2InventoryInventory can be visualized as stacks of money sitting on forklifts, on shelves, and in trucks and planes while in transit.For many businesses, inventory is the largest asset on the balance sheet at any given time.Inventory can be difficult to convert back into cash.It is a good idea to try to get your inventory down as far as possible.The average cost of inventory in the United States is 30 to 35 percent of its value.
3Introduction: A Balancing Act for Management Both the presence and absence of inventory contribute to value and to costs.Too much inventory is an investment that will provide no return.Too little inventory results in missed or late sales and deliveries.Carrying the correct amount of inventory is a difficult balancing act.
4Inventory Models Single-period model Used when we are making a one-time purchase of an itemSingle-period modelUsed when we want to maintain an item “in-stock,” and when we restock, a certain number of units must be orderedFixed-order quantity modelItem is ordered at certain intervals of timeFixed–time period model
5DefinitionsInventory: the stock of any item or resource used in an organizationIncludes raw materials, finished products, component parts, supplies, and work-in-processManufacturing inventory: refers to items that contribute to or become part of a firm’s productInventory system: the set of policies and controls that monitor levels of inventoryDetermines what levels should be maintained, when stock should be replenished, and how large orders should be
6Why Should Businesses Carry Inventory? Decoupling: Reducing the direct dependency of a process step on its predecessor. This could be in a process or in the supply chain.Decouple customer from supplier and machine from machineDisruptions, if decoupled, don’t have as serious of an impactDecoupling enhances reliability and response time
7Why Should Businesses Carry Inventory? DecouplingMeeting DemandEmergency Situations
8Why Should Businesses Avoid Carrying Too Much Inventory? No Financial returns - Inventory is an investment that should provide a financial return; excess inventory is an investment that provides no return.Associated costs - In addition to the cost of purchasing it, inventory also has other “carrying” costs: Cost of storage, Cost of insurance, Reduction in flexibility
9Why Should Businesses Avoid Carrying Too Much Inventory? Reduces management’s ability to make quick decisions (reduces flexibility)Less adaptability to changing market conditions
10Purposes of Inventory To maintain independence of operations To meet variation in product demandTo allow flexibility in production schedulingTo provide a safeguard for variation in raw material delivery timeTo take advantage of economic purchase order size
11Inventory Costs Costs Holding (or carrying) costs Costs for storage, handling, insurance, and so onSetup (or production change) costsCosts for arranging specific equipment setups, and so onOrdering costsCosts of placing an orderShortage costsCosts of running out
12Demand TypesIndependent demand – the demands for various items are unrelated to each otherFor example, a workstation may produce many parts that are unrelated but meet some external demand requirementDependent demand – the need for any one item is a direct result of the need for some other itemUsually a higher-level item of which it is part
13Independent vs. Dependent Demand Inventory Example:Independent demand:Kitchen table – Need 500 tables five weeks from nowDependent demand:Kitchen table legs – Need 4 per table or 2,000 legsCalculation of dependent demand (Chapter 12)
14Inventory Control Systems Continuous Review System – An inventory system used to manage independent demand inventory where the inventory level for an item is constantly monitored and when the reorder point is reached, an order is released.Periodic Review System – An inventory system that is used to manage independent demand inventory where the inventory level for an item is checked at regular intervals and restocked to some predetermined level.
15ROP ProblemFor men’s size XL Trevecca T-shirts at the bookstore, the average weekly demand is 7, with a standard deviation of 3. the replenishment lead time is 1 week. What should the re-order point be to maintain a 99% confidence (z=2.35) of satisfying the demand during the lead time?ROP = Average Demand (LT)+(z*sd)
16Continuous Review System Key features:Inventory levels are monitored constantly, and a replenishment order is issued only when the reorder point is reached.The size of a replenishment order is typically based on the trade-off between holding costs and ordering costs.The reorder point is based on both demand and supply considerations, as well as on how much safety stock managers want to hold.
17Fixed-Order Quantity Model Always order Q units when inventory reaches reorder point (R).Inventory is consumed at a constant rate, with a new order placed when the reorder point (R) is reached once again.Inventory arrives after lead time (L). Inventory is raised to maximum level (Q).
18Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) The optimal order quantity (Qopt) occurs where total costs are at their minimum
19Quantity DiscountsQuantity Discounts – Price reductions for ordering larger quantities.
20Quantity Discounts Two-step process: Calculate the EOQ. If the EOQ represents a quantity that can be purchased for the lowest price, stop – we have found the lowest cost order quantity. Otherwise, go to Step 2.Compare total holding, ordering, and item costs at the EOQ quantity with total costs at each price break above the EOQ. There is no reason to look at quantities below the EOQ, as these would result in higher holding and ordering costs, as well as higher item costs.