New Belgium Brewery Illustration of a transformation process
Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Define operations management and its three stages: inputs, transformation and disposition. Describe material requirements planning (MRP) and understand its use in operations management. Be familiar with the conversation process tools of operations management, including Gantt charts, PERT networks, and statistical process tools. Explain the role of quality management in the operations management process. Understand and apply the principles of kaizen, just- in-time manufacturing, and kanban.
What is Operations Management? Operations management is the process an organization uses to: Obtain the materials or ideas for the product it provides. Transform the materials or ideas into the product. Provide the final product to a user. Operations management is closely linked to: Strategic Management (Chapter 7) Planning (Chapter 5) Information Systems Management (Chapter 18)
The Operations Management Process InputsConversionOutputs Raw materials Labor Energy Knowledge Facility Capacity Process Control Goods Services Information
The Operations Management Process (cont) Three stages: 1. Acquiring inputs (the materials or ideas) 2. Controlling the conversion processes (transforming the materials or ideas into the organization’s products) 3. Delivering the output (providing the organization’s product to the user)
Planning in Operations Management Planning is the foundation of operations management Planning – the management function that assesses the management environment to set future objectives and map out activities necessary to achieve those objectives.
Strategic Planning Strategic management decisions involved in operations management: Make-buy analysis: whether to produce an item or to purchase it. Capacity: firm’s ability to produce the product during a given period. Facilities: design and location of an operations facility. Process: how a product or a service will be produced. Facilities layout design: physical arrangement that allows for efficient production
Acquiring Inputs Inputs are the supplies needed to create a product. Materials requirements planning: analyzing a design to determine the materials and parts required in the production process. Inventory: the stock of raw materials, inputs, and component parts that the firm keeps on hand. Reordering systems: the process used to help keep inventory levels more or less consistent. Fixed point reordering system Fixed interval reordering system
Inventory management MRP and reordering systems basically manage production by focusing on inventory levels MRP determines the amounts of inventories required of raw materials/components based on finished goods requirements Reordering systems use either a fixed point, e.g. two bins, order when down to one bin, or fixed interval, e.g. reorder every __ period
The Conversion Process Conversion process: the stage in which the product’s inputs are converted to the final product. An effective conversion process: Works to lower the cost of creating the product; or to Create a better product for the same cost. Key decision areas: Designing the process Monitoring the process
Designing the Process Process design begins with analyzing the general operation and identifying: Every major step. The order that the steps must take. The flow of the steps from start to finish (including their relationship to each other). The amount of time each individual step requires.
Example of Process Analysis Information 1 weekFollowing F6G. Test equipment 1 weekFollowing B, E5F. Install equipment 1 weekFollowing C4E. Install floors 1 weekFollowing C3D. Install electrical fixtures 2 weeksNone2C. Paint interior 1 weekNone1B. Order equipment 4 weeksNone1A. Get permit TimeRelation to Other StepsOrderStep
Process Design Tools Gantt Charts: provide a visual sequence of the process steps. Load Charts: type of Gantt chart based on departments or specific resources that are used in the process. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Network: tool for analyzing the conversion process.
Example of a Gantt Chart -----------Test equipment -----------Install baking equipment ------------Install floors ------------Install electrical fixtures -----------------------------Paint interior -------------------Order baking equipment ----------------------------------------------------Get permit Start 1 2 3 4 5 WEEKS
Example of a Load Chart ------------Carpenter ----------------------------------Electrician -----------------------------Painter -------------------Order department -------------------Office Staff Start 1 2 3 4 5 WEEKS
Example of a PERT Network Start Order baking equipmentInstall baking equipmentTest equipment Paint interiorInstall electrical fixtures Install floors Get permit 4 1 1 1 1 1 11 1
Facilities Layout Facilities layout - the grouping and organization of equipment and employees Product layout - where each function is performed in a fixed sequence Process layout - where each work station is relatively self-contained Fixed position layout - where remote work stations assemble components, and they are then brought to a final assembly area
Facilities Layout - examples Facilities layout – Product layout - assembly line where as automobile moves, parts or components are added (original Ford concept) Process layout - bakery where special order base cake is assembled in one “station”, then decorations, packing etc. Fixed position layout - ship building where the vessel stays in one place and everything is brought to it
Flexible Manufacturing Flexible manufacturing – techniques that help reduce the setup costs associated with the production system computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing tools make the work process more flexible
Process Monitoring Tools Statistical Process Control Acceptance Sampling Total Factor Productivity Partial Productivity
Acceptance Sampling A sample of materials or finished products from a batch is measured against a “standard” Given acceptance rate, or percent defect that is acceptable, batch is accepted or rejected
Statistical Process Control Tools Check Sheets Pareto Analysis Process Flow Analysis Cause-and- Effect Diagrams Process Capability Measures Control Charts
Disposition of the Product The end result of the operations process is the product – a good or a service. Operations management includes customer fulfillment process. Order review / release (ORR) activity: used to evaluate and track the order through the process: Creating order documentation Material checking Capacity evaluation Load leveling The order must be checked to verify it is complete.
Managing Quality Top management must make improvement in productivity a strategic objective of the firm. Top management must also be sure that managers from different areas of the firm work together to increase efficiency. A more efficient production process lowers production costs, increases profitability, may lead to lower prices, and attract new customers. W. Edwards Deming considered the father of quality management
Managing Quality (cont) The Quality Management Approach Total Quality Management (TQM) Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Efficiency Just-in-Time Systems Process Engineering
Total Quality Management (TQM) Continuous improvement of the production sequence should be one of the main objectives of operations management. Total Quality Management (TQM) – based on the belief that all of an organization’s activities need to be focused on improving its product. Four interrelated steps to quality: Plan Do Check Act
Total Quality Management (TQM) (continued) Management and TQM Correct variances in operations management by using TQM principles to find and correct their source. Employees and TQM Operations managers must be sure their employees understand what TQM means and that each worker is responsible for improving quality. Managers must also be willing to act on any suggestions or problems that employees identify. Quality circles.
Total Quality Management (TQM) (continued) Customers and TQM Operations management can focus on improving the quality gap – the difference between what customers want and what they actually get from the company. Suppliers and TQM Suppliers are seen as partners with the firm. TQM and the Production Process Operations management uses TQM techniques to focus on, and improve the production process.
Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Efficiency The Japanese process of continuous improvement in the organization’s production system from numerous small, incremental improvements in production processes. One of the main principles of kaizen is reducing waste in materials, inventory, production steps, and activities that do not add value. Three steps: Maintenance Kaizen Innovation
Just-in-Time (JIT) Systems Just-in-time (JIT) – the concept behind creating the firm’s product in the least amount of time. Close coordination between manufacturers, suppliers, and customers. The firm’s inventory of inputs are kept at the lowest level possible. Inputs arrive at the organization when, not before, they are needed.
Kanban A form of JIT system originated in Japan Uses cards to generate inventory From the Japanese word for “card” or “sign” Small batches of components to assembly line as needed
Process Reengineering Method of changing the entire production process rather than making incremental changes. The firm (including its operations management) is viewed as a complete process. Involves fundamentally rethinking and radically redesigning the entire process including: Cutting out steps that are not needed. Reducing paperwork.
Video: Digital Domains Example of operations management. In the past, production management referred to production of goods. The management of making services available, e.g. banking, advertising, were referred to as operations management.