V4 AN OBJECT CLASS IS ALSO AN INSTANCE OF AN OBJECT What properties would the class normalize?

4 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta DISCRETE CHANGE OBJECT CLASS Present Past V1 V2 V3 V4 V1 V2 V3 V4 Instance Time V1 V2 V3 V4 Effect of hammer strike 1 Effect of hammer strike 2 Effect of hammer strike 3

5 5 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta STATE OF AN OBJECT INSTANCE 1/8” red W Instance OBJECT CLASS (Glass Pane) Status: Shattered (S) or Whole (W) Color Thickness 1/2” blue W Instance 1/4” green S Instance Effect of Hammer Strike: Change status of “Whole” glass to “Shattered” Object Instances (Individual glass panes) PROPERTIES OF OBJECTCLASSPROPERTIES OF OBJECTCLASS Effect of hammer strike 3 Effect of hammer strike 2 Effect of hammer strike 1

6 6 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta State Chart MaterialWholenessColorThickness Glass Shattered Whole Hammer Strike (Whole) PANE Red Blue

7 7 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta State Chart MaterialWholenessColorThickness GlassWhole Hammer Strike PANE Red Blue X Cracked Broken Shattered X

8 8 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta State of a System STATE OF INVENTORY SYSTEM

9 9 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta State Space WEIGHT THICKNESS 1/2 inch 1/8 inch 1 lb2 lb 1/4 inch 1 1 / 2 lb Location of 1/4 inch., 1 1 / 2 lb pane in this state space

10 10 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta State Space with Ordinal axis JANE’S PREFERENCE CAR SIZE Maximum Car Size Minimum Car Size Most Liked Least Liked Second Most Liked JANE’S PREFERENCE CAR TYPE (Sequence does not matter. Cars can be arranged in any order along this axis) Infiniti Ford Explorer Most Liked Least Liked Second Most Liked Honda Civic A. Example of State Space when one axis maps to a quantitative domain and the other to a qualitative domain (Disjoint Lines) B. Example of State Space when both axes map to qualitative domains (Disjoint Points) STATE SPACE IS COLORED BLUE (Sequence matters, but not the distance between the broken lines on this axis)

11 11 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta THREE DIMENSIONAL STATE SPACE Height Age Weight Location in state space of an individual of a particular age, height and weight APPEARANCE OF STATE SPACE LOOK IF WE DID NOT CARE ABOUT THE AGE OF A PERSON? APPEARANCE OF STATE SPACE LOOK IF WE RESTRICTED THE AGE OF “PERSON” TO A SINGLE VALUE?

12 12 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta TRAJECTORY IN STATE SPACE Depth Width The cross section of the river (instance of an object) moves along this trajectory at a certain speed

13 13 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta TRAJECTORY IN STATE SPACE An object will move along a trajectory in State Space as its state changes with the passage of time The object’s trajectory can be reinterpreted as a region in State Space (a static line in this case) when the time axis is added to its State Space [When only discrete changes are considered, the region consists of a sequence of discrete points ( ) on the trajectory] Depth Width The cross section of the river (instance of an object) moves along this trajectory at a certain speed Location of a cross section of a river in state space at a particular time Depth Width Time

14 14 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta TRAJECTORY IN STATE SPACE An object will move along a trajectory in State Space as its state changes with the passage of time The object’s trajectory can be reinterpreted as a region in State Space (a line in this case) when the time axis is added to its State Space [When only discrete changes are considered, the region consists of a sequence of discrete points ( ) on the trajectory] Income Borrowing The firm (instance of an object) moves along this trajectory at a certain speed Income Borrowing Time Location of the firm in state space at a particular time

15 15 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta OBJECT V1 V2 V3 E1 V1 V2 V3 E1 V1 V2 V3 E1 Instance OBJECT CLASS Time OBJECT INSTANCE = SET OF VARIABLES –A single occurrence –Based on business meaning Person, place, category, concept or event relevant to the business PROPERTY OF AN OBJECT (EXPANDED DEFINITION OF DATA ATTRIBUTES) –A single meaning Data Attribute/value State/Relationship Effect of event OBJECT CLASS = SET OF LIKE INSTANCES TIME DIMENSION INTRINSIC TO BEHAVIOR OF THE OBJECT/CHANGES TO SPECIFIC PROPERTIES

16 16 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta SUBTYPING A B A BB set intersection A  B is the set of objects that are members of both A and B.  Multiple inheritance A-B B-A C C AA set difference subset of A C  A implies all members of C are also members of A, but not vice-versa.  Inheritance (Data, behavior & constraints) PERSON MALE PERSON Subtype of Age Height Weight (Inherited) Age Height Weight GASPOISON POISON GAS Subtype of

17 17 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta UML Syntax SUPER CLASSES SUBCLASS MULTIPLE INHERITANCE IN UML UML SYMBOL FOR SUBTYPING (Class Generalization)

18 18 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta OBJECT GENERALIZATION & ROLE PLAYING OBJECT SUB- TYPE PARTITION....PARTITION partitioned by partition of SUB- TYPE SUB- TYPE SUB- TYPE (eg: organization) e.g., Temporary organization (e.g.: Task force, Project team etc.) e.g., Organization we do not own. e.g., Organizations we own fully e.g., Organizations in which we own the majority of shares SUB- TYPE e.g., Permanent. Organization (e.g.: Corporation, human resources department etc.) PROPERTIES OF PARTITIONS Irreducible fact: Subtypes are exhaustively defined in partition (Exhaustive Partition) Irreducible fact: Subtypes are not exhaustively defined in this partition: Organizations in which we have minority shares are not shown (Non-exhaustive Partition) Irreducible fact: Partitioning Criterion: Our ownership of organizations Irreducible fact: Partitioning Criterion: Permanence of organizations PARTITIONING CRITERIA EXHAUSTIVITY Non-exhaustive PartitionExhaustive Partition * e.g., Organization

19 19 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta UML Syntax OBJECT PARTITIONING IN UML CLASS NAME Attribute: data type = optional initial value Operation (i.e. effect) UML SYMBOL FOR OBJECT CLASS UML SYMBOL FOR SUBTYPING Partitioning Criteria Written here Partition Another Partition

20 20 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta CONSTRAINTS BETWEEN SUBTYPES Every instance in one subtype must be in the other subtype and vice-versa, I.e., the two sets are equal Every instance in one subtype must be in the other subtype but not necessarily vice-versa SUB- TYPE A Another subtype OBJECT PARTITION Every instance of subtype A must also be an instance of subtype B (not necessarily vice-versa) SUB- TYPE B Another subtype Subtypes A and B are mutually exclusive even though they are in different partitions SUB- TYPE A Another subtype OBJECT PARTITION An instance of subtype A must not be an instance of subtype B (mutually exclusive sets) SUB- TYPE B Another subtype X SUB- TYPE A Another subtype OBJECT PARTITION Every instance of subtype A must also be an instance of subtype B (not necessarily vice-versa) SUB- TYPE B Every instance of subtype B must also be an instance of subtype A (not necessarily vice-versa) Another subtype

21 21 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Subtyping Criteria SUBTYPING CRITERIA AttributesEffectsRelationshipsConstraints on Attribute Values Constraints on Relationships Guard Conditions Constraints on Initial Conditions Initial Conditions (Default State) Constraints on History

22 22 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta VARIATION INHERITANCE THE PRINCIPLE OF SUBTYPING BY ADDING INFORMATION INCLUSION INHERITANCE

23 23 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Polymorphism is the quality of appearing in several apparently different forms. PARENT EMPLOYEE CUSTOMERETC. E.G. PERSON HOP RUN ROLLETC. E.G. MOVE MEETING TASK BIRTHDAYETC.. E.G. EVENT HEAT LIGHT KINETICETC.. E.G. ENERGY BY ONES BY TWOS BY THREESETC. E.G. COUNT GUIDELINE RULE DESCRIPTIONETC. E.G. INFORMATION ●First identified by Christopher Strachey in ●Context specific behavior normalized by generalizing or subtyping objects. –For example, the exact meaning of length depends on whether the object in question is a word or a room. “Word” and “Room” are parameters of length that fixes its meaning and properties more precisely than the generic concept of length: The length of a word is the number of letters in it, which can only be an integer The length of a room may be any real number. POLYMORPHISM

24 24 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta OBJECT parameters Adaptation through Inclusion Polymorphism Object=Frog; Move=Hop Object=Wheel; Move=Roll Object may be Frog or Wheel Move may be Hop or Roll

25 25 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Kinds of Polymorphism

26 26 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta KINDS OF INHERITANCE Subtype Inheritance: Mutually exclusive subtypes inherit behavior of the parent class Extension Inheritance: State space of the subtype extends the state space of the parent into additional dimensions (has additional properties) Restriction Inheritance: Constraint is added to parent to restrict its state space in the subtype –Lawful vs. Conceivable state space View Inheritance: Object is an instance of two or more different subtypes simultaneously and inherits properties and restrictions of all. Eg: –Parent and Employee are two roles (subtypes/polymorphisms) of Person –An individual may simultaneously have a pay rate and children if he or she is an employee and a parent at the same time (See endnote on kinds of inheritance in your text book)

27 27 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Taxonomy of Inheritance INHERITANCE Model Inheritance Variation Inheritance Subtype Inheritance View Inheritance Functional Variation Inheritance Type Variation Inheritance Software Inheritance Reification Inheritance Facility Inheritance Restriction Inheritance Extension Inheritance Unaffecting Inheritance Structure Inheritance Implementation Inheritance Constant Inheritance Machine Inheritance (Applies to)

28 28 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Taxonomy of Inheritance INHERITANCE Model Inheritance Variation Inheritance Subtype Inheritance View Inheritance Software Inheritance Restriction Inheritance Extension Inheritance

29 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The Problem of Perspective What you see or think depends on how you see or think GOODBAD GOODBAD DOES A UNIVERSAL PERSPECTIVE EXIST ? WITHOUT THE UNIVERSAL PERSPECTIVE THERE WOULD BE NO SHARED UNDERSTANDING

30 30 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Universal Perspective ●Information and business services hub for semantic interoperability ●Remember the Principle of Parsimony –Generalized Classes and Interactions; Information Sparse ●Remember the principle of subtyping by adding information

31 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta GOODBAD GOODBAD TRUTH DEPENDS ON CONTEXT CONTEXT ADDS INFORMATION –PERSPECTIVE PROVIDES INFORMATION –IS A KIND OF OBJECT CONTEXT 1 CONTEXT 2

32 32 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Synonyms and Homonyms NAME (synonym & homonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) OBJECT 1 (meaning) OBJECT 2 (meaning) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) THE TYRANNY OF WORDS NAME (homonym) NAME (homonym) OBJECT 1 (meaning) OBJECT 2 (meaning)

33 33 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Primary Name vs Alias ALIAS (synonym & homonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) OBJECT 1 PRIMARY NAME OBJECT 2 PRIMARY NAME ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym)

34 34 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Aliases and Perspectives PERSPECTIVE or CONTEXT (Model) PERSON/ or ORGANIZATION (Key stake holders: Persons and Groups) CONCEPT (object) NAME (synonyms, i.e., Aliases) Each concept must have a name, and may have many Each name must be in a a context and may be the same in many contexts Each perspective must be held by at least one person or organization and may be held by many Each name must be the name of at least one object, perhaps many Each perspective must have at least one named concept, probably more Each person or organization must hold at least one perspective, perhaps more

35 35 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta The Metamodel of Object

36 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta

37 37 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta What We Have Covered The concepts of object class and object instance –The fundamental containers of reusable knowledge –Also the fundamental meta-component from which other components of knowledge are forged The concept of meta-object and meta-model State and state space Subtyping Partitions and Polymorphism Shared Understanding, Perspective, Classification and “The Tyranny of Words” A basic meta-object inventory –Containers of normalized Knowledge –Also the basic components from which more complex knowledge is configured

38 38 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta State of a System Lead time STATE OF INVENTORY SYSTEM STATE OF INVENTORY ITEM Reorder Quantity Quantity on Hand Price Quantity on Order Under Scrutiny STATE OF VENDOR On Recommended Vendor List Not recommended Failed QA Poor Performance STATE OF VENDOR ITEMSTATE OF VENDOR APPROVAL Passed QA

39 39 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Place (with 2 tokens) Place (with two tokens) Empty Place Immediate transition Delayed transition (Deterministic) Input arc multiplicity (i.e., cardinality) = 2 2 i.e., this transition has occurred twice, and the successor will now occur. When the successor occurs, it will empty this place. i.e., this transition requires two tokens from each arc in order to occur (fire). 2 A token will be placed here after the predecessor transition fires. It will enable the firing of the successor transition Token Output arc

40 40 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta PARADIGMCALCULUS Real world metamodel Set theoretic approach Modeling Language & techniques PATTERNS Few universal facts re-used & repeated most often - patterns Connect business functions & even businesses Business Rules “Irreducible facts” Real world behavior Real world objects Role modeling GROUPING & INHERITANCE OF FACTS SHAPED BY THE REAL WORLD ORGANIZATION/PEOPLE PROCESS & WORKFLOW PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TOOLS INCLUDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS STRATEGY PRODUCT & SERVICE OFFERINGS POLICIES, LEGISLATION, REGULATION KNOWLEDGE ARTIFACTS STAND ON THREE LEGS

41 41 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta PERSON NON- PARENT PARENT PARENTHOOD PARTITION Subtypes of Person may be parent of 0 or more parent of 1 or more (inherited from Person) Features Parenthood Name Age Gender Height Weight Features Parenthood Name Age Gender Height Weight Features Parenthood Name Age Gender Height Weight Inherited from Person EXCLUDE FEATURE FROM SUBTYPE Inherited from Person OUR FOCUS

42 42 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta PERSON NON- PARENT PARENT PARENTHOOD PARTITION Subtypes of Person parent of 1 or more (added to subtype) Inherited from Person Features Name Age Gender Height Weight Features Name Age Gender Height Weight Features Name Age Gender Height Weight Inherited from Person Parenthood (add feature to subtype) +

43 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Speed Power Powered by competition, constantly pressured by change, innovation will flow from speed, agility and the need for flawless service Agility Agile processes Innovate, beat competition Adapt quickly to change Opportunity Cost  Cost of time Speedy & efficient processes POWER FLOWS FROM SPEED &AGILITY

44 44 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Synonyms and Homonyms NAME (synonym & homonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) OBJECT 4 (meaning) NAME (homonym) NAME (homonym) OBJECT 1 (meaning) OBJECT 2 (meaning) OBJECT 3 (meaning)

45 45 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Synonyms and Homonyms NAME (synonym & homonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) NAME (synonym) OBJECT 4 (meaning) NAME (homonym) NAME (homonym) OBJECT 1 (meaning) OBJECT 2 (meaning) OBJECT 3 (meaning)

46 46 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Aliases and Homonyms PRIMARY NAME (concept) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym & homonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) PRIMARY NAME (concept 1) PRIMARY NAME (concept 1) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym & homonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) OBJECT 1 PRIMARY NAME ALIAS (synonym & homonym) ALIAS (synonym & homonym) OBJECT 2 PRIMARY NAME OBJECT 3 PRIMARY NAME ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym & homonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) OBJECT ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) ALIAS (synonym) OBJECT

47 47 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta Universal Perspective PERSPECTIVE SHARED PERSPECTIVE Information and business services hub for semantic interoperability Remember the Principle of Parsimony –Generalized Classes and Interactions Remember the principle of subtyping by adding information

48 48 © Amit Mitra & Amar Gupta AN INSTANCE OF A 3 RD ORDER MANIFOLD SHOWN IN THREE SPACE products places customers a particular product sold to a particular customer at a particular place An instance of an “ordinary” binary relationship would be a point in two-space


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