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ECE/CS 757: Advanced Computer Architecture II Instructor:Mikko H Lipasti Spring 2015 University of Wisconsin-Madison Lecture notes based on slides created.

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Presentation on theme: "ECE/CS 757: Advanced Computer Architecture II Instructor:Mikko H Lipasti Spring 2015 University of Wisconsin-Madison Lecture notes based on slides created."— Presentation transcript:

1 ECE/CS 757: Advanced Computer Architecture II Instructor:Mikko H Lipasti Spring 2015 University of Wisconsin-Madison Lecture notes based on slides created by John Shen, Mark Hill, David Wood, Guri Sohi, Jim Smith, Natalie Enright Jerger, Michel Dubois, Murali Annavaram, Per Stenström and probably others

2 Lecture 6 Outline UNDERSTANDING CONSISTENCY MODELS – Atomicity – Program Ordering – Visibility POPULAR CONSISTENCY MODELS – Sequential Consistency – IBM/370 – Processor Consistency – SPARC TSO/PSO/RMO – Weak Ordering – PowerPC Weak Consistency VISIBILITY MEMORY REFERENCE REORDERING 2Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

3 Basics of Memory Consistency (Ordering) How are memory references from different processors interleaved? If this is not well-specified, synchronization becomes difficult or even impossible – ISA must specify consistency model Common example using Dekker’s algorithm for synchronization – If load reordered ahead of store (as we assume for a baseline OOO CPU) – Both Proc0 and Proc1 enter critical section, since both observe that other’s lock variable (A/B) is not set If consistency model allows loads to execute ahead of stores, Dekker’s algorithm no longer works – Common ISAs allow this: IA-32, PowerPC, SPARC, Alpha 3Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

4 Sequential Consistency [Lamport 1979] Processors treated as if they are interleaved processes on a single time-shared CPU All references must fit into a total global order or interleaving that does not violate any CPU’s program order – Otherwise sequential consistency not maintained Now Dekker’s algorithm will work Appears to preclude any OOO memory references – Hence precludes any real benefit from OOO CPUs 4Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

5 High-Performance Sequential Consistency Coherent caches isolate CPUs if no sharing is occurring – Absence of coherence activity means CPU is free to reorder references Still have to order references with respect to misses and other coherence activity (snoops) Key: use speculation – Reorder references speculatively – Track which addresses were touched speculatively – Force replay (in order execution) of such references that collide with coherence activity (snoops) 5Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

6 High-Performance Sequential Consistency Load queue records all speculative loads Bus writes/upgrades are checked against LQ Any matching load gets marked for replay At commit, loads are checked and replayed if necessary – Results in machine flush, since load-dependent ops must also replay Practically, conflicts are rare, so expensive flush is OK 6Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

7 Relaxed Consistency Models Key insight: only synchronization references need to be ordered Hence, relax memory for all other references – Enable high-performance OOO implementation Require programmer to label synchronization references – Hardware must carefully order these labeled references – All other references can be performed out of order Labeling schemes: – Explicit synchronization ops (acquire/release) – Memory fence or memory barrier ops: All preceding ops must finish before following ones begin Often: fence ops cause pipeline drain in modern OOO machine 7Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

8 Why Relaxed Consistency Models? Original motivation – Allow in-order processors to overlap store latency with other work – “Other work” depends on loads, hence must let loads bypass stores and execute early: implement a store queue – This breaks sequential consistency assumption that all references are performed in program order This led to definition of processor consistency, SPARC TSO, IBM/370 – All of these relax read-to-write program order requirement Subsequent developments – It would be nice to overlap latency of one store with latency of other stores – Allow stores to be performed out of order with respect to each other – This breaks SC even further This led to definition of SPARC PSO/RMO, WO, PowerPC WC, Itanium What’s the problem with relaxed consistency? – Shared memory programs can break if not written for specific cons. model 8Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

9 Understanding Consistency Models Consistency model defines how memory references are ordered across processors/threads – Part of the instruction set architecture PowerPC, SPARC, IA-32, etc. each have their own consistency model – In some cases, more than one! The program semantics will change with consistency model – More relaxed consistency models enable more “correct” outcomes – Even strict consistency models allow multiple correct outcomes 9Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

10 Understanding Consistency Models RAW dependences to/from Proc0/Proc1 may or may not occur – Also, WAR and WAW dependences may or may not occur – Relatively simple set of rules governs which {RAW,WAR,WAW} edges are required (must be observed), which ones are not required Observing certain edges provides visibility to other processors – Hence requires us to observe (some) subsequent edges Causality: – If I observe A, and B is ordered before A, I must also observe B – Without causality, system becomes virtually impossible to program 10Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

11 Constraint graph Defined for sequential consistency by Landin et al., ISCA-18 Directed graph represents a multithreaded execution – Nodes represent dynamic instruction instances – Edges represent their transitive orders (program order, RAW, WAW, WAR). If the constraint graph is acyclic, then the execution is correct – Cycle implies A must occur before B and B must occur before A => contradiction 11Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

12 Constraint graph example - SC Proc 1 ST A Proc 2 LD A ST B LD B Program order Program order WAR RAW Cycle indicates that execution is incorrect 1. 2. 3. 4. 12Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

13 Anatomy of a cycle Proc 1 ST A Proc 2 LD A ST B LD B Program order Program order WAR RAW Incoming invalidate Cache miss 13Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

14 High-Performance Sequential Consistency Load queue records all speculative loads Bus writes/upgrades are checked against LQ Any matching load gets marked for replay At commit, loads are checked and replayed if necessary – Results in machine flush, since load-dependent ops must also replay Practically, conflicts are rare, so expensive flush is OK 14Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

15 Understanding Relaxed Consistency Three important concepts – Atomicity do writes appear at the same time to all other processors? – Program order do my references have to be ordered with respect to each other? – Visibility (causality) Does anyone care? This is the most subtle... 15Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

16 Possible Relaxations From widely cited tech report: – [Adve/Gharachorloo, “Shared Memory Consistency Models: A Tutorial”] Relaxation Relax Write to Read program order Relax Write to Write program order Relax Read to Read and Write to Write program order Read others’ write early Read own write early 16Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

17 Sequential Consistency Informally, all processors’ references are interleaved in total global order Multiple total global orders are possible and correct Order determined in somewhat arbitrary manner – On bus-based SMP, by order in which bus is acquired – On directory-based system like Origin 2000, order in which requests are acked (not order in which they arrive) All processors must maintain total order among their own references Again, key is to maintain illusion of order (visibility) 17Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

18 SC and ILP SC appears to preclude high performance, ILP (loads after stores) Can use speculation and prefetching to avoid these bottlenecks – Prefetch load data, store ownership early – as soon as address known and load/store issues in OOO core Hold off committing result until load/store has been ordered at commit – If conflicting remote event occurs before then, squash speculation – conflicting event == invalidate message for matching address If load, refetch instruction stream If store, fetch line ownership again 18Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

19 SC and ILP How to support speculation and rollback? – Simple speculation within OOO window: MIPS R10000 – Aggressive speculation: Speculative retirement [Ranganathan et al., SPAA 1997] Speculative stores [Gniady et al., ISCA 1999] – Kilo-instruction checkpointing: Safetynet [Sorin Ph.D. thesis, U. Wisconsin] Latencies growing to 100s of cycles, need potentially huge speculation buffers 19Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

20 Recent Trends Many are arguing that SC is best approach – ILP/speculation can be used to match performance of relaxed models – Adve, Falsafi, Hill all seem to be arguing this Is it really true? Conventional wisdom was that SC ordering rules must be relaxed to achieve performance Latencies relative to processor core are increasing Can massive, power-hungry speculation buffers really be justified/implemented? Reality: – All modern ISAs (ARM, Alpha, PowerPC, IA-64) have weak consistency models – Existence proof that programmers are willing to tackle the complexity Even less modern ISAs (IA-32, IBM/370) have relaxed models 20Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

21 Recent Trends Recent trend toward simple processor cores – Sun/Oracle Niagara (SPARC TSO) – Intel Atom (Intel model, TSO-like) – GPU shader cores These will not easily tolerate consistency-related stalls – Multithreading helps GPU/GPGPU vendors are sidestepping the issue – Not really supporting shared memory – However, atomic operations are supported These require a consistency model Usually assumed to be SC like – As long as atomic operations are rare, this is OK 21Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

22 Sequential Consistency No reordering allowed Writes must be atomic – Except can read own write early 22Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

23 IBM/370 Consistency Similar to IA-32 Read->Write order relaxed Writes must occur atomically (others cannot read write early) Cannot read own write early! (not true for IA-32) 23Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

24 Processor Consistency Same as IBM/370, except writes not atomic Relax read to write order Writes need not occur atomically 24Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

25 SPARC TSO One of 3 SPARC consistency models determined by MSW mode bits This is the one actually used by real programs Reads may bypass writes Writes must be atomic 25Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

26 What Breaks? When relaxing read->write program order, what breaks? – Dekker’s algorithm for mutual exclusion: initially A=B=0 – Since read of B bypasses store of A on Proc0 (and vice versa on Proc1), mutual exclusion is no longer guaranteed: Neither processor sees other’s write since reads are moved up Both processors believe they have mutually exclusive access Fix? – Programmer must insert memory barriers between store and load – Force store to complete before load is performed – If stores not atomic (in PC), memory barrier must force atomicity 26Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

27 SPARC PSO SPARC second attempt at consistency model (not used) Reads may pass writes; writes may pass writes Writes must be atomic (cannot read other’s write early) 27Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

28 What Breaks? When writes can pass writes in program order, what breaks? Producer-consumer pattern (e.g. OS control block update) – Update control block, then set flag to tell others you are done with your update – Proc1 sees store of flag before it sees store of A, and reads stale copy of A Fix? – Programmer must insert store memory barrier between two stores on Proc0 – Hardware forces st A to complete before st flag is performed 28Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

29 SPARC RMO SPARC third attempt at a relaxed consistency model Fully relaxed ordering Writes must still be atomic 29Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

30 Weak Ordering Equivalent to SPARC RMO Used by Alpha Fully relaxed ordering; writes must be atomic 30Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

31 What Breaks? When reads can pass reads, what breaks? – Similar example as when writes can pass writes – Proc1 moves up read of A and reads stale value – Usually this requires branch prediction Branch misprediction recovery won’t help! – Branch was predicted correctly; flag was set to 0 by the time Proc1 reads flag Fix? – Programmer must insert membar between two loads on Proc1 as well 31Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

32 What Else Breaks? When reads can pass reads, what else can break? – Data dependence ordering is assumed even in weaker models – Typical use: create new linked list entry, initialize it, insert it on head of list – Force update of head of list to occur last (membar) – Expect that Proc1 won’t be able to dereference head until after its been updated due to data dependence between ld R1 and ld R2 Wrong! What happens with value prediction? – Proc1 predicts value of R1, performs ld R2 with predicted R1, gets stale data – Then, it validates R1 predicted value by performing load of head and values match: no value misprediction! Yet Proc1 read stale value of A Or, network reorders updates of head and *head 32Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

33 What Else Breaks? Fix? – Programmer must insert membar between two loads on Proc1 Cannot rely on data dependence ordering of loads – PowerPC OK (fixed in ISA document, previously undefined) – Alpha requires membar (will break without it) -- expensive! Example of incomplete ISA definition due to assumptions about implementation – Assume no value prediction! Ref: [Martin et al., MICRO 2001] 33Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

34 PowerPC Weak Ordering Fully relaxed ordering Writes need not be atomic 34Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

35 What Breaks? When stores are no longer atomic, what breaks? – 3-processor example required to demonstrate transitivity: – Proc1 writes B after it sees Proc0’s write of A – Proc2 reads A after it sees Proc1’s write of B – Proc2 gets stale copy of A since write from Proc0 hasn’t arrived yet Fix? – Proc2’s read of A must be an atomic RMW operation (or ll/sc), which will force it to be ordered after Proc0’s write of A – Note that a membar at Proc1 or a membar at Proc0 do not help 35Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

36 How Do We Synchronize? With SC, synchronization can be accomplished with e.g. Dekker’s algorithm, which relies on store->load ordering With weaker models, synchronization operations need to be explicitly identified to the processor. Processor then treats synchronization operations with stricter rules – E.g. release consistency (RC) uses explicit “acquire” and “release” primitives which are strongly ordered, while standard loads and stores are weakly ordered – Acquire and release protect mutually exclusive regions (critical sections) These impose ordering fences or barriers on other memory operations, which are otherwise unordered. – Acquire: full memory barrier, all previous loads and stores ordered with respect to all subsequent loads and stores, all remote stores must be visible to subsequent loads – Release: write memory barrier, all previous stores ordered with respect to all subsequent stores (i.e. all critical section updates visible to everyone before release visible). 36Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

37 Release Consistency Acquire/Release pairs protect critical sections Without special semantics for acquire/release – load A may not see st A due to relaxed ordering Instead: – Proc0 release forces all prior writes to be visible to all other processors before lock release is visible to anyone – Furthermore, Proc1 acquire prevents subsequent reads or writes from being performed before acquire has completed In proposed RC systems, acquire and release are special instructions; – Hardware knows to treat them with stricter ordering rules – Special acquire/release instructions are not strictly necessary 37Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

38 Synchronization in Weak Models RC not actually implemented in any cache-coherent hardware – Lots of proposals for RC variants in software-based DSM (SVM) RC can be approximated in weakly consistent systems by providing two flavors of memory barrier instructions – Acquire: corresponds to full memory barrier (Alpha membar, PowerPC sync) – Release: corresponds to store memory barrier (Alpha stmembar, PPC lwsync) Memory barriers after lock acquire and before lock release achieve benefits of release consistency 38Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

39 Synchronization in Weak Models Acquire/release are programmer-annotated with appropriate membar 39Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

40 Synchronization Burden is on programmer to protect all shared accesses with locks, critical sections, and use acquire/release primitives If no acquire/release or membar instructions, then what? – Usually fall back on atomic RMW instructions (compare-and-swap) – These either have special ordering semantics, or force ordering because they do both a read and a write simultaneously – In 370/TSO/IA-32, many sync. primitives (e.g. ll/sc spin loops) work without barriers (barriers are implicit) Bottom line: can’t write correct shared-memory programs in WC systems without synchronization! – WC rules allow arbitrary delays, meaning other processors may never see your writes – Synchronization ops and memory barriers force writes to be visible to other processors 40Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

41 What About Visibility/Causality? None of these definitions clarify what is meant by visibility (i.e. ISA spec says something like “it must appear as if R->W order is maintained...”) What does this mean? – The programmer must not be able to detect that references have been reordered – Or, bounds must be set on how much “slack” each reference has – Also known as causality Construct a constraint graph: – Identify all {PO,RAW,WAR,WAW} edges that have occurred between processors (i.e. all dependences that have been observed in the past) – These are what indicate visibility or causality to another processor’s references – Then determine which (if any) prior {RAW,WAR,WAW} edge implies causality (else cycle will form) The rules for which types of PO (program order) edges are present depend on the consistency model’s relaxation of rd- >rd, wr->wr, rd->wr, etc. 41Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

42 4 Simple Steps to Understanding Causality 1.Single mem ref/CPU – Load can use any version (bind to …) – Stores? Coherence requires total order per address: A 0, A 1, A 2 P0P1P2P3 ld A 0-2 st A 1 st A 2 42Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

43 4 Simple Steps to Understanding Causality 2.Two or more mem refs to same address/CPU: Causality through coherence kicks in: two refs must interleave into global order correctly i.ld A – ld A ii.ld A – st A iii.st A – ld A iv.st A – st A Store Order A0A0 A1A1 A2A2 A3A3 CaseOK!OKNote ild A 1 ld A 2 ld A 3 ld A 1 A 2 implies A 2-3 iild A 0 ld A 2 st A 1-3 st A 1 A 2 implies A 3 iiist A 2 ld A 2-3 ld A 1 Also 1T RAW ivst A 1 st A 2 st A 2-3 st A 1 Also 1T WAW 43Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

44 4 Simple Steps to Understanding Causality 3.Two or more mem refs to diff address/CPU: Causality through consistency kicks in: two addresses are now synchronized i.ld A – ld B ii.ld A – st B iii.st A – ld B iv.st A – st B Store Order A0A0 B0B0 A1A1 B1B1 A2A2 B2B2 A3A3 B3B3 CaseOK!OKNote ild A 1 ld A 2 ld B 0-3 ld B 0 A 2 implies B 1-3 iild A 0 ld A 3 st B 0-3 st B 1 A 2 implies B 2-3 iiist A 2 ld B 1-3 ld B 0 A 2 implies B 1-3 ivst A 0 st A 3 st B 0-3 st B 0 A 3 implies B 2-3 44Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin E.g. program order st B 1 ->st A 2

45 4 Simple Steps to Understanding Causality 4.Causality extends transitively across all memory locations and all processors in the system P0P1P2Notes (assumes SC) st A 1 st B 1 ld B 1 Causal RAW st C 1 ld C 1 Causal RAW ld A ? Implies A 1 or newer ld B ? Implies B 1 or newer 45Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

46 Causality Example Assuming SC – stB -> ld B RAW edge was observed (i.e. Proc1/ld B got its value from Proc0) – SC ordering rules imply that all prior stores from Proc0 must now be visible to Proc1; Proc0/st A is upper bound on slack for ld A – Hence, Proc1/ld A must get its value from Proc0/st A How does the hardware track this? – In MIPS R10000, ld A can be reordered (issued) ahead of ld B – However, ld A is retired after ld B. Since st A/st B are performed in order at Proc0, the fact that Proc1 observed st B before retiring ld B implies it observed st A before it retires ld A. – Hence, violation is detected and ld A reissues For this to work, writes to A and B must be ordered! 46Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

47 Causality Example 2 More subtle case (Dekker’s algorithm), again assuming SC – ld B -> st B WAR edge was observed (i.e. Proc0/ld B did not get its value from Proc1/st B) – SC ordering rules imply that all prior stores from Proc0 must now be visible to Proc1; Proc0/st A is upper bound on slack for Proc1/ld A – Hence, Proc1/ld A must get its value from Proc0/st A How does the hardware track this? – In MIPS R10000, ld A can be reordered (issued) ahead of st B – However, ld A is retired after st B. Since st A/ld B are retired in order at Proc0, we know that Proc1/st B had to occur after ld B (o/wise ld B would get refetched). Hence st A will have reached Proc1 before ld A can retire – Hence, violation is detected and ld A reissues For this to work, the write to A must complete before ld B retires! 47Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

48 Causality Example 3 More subtle case, again assuming SC – st B -> st B WAW edge was observed (i.e. Proc1/st B was ordered after Proc0/st B) – SC ordering rules imply that all prior stores from Proc0 must now be visible to Proc1; Proc0/st A is upper bound on slack for ld A – Hence, Proc1/ld A must get its value from Proc0/st A How does the hardware track this? – In MIPS R10000, ld A can be reordered (issued) ahead of st B – However, Proc0/st A is retired before Proc0/st B. Since Proc1/st B occurs after Proc0/st B, and ld A retires after Proc1/st B, we know that Proc0/st A had to reach Proc1 before ld A can retire – Hence, violation is detected and ld A reissues For this to work, the writes of A and B must be ordered! 48Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

49 What About Weaker Models? Causality rules are in fact very similar, only the granularity changes In WC, upper bound on slack for a load is not the store preceding an observed RAW/WAR/WAW edge, but the store (if any) preceding the membar before the observed RAW/WAR/WAW edge preceding your latest membar. – If either membar absent, Proc0/st A is not the upper bound on slack for ld A – Would have to search backward in Proc0 to find st A prior to latest membar preceding st B – Any edges in same “epoch” (after latest membar) don’t matter until next “epoch” 49Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

50 What About Weaker Models? In 370/TSO (relaxed read-to-write), upper bound on slack for a load depends only on observed RAW edges, since WAR/WAW edges terminate in stores, and loads are allowed to bypass stores – Hence any tracking mechanism would only consider observed RAW edges Need Proc1 membar above to force ld A to see effects of st A 50Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

51 Memory Reference Reordering Can happen inside the core – OOO issue of loads Can happen outside the core – Store queue, writethru queue can reorder stores – Interconnect, routing, message/snoop queues Messages arrive or are processed out of order Correct implementation must consider both – Coherence: total order to same address – Consistency: order across addresses, atomicity What we must know: when is each store complete – No more stale copies of block exist in any cache 51Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

52 Coherence Ordering Stores to same address must have total order – Shared bus is easy: arb order or resp order – Ring is fairly easy (later) – Interconnection networks are harder (later) Loads to same address must follow program order: load-to-load order – Track younger speculative loads – Replay if remote store could change loaded value 52Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

53 Consistency Ordering Store-store order (if required) – Retire stores in order – Prefetch exclusive permission OOO for performance – In weak models, order across membars only Store-load order (if required) – Retire stores in order – Read-set tracking for speculative loads – In weak models, inhibit speculation across membars (or use membar-aware read-set tracking) Write atomicity (if required) – Don’t source dirty block until store is complete 53Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

54 Reordering Inside Core Rely on in-order commit of loads and stores Read-set tracking for load-load coherence and store- load ordering – Track speculative loads using load queue – Check “older” remote writes against load queue Or check for load-hit-younger in insulated load queue – Replay speculative loads on violation to force new value Or, value-based consistency [Cain ISCA 2004] – Replay loads in order @ commit, compare values – Seems expensive, but simple filters avoid 97% of checks No reorder, no recent miss, no recent snoop 54Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

55 Reordering Outside the Core Easy case: single shared bus – Arb or resp order determines write completion – This order immediately visible to all cores Multiple address-interleaved buses – Coherence (same address) still easy (same bus) – For consistency (diff addresses) can use implied order across buses (Q0 before Q1 before Q2 …) – Otherwise have to collect ACKs (later) 55Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

56 Ring Order Req and resp traverse ring in order – Either process snoop, then forward req/resp, or – Eager forward with trailing resp (2x traffic) Races can be resolved given ring order – Not as simple as bus order – Can use home node as ordering point; extra latency since req is not active till after resp circulates – Can make reqs immediately active: retries – Or can reorder based on ring order [Marty ‘06] Simpler form of write-string forwarding 56Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

57 Network Reordering Deterministic routing provides pt-to-pt order – Always follow same path from A to B: FIFO – Messages leave A and arrive at B in same order – Ordering point can shift to A (e.g. directory) Indirect network (e.g. tree) – May have a central ordering point (tree root) – Ordering can shift to that point General case: no guarantees – E.g. adaptive routing from A to B – Or independent address-interleaved queues (Power4) 57Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

58 Physical vs. Logical Time Physical time systems – Ordering implies placement in physical time – Easier to reason about, observe, check, trace, replay – Less concurrency exposed, worse performance Logical time systems – Ordering is only relative, not in physical time – Based on causal relationships Make sure INV from A->B stays ahead of data from A->B – Rely on ordering properties of interconnect, e.g. FIFO pt-to- pt order – Much harder to reason about, observe, check, trace, replay – Expose more concurrency, provide better performance 58Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

59 Interconnect Not Ordered How to detect write completion? Must collect ACKs for write misses, upgrades – ACK from all sharers indicates INV applied Broadcast or multicast Use directory sharing list (if it exists) – Proves no stale copies of block in the system – Can safely retire store (or membar) Physical time 59Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

60 ACK Collection Eager ACK once invalidates are ordered – Pass through ordering point (root of tree) Alphaserver GS320 – Entered in FIFO queue or FIFO network lane or bus or … – Don’t need to be applied just ordered – Must prevent subsequent reordering (FIFO) – Logical time Coarse-grained ACKs – Once per membar (IBM Power4) : physical time – VCT Coherence [Enright Jerger MICRO 2008] ACK per memory region Don’t source dirty blocks from region until ACK done Logical time 60Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

61 Ordering Recap Inside core: in-order or read-set tracking Outside core: detect write completion For coherence, enforce: – Write order to same address – Read order to same address Per consistency model, enforce: – Write-write order across addresses – Write-read order across addresses – Write atomicity What core must know: when write is complete 61Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

62 Summary – Consistency Models SC simpler for programmers to understand Relaxed consistency models originally proposed to enable high performance with in-order processors (overlap store latency) – Most modern ISAs specify WC: Alpha, PowerPC, IA-64 Many claim that much of the performance benefit of relaxed consistency can be obtained with aggressive speculation – It is unclear whether or not this is true – Power cost of speculation buffering may be too high – Trend toward simple, power-efficient cores (Intel Atom, GPU shaders) 62Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

63 Summary – Consistency Models Can meet sufficient conditions by a combination of – speculation, – bus ordering or detection of write completion, and – support for rollback Physical vs. logical time systems – Physical much easier, less concurrent – Logical time much more difficult, more concurrent 63Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin

64 Lecture 6 Summary UNDERSTANDING CONSISTENCY MODELS – Atomicity – Program Ordering – Visibility POPULAR CONSISTENCY MODELS – Sequential Consistency – IBM/370 – Processor Consistency – SPARC TSO/PSO/RMO – Weak Ordering – PowerPC Weak Consistency VISIBILITY MEMORY REFERENCE REORDERING 64Mikko Lipasti-University of Wisconsin


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