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When you look at a book, you do not see the process the writer used to make it. What you see in print might not be much like the first plan for the book.

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Presentation on theme: "When you look at a book, you do not see the process the writer used to make it. What you see in print might not be much like the first plan for the book."— Presentation transcript:

1 When you look at a book, you do not see the process the writer used to make it. What you see in print might not be much like the first plan for the book at all. The author may have rewritten it many times. The writing process is often divided into five stages. Most writers go back and forth through these stages. There is no one correct way to write.

2 ~ Descriptive ~ Describe with details using the 5 senses. (p. 135) ~ Expository ~ Explain or inform by giving facts or information. (p. 173+) ~ Persuasive ~ Get people to see your way by using reasons, examples, statistics, facts, etc. (p. 197) ~ Narrative ~ To tell a story or entertain with fiction or nonfiction. (p. 139) A. Identify Purpose Step 1 ~ Prewriting Write about what you would see, smell, taste, touch, & hear on this beach. When I was a kid, my parents took me to the beach for the first time. We visited exciting places and saw many interesting people. In Florida there is this amazing beach that I think everyone should visit. Once upon a time in a far away land… OR When I was young I always wanted to go to a beach…

3 B. Identify Audience You need to know your audience for three main reasons:  So that you can use appropriate language in your writing  So that you make sure to use appropriate sentence structure in your writing  So that you have an appropriate topic. Prewriting Cntd.

4 C. Choose a Subject Prewriting Cntd. * A broad, general area of knowledge. Vehicles Sports FoodBooks School Jobs People Music

5 D. Limit your subject to a suitable topic. *A topic is a limited subject. 1. One way this can be done is by a process called “treeing down” Holidays Spring/SummerFall/WinterReligiousGovernmental Easter Memorial Day July 4 th ‘07 ‘08 ’09 Cul-de-sac Underwood Minnesota

6 Other strategies for selecting a topic include: 2. Journal Writing Write in a journal on a regular basis. Explore your personal feelings, develop your thoughts, and record events and happenings of each day. Then, underline thoughts that you would like to explore further. 2. Journal Writing Write in a journal on a regular basis. Explore your personal feelings, develop your thoughts, and record events and happenings of each day. Then, underline thoughts that you would like to explore further. 3. Free Writing Write nonstop for 5-10 minutes to discover possible ideas. Begin with a particular focus in mind, related to the assignment. 3. Free Writing Write nonstop for 5-10 minutes to discover possible ideas. Begin with a particular focus in mind, related to the assignment. Begins on pg. 43 in text book.

7 5. Listing Begin with a thought or key word related to your topic / assignment and list words and ideas that have to do with that. 5. Listing Begin with a thought or key word related to your topic / assignment and list words and ideas that have to do with that. 4. Clustering Begin a cluster with a nucleus word related to your writing topic or assignment. Then cluster ideas around the nucleus word. 4. Clustering Begin a cluster with a nucleus word related to your writing topic or assignment. Then cluster ideas around the nucleus word. Weight lifting athletes health enthusiasts toning body- builders endurance strength visible muscles power exercise weight control appearance trouble spots

8 6.Reflecting, Participating, & Listening Think about possible writing ideas as you read, as you ride to school, as you wait in the lunch line, when you travel, visit with friends, work, shop. etc. 6.Reflecting, Participating, & Listening Think about possible writing ideas as you read, as you ride to school, as you wait in the lunch line, when you travel, visit with friends, work, shop. etc. 7.Using the “Essentials of Life” Checklist (Found on page 44 in text.) This checklist provides an endless variety of topic possibilities. Consider the third category, food. It could lead to the following writing ideas: Sensible eating habits Fast-food overload Truth in labeling on food pkgs. 7.Using the “Essentials of Life” Checklist (Found on page 44 in text.) This checklist provides an endless variety of topic possibilities. Consider the third category, food. It could lead to the following writing ideas: Sensible eating habits Fast-food overload Truth in labeling on food pkgs. Clothing communicationexercise/training Housing purpose/goalscommunity Food measurementfaith/religion Education machinestrade/money Family intelligenceheat/fuel Friends agriculturerules/laws Love environmentscience/technology Senses plant lifework/occupation Energy land/propertyprivate/public life Entertainment health/medicinearts/music Recreation literature/booksnatural resources Personality tools/utensilsfreedom/rights Clothing communicationexercise/training Housing purpose/goalscommunity Food measurementfaith/religion Education machinestrade/money Family intelligenceheat/fuel Friends agriculturerules/laws Love environmentscience/technology Senses plant lifework/occupation Energy land/propertyprivate/public life Entertainment health/medicinearts/music Recreation literature/booksnatural resources Personality tools/utensilsfreedom/rights

9 8. Writing Prompts Use the prompts below as starting points for creating writing ideas. (The complete list can be found on page 436 in your textbook.) 8. Writing Prompts Use the prompts below as starting points for creating writing ideas. (The complete list can be found on page 436 in your textbook.) TT hink and Write About…*Describe… current news stories a favorite photograph world problems a person who is totally organized local problems someone who has an unusual hobby or collection notable people someone who has influenced you manners and morals a flock of birds in flight social concerns someone you met once or knew briefly customs and habits a high school dance (or other event) government and politics * Compare… RR ead and Respond to… original / imitation short articles from magazines middle school / high school short articles from newspapers winter / summer song lyrics and poems like / love quotes or short stories musicians or musical groups classroom literature movies or TV programs old friends / new friends LL isten and Respond to… wisdom / knowledge news broadcasts opinion / belief interviews music videos * Cause and Effect… short films What causes tornadoes? What causes misunderstandings? AA nalyze and Write About… Why do we worship sports stars? unusual statistics What causes violence? pain? quotations What causes prejudice? war? clichés

10 E.Gather information about your topic. (More examples are given on pages of your textbook.) E.Gather information about your topic. (More examples are given on pages of your textbook.) 1. Brainstorming / Free Writing ~ Write freely listing all the things you know about the topic. (See earlier notes for what this looks like.) 2. Clustering ~ Mapping or webbing ideas and information about the topic. (See earlier notes for what this looks like.) 3. Directed Writing: Write whatever comes to mind about your topic using these questions; repeating the process as often as you need to, selecting a different mode each time. Describe it. ~ What do you see, hear, feel, smell, or taste? Compare it. ~ What is it similar to? What is it different from? Apply it. ~ What can you do with it? How can you use it? Associate it.~ What connections between this and something else come to mind? Analyze it. ~ What parts does it have? How do they work together? Argue for or against it. ~ What do you like about it? What don’t you like about it? What are its strengths and its weaknesses?

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12 Other strategies for gathering information: 5. Research Use books, Internet, magazines, newspapers, etc. to gather information about your topic. 5. Research Use books, Internet, magazines, newspapers, etc. to gather information about your topic. 6. Interview Interview an expert about your topic. Meet the expert in person, communicate by phone, or send questions to be answered. 6. Interview Interview an expert about your topic. Meet the expert in person, communicate by phone, or send questions to be answered.

13 F. Write your thesis statement. A thesis statement identifies the focus of your academic essay. You are to state your thesis in a sentence that effectively expresses what you want to explore in your essay. It may:  highlight a special condition or feature of the topic  express a feeling about the topic  take a stand for or against your topic. Young children exposed to low levels of lead may face health problems later in life. (specific topic) (particular feature) A thesis statement identifies the focus of your academic essay. You are to state your thesis in a sentence that effectively expresses what you want to explore in your essay. It may:  highlight a special condition or feature of the topic  express a feeling about the topic  take a stand for or against your topic. Young children exposed to low levels of lead may face health problems later in life. (specific topic) (particular feature) A specific topic a particular feature, feeling, or stand an effective thesis statement.

14 Classify: Put your information/details into groups of similarity. G.Organize your details by Classifying and Arranging. G.Organize your details by Classifying and Arranging. Arrange: Put the groups of information into an outline in the order you plan to write your paper.

15 Step 2 ~ Writing the 1 st Draft  Emphasize the introduction - opening paragraph which includes the thesis statement. (pg. 55 of textbook)  Get all your ideas down on paper - middle paragraphs that support your thesis statement.  Don’t worry about grammar, spelling, etc.  Keep in mind tone and appropriate language for your purpose and audience.  Write a solid conclusion found in the closing paragraph.  Should be 5-7 sentences.  Is a statement that ties your paper together. It may/might:  make reference to your thesis  make reference to your key points  connect with your reader  answer any unanswered questions.  Write every other line on one side of college-ruled paper using ink.  Emphasize the introduction - opening paragraph which includes the thesis statement. (pg. 55 of textbook)  Get all your ideas down on paper - middle paragraphs that support your thesis statement.  Don’t worry about grammar, spelling, etc.  Keep in mind tone and appropriate language for your purpose and audience.  Write a solid conclusion found in the closing paragraph.  Should be 5-7 sentences.  Is a statement that ties your paper together. It may/might:  make reference to your thesis  make reference to your key points  connect with your reader  answer any unanswered questions.  Write every other line on one side of college-ruled paper using ink.

16 Step 3 ~ Revising A. Evaluate Find Strengths and Weaknesses in the content of your paper ~ what you want to keep and where you need to make improvements. B.Improve / Revise Make changes in the content of your paper to make it better. These may be changes in ideas, organization, word choice, and effective sentence fluency. ADD ~ Put in NEW details, information, facts. etc. CUT/DELETE ~ Take out unnecessary information and/or details. REPLACE ~ Put in a different or more effective word or phrase where you’ve taken something out. REORDER/REWORK ~ Move information around to make the writing more effective.

17 Add Cut Replace Reorder Examples of Revisions:

18 Step 4 ~ Proofreading/Editing In this step you make the necessary corrections in Punctuation, Mechanics (such as spelling and capitalization), and Grammar (subject-verb agreement, pronoun usage, etc.)

19 Step 5 ~ Final Draft/Publishing Qualities of a well-prepared Final Draft: ~ Typed Double Spaced ~Size 11, Times New Roman Font ~Neatly typed ~~ Error Free ~1” Margins on all sides ~Proper 5-point Heading at the Top Title Your Name Kind of Essay Class Due Date


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