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Supply Chain Management (SCM) Inventory management Dr. Husam Arman 18/10/20091.

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Presentation on theme: "Supply Chain Management (SCM) Inventory management Dr. Husam Arman 18/10/20091."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supply Chain Management (SCM) Inventory management Dr. Husam Arman 18/10/20091

2 Today’s Outline 2  Inventory (system): What?  Motivation for holding inventories  Characteristics of inventory systems  Types of inventory  Inventory costs  Identifying critical inventory items  The EOQ model  Overview of inventory policies  P, Q and hybrid systems

3 Inventory System 3  Inventory is the stock of any item of resource used in an organization and can include: raw materials, component parts, supplies, work-in-process and finished goods  An inventory system is the set of policies and controls that monitors levels of inventory and determines what levels should be maintained, when stock should be replenished, and how large orders should be?

4 To summarize; Purposes of Inventory 1. To maintain independence of operations. 2. To meet variation in product demand. 3. To allow flexibility in production scheduling. 4. To provide a safeguard for variation in raw material delivery time. 5. To take advantage of economic purchase- order size.

5 E(1) Independent vs. Dependent Demand Independent Demand (Demand not related to other items or the final end-product) Dependent Demand (Derived demand items for component parts, subassemblies, raw materials, etc.)

6 Types of Inventory  Cycle Inventory The portion of total inventory that varies directly with lot size (Q )  Safety Stock Inventory Surplus inventory that a company holds to protect against uncertainties in demand, lead time and supply  Anticipation Inventory Inventory used to absorb uneven rates of demand or supply  Pipeline Inventory Inventory moving from point to point in the material system

7 Characteristics of inventory systems 7  Demand  Constant Vs. Variable  Lead time  External order: time between placement of an order until arrival of goods  Internal production: amount of time required to produce a batch of items  Lead time can be deterministic or random  Replenishment  How does the order arrive? uniform over time, instantaneous batches

8 Characteristics of inventory systems 8  Review time  Continuous review: inventory level is known at all times  Periodic review: inventory level is known only discrete points in time  Excess demand  Back ordering: excess is satisfied in the future  Lost sales: excess demand is lost  Changing inventory  Inventory may change over time: limited shelf life (perishable good –food), obsolescence (e.g. automotive parts)

9 Inventory costs 9  Optimization criterion: cost minimization  Holding (carrying) cost  Cost of storage, handling, tax / insurance, breakage deterioration, obsolescence, opportunity cost of alternative investment (cost of capital) etc.  Proportional to the amount of inventory on hand  Dimension: $ per unit per year  Setup (production change-over) or ordering cost  Cost of arranging specific equipment setups or someone placing an order  Penalty (shortage or stock-out) costs  Lost sales, loss of goodwill

10 Identifying critical inventory items (ABC analysis) 10

11 Homework - 2 Q 3 page 628, demonstrate graphically

12 The EOQ Model 12  EOQ = Economic Order Quantity  Simplest, most fundamental model, basis for more complex models  Trade-off: fixed order costs and holding costs  One of the oldest and most well known inventory control techniques  Easy to use  Based on a number of assumptions!

13  Assumptions; 1.Constant demand rate 2.No constraints on lot size 3.Only relevant costs are holding and ordering/setup 4.Decisions for items are independent from other items 5.No uncertainty in lead time or supply The EOQ Model

14 14 Average cycle inventory QQ—2QQ—2

15 The EOQ Model 15

16 The EOQ Model 16 Total Annual Cost = Annual Ordering Cost Annual Holding Cost + C =Total annual cost D = Demand Q = Order quantity S = Cost of placing an order or setup cost H = Annual holding and storage cost per unit of inventory

17 Two Methods for holding cost Holding cost (H) can be expressed either: 1.As a fixed cost, such as H = $0.50 per unit per year 2.As a percentage of the item’s purchase cost (P) H = I x P I = a percentage of the purchase cost

18 The EOQ Model 18 How can we find EOQ? From above

19 The EOQ Model 19

20 The EOQ Model 20 Have a look at example 13.2, page 604

21 Overview of inventory policies 21  Two basic questions:  Q1: When should we order (or produce)?  Q2: How much?  Typical answers to Q1:  When inventory level is equal (or below) a level R  Every P time units  Typical answers to Q2:  Order or produce Q units  Order or produce such that the inventory level T  Models:  Continuous review: (R, Q)  Periodic review: (P, T, Q)

22 Continuous Review (Q) System Tracks inventory after every withdrawal – Determines if re-order (R) is necessary Fixed Order Quantity (Q) Inventory Position (IP) considers: Scheduled Receipts (SR) On-Hand Inventory (OH) Backorders (BO)

23 Periodic Review (P) fixed, P Time between orders is fixed, P changes Quantity changes to meet needs (T) Stock positions are restored on pre- determined dates to (T) Target Inventory Level (IP)(OH) When the order arrives (IP) and (OH) are identical

24 Comparison of Q and P Systems P SystemsQ Systems Idle state Demand occurs Compute IP Idle state Demand occurs Compute IP Reorder point? Review time? Compute Q needed for T Issue order; Q

25 Comparison of Q and P Systems P Systems  Convenient to administer as fixed interval  Orders may be combined  IP only required at review Q Systems  Individual review frequencies  Possible quantity discounts as fixed Q  Lower, less-expensive safety stocks

26 Q System – recording point Inv. Position = on hand inv. + scheduled receipts – backorders IP = OH + SR - BO

27 Reorder Point (ROP) ROP = d x L Where; d = demand and L = lead time d and L are certain

28 If demand and lead time is not certain we need to use Safety Stock

29 Q System- when demand and lead time are constant and certain 29

30 Q System- when demand and lead time are uncertain 30

31 Finding the safety stock using service level policy

32 If cycle service level is 85%, then probability of stock out is 15% Safety stock


34 34 Have a look at example 13.5 page 612 Finding the safety stock using service level policy

35 Q review system – total costs

36 Have a look at example 13.6 page 614

37 Visual system Two-Bin System FullEmpty Order One Bin of Inventory One-Bin System Order Enough to Refill Bin R R

38 Periodic review (P) system  We need to calculate; 1.Time between reviews, P 2.Target inventory level, T  P = EOQ / D (years)  T = d (P + L) + safety stock for protection interval Where d = demand during P + L Safety stock =

39 P System 39

40 P review system – total costs

41 Have a look at example 13.8 page 617

42 Hybrid System

43 Hybrid System: Base-stock level System  Very simple system  Issue a replenishment order with a quantity equal to the withdrawal one  This will maintain the IP at a base- stock level  Expensive items (e.g. aero engine)  Just-in-time

44 Hybrid System: Optional Replenishment System Maximum Inventory Level, M M Actual Inventory Level, I q = M - I I Q = minimum acceptable order quantity If q > Q, order q, otherwise do not order any. Do you remember the P system?

45 Inventory Accuracy and Cycle Counting Defined Inventory accuracy refers to how well the inventory records agree with physical count. Cycle Counting is a physical inventory-taking technique in which inventory is counted on a frequent basis rather than once or twice a year. (e.g. class A in particular)

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