Presentation on theme: "Formative Assessment and the Common Core CA Mini Corps Site Coordinators February 5, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Formative Assessment and the Common Core CA Mini Corps Site Coordinators February 5, 2013
FA and the CCSS Participants will… review the “nuts and bolts” of formative assessments share their experiences with implementation of FA strategies and training learn about the shifts in instruction and assessment practices required in both math and ELA with the Common Core learn about the SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and item types learn about Depth of Knowledge and questioning learn accountable talk, close reading and use of text dependent questions to check for understanding develop next steps for sharing information with tutors
Summative versus Formative Summative When instruction is finished Assessing final performance at a point in time Analogy: Driving test at DMV Uses: report card grades; these include unit tests, performance tasks, final exams, and, of course, high-stakes state tests; Formative Using evidence of student understanding to continuously fine-tune instruction and follow up with students who are confused. Analogy: Driving with your teenager as they learn to drive. More frequent = greater impact on learning
Formative versus Summative 5 Formative Assessments Summative Assessments Improve instruction Provide student feedback Purpose? Measure of student competency Ongoing throughout unit When administered? End or unit or course Self-monitor understanding How do students use results? Gauge their progress toward course or grade level goals and benchmarks Check for understanding How do teachers use results? Grades, promotion
Aspects of Formative Assessment Where the learner is going Where the learner is How to get there Teacher Clarify and share learning intentions Understand and share learning intentions Understand learning intentions Engineering effective discussions, tasks and activities that elicit evidence of learning Providing feedback that moves learners forward Peer Activating students as learning resources for one another Learner Activating students as owners of their own learning
Techniques to Elicit Responses Pre-flight Checklist Index Cards Yes/No (Maybe) +/- Got It/No Clue Fingers to Five Face the Fact Agree-Disagree-Neither Thumb It White Boards ABCD Cards--Multiple Choice Questions 8
Techniques: Providing Feedback Circling Errors Find and Correct Errors I Tell You, You Tell Me No Complete Solutions Traffic Lighting Two Stars and a Wish
Three Step Interview Interview your partner about the topic, using the interview questions provided as a starting point. Partners: Question: What strategies did you use to share the FA information with your tutors? What were some successes and challenges for your tutors? At signal, reverse roles. Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved
Three Step Interview Partners share some of your partner’s responses Quartets develop generalizations to share with the full group Form quartets Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved
Key Advances in ELA Increased text complexity Increased informational texts Text-dependent questions Reading Emphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writing Use of text-based evidence Writing Inclusion of formal and informal communication Integrates media sources across the standards Speaking and Listening
CCSS in ELA Set Requirements for: English Language Arts Reading Writing Speaking and Listening Language Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K-5: Embedded in ELA 6-12: Separate Section (Reading and Writing only) 14
NAEP Alignment in Reading Percentages do not imply that high school ELA teachers must teach 70% informational text; they demand instead that a great deal of reading should occur in other disciplines. How can our tutors support this expectation? GradeLiteratureInformation 450% 845%55% 1230%70%
6th Grade Integrated Model of Literacy Reading for Informational Text 6 English Language Arts Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. History/ Social Studies Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). Science and Technical Subjects Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.
The 3 Big Buckets of Writing Opinion/ Argument Informative/ Explanatory Narrative
5th Grade Collaborative Conversations Engage effectively in collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing one’s own clearly. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from discussions.
Key Advances in Math Fewer topics more deeply Emphasis on big ideas and key concepts (areas of emphasis) Focus Connections between ideas within grade levels Connections of ideas across grade levels Coherence Increased ability to justify/explain reasoning Apply and generalize to real world situations (modeling) Rigorous Application
Standards for Mathematical Practice 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Shift in Expectations for Students Demonstrate a deeper understanding of mathematics Ability to justify their thinking Identify connections between and among mathematical ideas Use of multiple representations 23
Representations and Reasoning Quick Images https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/visualizing -number-combinations?fd=1
Today’s Number With Constraints… Today’s Number is 36. Can you find it… Using more than one operation? Using two digit numbers? Using fractions, decimals, percents? Using sets of numbers and operations? Using exponents, square roots? Using integers (sign numbers)? Using a set of numbers and different operations?
Daily Number Talks A daily routine for whole-class instruction Number Sense (efficiency, accuracy, flexibility) Generalized Arithmetic (conceptual understanding) Reasoning---Problem Solving Mental Mathematics Preview-Review-Conceptual Understanding
Mental Math Example https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos /third-grade-mental-math?fd=1 https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos /third-grade-mental-math?fd=1
Daily Number Talks (mental math) Who did the math thinking during the number talk? What specific mathematics did the students demonstrate they understood? What did the teacher do to support the student discourse? What recording techniques did the teacher use that supported learning in the class? Other comments or observations?
Listen - Share - Inquire Form partners and letter off A–B Everyone listens to question(s) and takes a moment to reflect A shares key point or connection B paraphrases and inquires: “And what makes that important to you?” B responds and then shares key point or connection A paraphrases and inquires with same question Continue process until selection is completed Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved
So What? What are the implications of this information for our tutors? What information should be shared? How? When?
SBAC Sample Task: Informational Essay on Pollution Steps: 1. Watch a video and read two articles. Then, answer three questions about these sources. [35 minutes] 2. Plan and write an essay. [70 minutes] BCOE Secondary ELA
STEP 1: Video and Two Articles You will now watch one video and read two articles. Take notes because you may want to refer to your notes while writing your essay. You can look back at any of the sources as often as you like while you are taking notes. You will need to use your notes and sources to write your essay. 35 minutes 40 BCOE Secondary ELA
Watch Video: Tracking Space Debris by Objectivity Web http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EIsubVLN9uE 4 minutes 30 seconds Courtesy of European Space Agency Read the two articles. Answer the 3 questions about the above sources. 35 minutes 41
STEP 2: Write Informational Essay You have watched one short video and read two informational texts about pollution. Consider how the problems of pollution on Earth and in space are similar and different. Write an informational essay comparing the problem of pollution on Earth to the problem of pollution in space. In your essay, discuss the ways in which pollution on Earth and pollution in space are similar and different in terms of the problems they create and the solutions required to deal with them. Support your essay with details from the informational texts you have read and the video you have watched. 70 minutes BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 42
Examining Other SBAC Samples Compare the sample assessment items. Compare/Contrast known (CST) to new (SBAC). How might your tutor’s current classroom assessment practices need to change in order to move students toward CCSS expectations? Handout: SBAC Sample Tasks
A teacher asked her students to use estimation to decide if the sum of the problem below is closer to 4,000 or 5,000. 496 + 1,404 + 2,605 + 489 = One student replied that she thinks the sum is closer to 4,000. She used the estimation shown below to support her reasoning. Is the student’s reasoning correct? In the space below, use numbers and words to explain why or why not. If the student’s reasoning is not correct, explain how she should have estimated. A teacher asked her students to use estimation to decide if the sum of the problem below is closer to 4,000 or 5,000. 496 + 1,404 + 2,605 + 489 = One student replied that she thinks the sum is closer to 4,000. She used the estimation shown below to support her reasoning. Is the student’s reasoning correct? In the space below, use numbers and words to explain why or why not. If the student’s reasoning is not correct, explain how she should have estimated. Constructed Response (CR)
Technology-Enhanced Items Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. The graph on the right shows a triangle. Draw the triangle after it is reflected over the y - axis. Reorder the fractions below so that they are ordered from smallest to largest. 3/5 3/4 2/6 1/2 2/3 Classify each shape below based whether it contains at least one pair of parallel sides.
Design of Performance Tasks Components of a Performance Task Stimulus Readings Video clips Audio clips Graphs, charts, other visuals Research topic/issue/ problem etc. Information Processing Research questions Comprehension questions Simulated Internet search etc. Product/Performance Essay, report, story, script Speech with/without graphics, other media Responses to embedded constructed response questions. Use 1-2 Stimuli for Grade 3. Use up to 5 stimuli for high school. Emphasis on stimuli related to science, history, and social studies.
Cognitive Rigor Matrix--Math Cognitive Rigor Depth of Knowledge
The level of complexity of the cognitive demand. Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Requires eliciting information such as a fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple algorithm or applying a formula. Level 2: Basic Skills and Concepts Requires the engagement of some mental processing beyond a recall of information. Level 3: Strategic Thinking and Reasoning Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and explanations of thinking. Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking most likely over an extended period of time.
Same Verb— Three Different DOK Levels DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of two quadrilaterals. (Requires simple recall) DOK 2- Describe the difference between convex and concave polygons. (Requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two polygon types) DOK 3- Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships that exist within the set of polygons. (Requires deep understanding of polygons and a determination of how best to represent it)
http://schools.nyc.gov/Academics/Co mmonCoreLibrary/Videos/default.htm Depth of Knowledge
Checking for Understanding Oral Language Questioning Written Language Projects and Performance Tasks Common Assessments and Consensus Scoring
Structured Interaction I think…. I agree because….
Promoting Oral Language Accountable Talk Press for clarification and explanation Could you describe what you mean? Require justification of proposals and challenges Where did you find that information? Recognize and challenge misconceptions I don’t agree because… Demand evidence for claims and arguments Can you give me an example? Interpret and use each other’s statements David suggested…
Accountable Talk What is Accountable Talk? Quick Read
Read - Share - Inquire Form partners and letter off A–B Everyone reads to designated stopping point A shares key point or connection B paraphrases and inquires: “And what makes that important to you?” B responds and then shares key point or connection A paraphrases and inquires with same question Continue process until selection is completed Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved
Using Questioning to Check for Understanding http://www.ascd.org/professional- development/webinars/nancy-frey-webinar.aspx
Text Dependent Questions Answered through Close Reading Evidence comes from text, not information from outside sources Understanding beyond basic facts Not recall! Nancy Frey, 2012 ASCD ppt
Focused Reading Individually, read article Mark text as shown: Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved √ I know this ! Significant idea ? Huh?/ I’d like to know more
Focused Reading Partners: Share and compare your text markings: Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved √ I know this ! Significant idea ? Huh?/ I’d like to know more
First Reading: Students read and write independently Read with the pencil to annotate text. What powerful words or phrases affect you? Circle What confuses you? Underline Quick Write What are your impressions of ____? Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt
Discussion: Partner Talk to Check Meaning Use Accountable Talk to describe your impressions Ask questions Provide evidence from the text Compare and contrast your impressions with one another Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt
Second Reading: Teacher Modeling Read the entire passage aloud, without interruption. Be sure to orient students to the text and ask them to follow along. Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt
Progression of Text Dependent Questions Opinion, arguments, inter-text connections InferencesAuthor’s Purpose Vocabulary and Text Structure Key Details General Understandings Nancy Frey, 2012 ASCD ppt
Text Dependent Questions Do the questions require the reader to return to the text? Do the questions require the reader to use evidence to support his or her ideas or claims? Do the questions move from text- explicit to text-implicit knowledge? Are there questions that require the reader to analyze, evaluate, and create? Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt
Creating a Close Reading Use a short passage. Read with a pencil. Note what’s confusing. Pay attention to patterns. Give students the chance to struggle a bit. Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt
Use of Evidence 1. Students read like detectives. 2. Collaborate with others like CSI teams.* 3. Write like investigative reporters.
Scaffolding Complex Text Multiple readings: Complex text takes multiple reads to fully understand the layers of meaning provided by the author. Read Aloud Especially K-2, require students to follow along. Chunking text Prompt students to unpack the difficult portions of a text. Do not ‘think aloud’ for them, instead pose text- dependent questions that require text-based answers. http://www.achievethecore.org/steal-these-tools/close-reading- exemplars
Text-Dependent Questions: Time-In and Out of the Text 1. More instructional time spent outside the text means less time inside the text. 2. Departing from the text in classroom discussions privileges those who already have experience with the topic. 3. It is easier to talk about our experiences than to analyze the text—especially for students reluctant to engage with reading. Source:www.achievethecore.org BCOE Secondary ELA It’s about building reading muscles.
Text-Dependent Questions Can only be answered with evidence from the text. Can be literal (checking for understanding) but must also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation. Focus on word, sentence, and paragraph, as well as larger ideas, themes, or events. Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading proficiency. Can also include prompts for writing and discussion questions. www.achievethecore.org BCOE Secondary ELA
Three Types of Text-Dependent Questions When you are writing or reviewing a set of questions, consider the following three categories: Questions that assess themes and central ideas Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary Questions that assess syntax and structure www.achievethecore.org BCOE Secondary ELA
Instructional Idea from The Teaching Channel https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/structuring-questioning-in- classroom?fd=1 The Art of Questioning: Content, Meaning and Style Karine Schaefer Lesson Objective: Structure questioning based on content, meaning and style. (4:46) “How does a move from content to meaning to style allow students to better understand text?”
Creating Text-Dependent Questions 1. Identify the core understanding and key ideas of the text. 2. Start small to build confidence. 3. Target vocabulary and text structure. 4. Tackle tough sections head-on. 5. Create coherent sequences of text-dependent questions. 6. Identify the standards that are being addressed. 7. Create the culminating assessment. BCOE Secondary ELA www.achievethecore.org
Examples of TDQ Vocabulary Syntax To avoid someone means to keep away from them so you don’t have to see them and they don’t have to see you. How did the boys avoid meeting Bolivia at first? (pg. 23) Re-read the last two paragraphs on page 39. Rory had a ‘strong suspicion.’ What is suspicion? What details in the story made Rory suspicious of Bolivia? Who are the members of the wolf pack? How many members are in the pack? To answer this, pay close attention to the use of commas and semi-colons in the last paragraph on page 377. The semi-colons separate or list each member in the pack. www.achievethecore.org
Writing from Sources: Strong writers locate and deploy evidence. Language Frame to Justify with Evidence BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 CAUSE & EFFECT To open ___________ had a significant impact on _______. The major cause of _______ can be traced to ______. The critical factors which led to ______ were ______. To discuss causes and effects Due to __________, ______________. _________ contributed to _______ because ______. _________ happens when _______________. To support your ideas One cause was ___________________. A reason for _________________was ___________. To close The end result was __________________________. The findings suggest that _____________________. InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
Writing from Sources Language Frame to Justify with Evidence BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 COMPARE AND CONTRAST To open The similarities between ____ and ____ indicate ___. By comparing ______ to _____, it becomes clear that ____. A comparison of ______ to _____ reveals ___________. To compare and contrast Although _______ and ______ are ____, _____, is _______. _______ is ________, whereas _______ is _________. The most obvious difference between ____ and ___ is ____. To support your ideas One similarity/difference is ___________________. Their common characteristics include ___________. To close By comparing _______ to ______, we learn ___________. The differences between ______ and ______ are important because _____________. InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
Writing from Sources Language Frame to Justify with Evidence BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 EXPLAIN AND DESCRIBE To open _________ is best described as _____________. To define _______, it is necessary to understand _________. ________ is known for _______ and is important because _____. To explain and describe __________ is an illustration of ________________. ___________is frequently referred to as ____________. To support your ideas Critical attributes of _____ include ______ and ______. A defining characteristic is ___________________. The key components are _______ and _________. To close An explanation of ___________ provides insight into ______. A complete definition of ________ allows us to ________. InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
Writing from Sources Language Frame to Justify with Evidence BCOE Secondary ELA PROPOSITION AND SUPPORT To open In regards to ______, I believe _______________. My opinion on the issue of __________ is _____________. __________ presents the position that _____________. To state a position ___________ proves that _______________. My views are based on _________________. To support your ideas Many experts claim that _____________________. According to ________________________. Further evidence can be found in __________________. To close There is little doubt that ___________________. _________________ urges us to ____________________. InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
Assessment Task Reflection THINK-WRITE-PAIR-SHARE List 3 skills that students will need in order to be successful on this type of assessment? What 2 things can our tutors begin to do to help students transition toward CCSS and SBAC? What is 1 concern you have moving toward CCSS and the SBAC assessment system? BCOE Secondary ELA 83