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Published byBeau Wilks Modified about 1 year ago

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Shading CMSC 435/634

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RenderMan Light Displacement Surface Volume Imager

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Displacement Given – Position – Normal Compute – Position – Normal Displacement LightSurface Volume Imager

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Surface color Given – Position Compute – Color – Opacity Surface Light Displacement Volume Imager

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Lighting Given – Surface Position Compute – Light Direction – Light Color Light Surface Displacement Volume Imager

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Volume Effects Given – Position – Color Compute – New Color Volume LightSurface Displacement Imager

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Image Effects Given – Pixel Color Compute – Pixel Color Imager LightSurface Displacement Volume

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Non-real time vs. Real-time RenderMan GPU Texture/ Buffer Texture/ Buffer Vertex Geometry Fragment Application Displayed Pixels Displayed Pixels Light Displayed Pixels Displayed Pixels Application Displacement Surface Volume Imager

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RenderMan vs. GPU RenderMan – Developed from General CPU code – Seconds to hours per frame – 1000s of lines – “Unlimited” computation, texture, memory, … GPU – Developed from fixed- function hardware – Tens of frames per second – 1000s of instructions – Limited computation, texture, memory, …

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History (not real-time) Testbed [Whitted and Weimer 1981] Shade Trees [Cook 1984] Image Synthesizer [Perlin 1985] RenderMan [Hanrahan and Lawson 1990] Multi-pass RenderMan [Peercy et al. 2000] GPU acceleration [Wexler et al. 2005]

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History (real-time) Custom HW [Olano and Lastra 1998] Multi-pass standard HW [Peercy, Olano, Airey and Ungar 2000] Register combiners [NVIDIA 2000] Vertex programs [Lindholm et al. 2001] Compiling to mixed HW [Proudfoot et al. 2001] Fragment programs Standardized languages Compute

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width gap height gap brick mortar RenderMan Brick

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surface brick( uniform float width =.2, uniform float height =.1, uniform float gap =.05, color brick = color(1,0,0), color mortar = color(.5,.5,.5) ) { varying color bc; /* compute brick color */ normal Nf = faceforward(normalize(N),I) Oi = Os; Ci = Oi*bc*(ambient()+diffuse(Nf)); } Brick Shader

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Brick Color Where am I in my brick? –“ brick coordinates ” bsbt varying float bs, bt; /* compute brick coordinates */ if (bs < width && bt < height) bc = brick; else bc = mortar;

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Brick Coordinates bt = mod(t, height+gap); bs = s; if (mod((t-bt)/(height+gap), 2) == 1) bs += (width+gap)/2; bs = mod(bs, width+gap);

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16 RenderMan Shader Variables Cs, Os u, v, du, dv, s, t time, dtime P, dPdu, dPdv, dPdtime, N, Ng E, I L, Cl, Ol (In illuminance) Ci, Oi

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RenderMan Outputs Displacement – P, N – Set DisplacementBounds! Surface, Volume, Imager – Ci, Oi Light – Cl, Ol

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Shading Methods Repeating Patterns – mod, sin – Divide and floor Shapes – Implicit form: is this pixel inside Color tables Noise or computed patterns 18

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Noise Subtleties Many noise functions based on a lattice – Piecewise function between integer coordinates – Hash of integer coordinates control points Interpolating values easy but poor – Even with higher-order interpolation Perlin’s noise – Passes through 0 at each integer – Hash gives gradient

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Noise Characteristics Repeatable Locally continuous but distant points uncorrolated values – RenderMan [0,1], average 0.5 – Perlin’s [-1,1], average 0 1/2 – 1 cycle per unit Versions for 1D-4D input

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Perlin Noise in RenderMan 21 surface noisetest(float sc=1) { Ci = float noise(floor(1/t)*sc*P); }

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22 Fractional Brownian Motion (fBm) // Combine octaves, scaled by 1/f for(f=1; f<=floor(1/t); f*=2) Ci += (float noise(f*sc*P)-.5)/f; Ci +=.5;

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23 Turbulence // fBm using abs(noise) for(f=1; f<=floor(1/t); f*=2) Ci += abs(float noise(f*sc*P)-.5)/f; Ci +=.5;

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Advanced Shading Methods Perturbed patterns – Adjust position, radius, etc. with noise Bombing – Divide space into cells – Compute random position in each cell – Check if pixel is inside shape Blending – Fade effects in and out with smoothstep

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RenderMan Shader Debugging printf – Format codes for colors and points – Use conditionals to just print a few pixels! Render as color – Map intermediate values to 0-1 – Interpret results

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GPU Shading Texture/ Buffer Texture/ Buffer Vertex Geometry Fragment Application Displayed Pixels Displayed Pixels

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GPU Shading Choices OS: Windows, Mac, Linux API: DirectX, OpenGL Language: HLSL, GLSL, Cg, … Compiler: DirectX, OpenGL, Cg, ASHLI Runtime: CgFX, ASHLI, OSG (& others), sample code

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GLSL / HLSL Vertex, Geometry & Fragment/Pixel C-like, if/while/for Structs & arrays Float + small vector and matrix – Swizzle & mask (a.xyz = b.xxw) Common math & shading functions

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Vertex Demo: Blend Positions

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Vertex + Fragment Demo: Fresnel Environment Map

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Noise Controlled, repeatable randomness – Still spotty implementation – Can use texture or compute

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Modified Noise [Olano 2005] Three relatively independent modifications – New computable hash – Change gradient computation – Reorder computation Variety of computation/texture options – Can just store in a texture – Can compute with some texture accesses – Can compute with no texture accesses

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