Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Inventory Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5: Inventory Management Department of Business AdministrationFALLChapter 5: Inventory Management
2Outline: What You Will Learn . . . Define the term inventory and list the major reasons for holding inventories; and list the main requirements for effective inventory management.Discuss the nature and importance of service inventoriesDiscuss periodic and perpetual review systems.Discuss the objectives of inventory management.Describe the A-B-C approach and explain how it is useful.
3Outline: What You Will Learn . . . Describe the basic EOQ model and its assumptions and solve typical problems.Describe the economic production quantity model and solve typical problems.Describe the quantity discount model and solve typical problems.Describe reorder point models and solve typical problems.Describe situations in which the single-period model would be appropriate, and solve typical problems.
4Inventory ManagementInventory management is a core operations management activity.Good inventory management is important for the successful operation of most businesses and their supply chains.Operations, marketing, and finance have interests in good inventory management.Bad inventory management hampers operations, diminishes customer satisfaction, and increases operating costs.
5Objective of Inventory Management The basic objective of Inventory Management has traditionally been to keep inventory at desired level that will meet product demand and be cost effective.The major objective of Inventory Management (control system) is to discover and maintain the best possible level of inventory in terms of both unit of product and least possible cost.In reaching such objectives firms seek out to avoid two common pitfalls.Management tries to avoid the problem inadequate levels of inventory since too little inventory disrupts production and may results in lost sales.The existence of too many inventories increases the risk of obsolescence and create unnecessary cost levels.
6InventoryInventory is a stock or store of goods .Inventory can also be defined as a stock of materials created to satisfy to satisfy eventual demand.Inventories are idle resources of any kind that possess economic value and held for future use.Items in inventory ranges from small things such as pencils, paper clips, screws nuts and bolts to large items such as machines, trucks, construction equipment and air planes.
7InventoryInventories are present whenever the inputs and outputs of a company are not used as soon as they become available .Inventory can be thought as a final product waiting to be sold to a retail customer e.g., a new car, canned foods or drinks, and baked goods.Inventories contain not only finished goods but also raw materials, supplies, and spare parts.Some very large firms have tremendous amounts of inventory. For example general motor was reported to have as much as $ 40 mn worth of materials, parts, cars and trucks in its supply chain.The ratio of inventories to sales in manufacturing, wholesale and retail sectors is one measure that is used to determine health of an economy. Inventories may represent a significant proportion of total asset. It is worth to mention that a reduction of inventories can results in a significant increase in return on investment (ROI is profit after taxes diveded by total asset).
8InventoryInventory decisions in service organization can be especially critical. For example , hospital- being out of stock on some important supplies such as drugs imperil the well-being of a patient.Many inventory items have a limited shelf life so carring large quantities would mean having to dispose of unused, costly supplies.On-site repair services for computers, printers and fax machines also have to carefully consider which parts to bring to the site to avaid having to make extra trip to obtain parts.The major revenue for wholesale and retail business is sale of Inventory. In terms of dollar, the inventory of goods held for sale is the one of largest assets of merchandising business.
9InventoryIndependent demand – finished goods, items that are ready to be soldE.g. a computerDependent demand – components of finished productsE.g. parts such as chip and system unit that make up the computer
10Independent demand is uncertain. Dependent demand is certain. InventoryIndependent DemandAB(4)C(2)D(2)E(1)D(3)F(2)Dependent DemandIndependent demand is uncertain. Dependent demand is certain.
11Types of Inventories Raw materials & purchased parts Partially completed goods called work in progress (WIP)Finished-goods inventories (manufacturing firms) or merchandise (retail stores)Replacement parts, tools, and suppliesGoods-in-transit to warehouse or customers (pipeline inventory)
12Functions of Inventory To meet anticipated demandA customer can be a person who walks in off the street to buy a new stereo system. These inventories are referred to as anticipation stocks because they are held to satisfy expected demand.To smooth production requirementsFirms that experience seasonal patterns in demand often build up inventories during preseason period to meet overly high requirements during seasonal period. These inventories are aptly named seasonal inventories. i.e., fresh fruits and vegetables or x-mas cards or greeting cards.
13Functions of Inventory To decouple operationsFirms use inventories as buffers between successive operations to maintain continuity of production and breakdown of equipment and accidents that cause the operation to shut down temporarily.The buffers permit other operation to continue temporarily while the problem is solved.To protect against stock-outsDelayed deliveries and unexpected increase in demand rise the risk of shortages. Delays can occurs because of whether conditions, suppliers out-stocks, deliveries of wrong materials, quality problems and so on. This risk of shortage can be reduced by holding safety stocks.
14Functions of Inventory To take advantage of order cyclesTo minimize purchasing and inventory costs, firms often buy in quantities that exceed immediate requirement. This necessites storing some or all of the purchased amount later use. Similarly, it is usually economical to produce in large rather than small quantities. This inventory storage can used later with demand requirements in short-run.To help hedge against price increasesFirms will suspect that a substantial price increase is about to occur and purchase larger than normal amounts to beat the rise. The ability to store extra amount of goods also allows firms to take advantage of price discounts for larger orders
15Functions of Inventory To permit operationsThe fact that production operations take a certain amount of time that there will be some work in process including raw materials, semifinished items, unfinished items and finished goods at production site as well as goods stored in warehouse. This leads to pipeline inventories throughout a production-distrubution system.Little’s Law can be useful in quantifying pipeline inventory.Little’s Law: the average amount of inventory in a system is equal to the product of average rate at which inventory units leave the system and average time a unit is in the system.To take advantage of quantity discountsSuppliers may give price discounts for larger orders.
16Objective of Inventory Control (IC) Inaduqate control of inventories can results in both under and over stocking of items.Understocking results in missed deliveries, lost sales, dissatisfied customers and production bottle necksOverstocking results in unnecessarily ties up funds that might be more productive elsewhereObjective: To achieve satisfactory levels of customer service while keeping inventory costs within reasonable boundsLevel of customer service (right time, right quantity)Costs of ordering and carrying inventory (right place, size)Inventory turnover is the ratio of average cost of goods sold to average inventory investment (performance of IC).
17Effective Inventory Management To be effective, Management has two basic fuctions concerning inventory; 1- establishing system, 2- making decision. The following should be taken into account:A system to keep track of inventoryA reliable forecast of demandKnowledge of lead timesReasonable estimates ofHolding costsOrdering costsShortage costsA classification system for inventory items.
18Inventory Counting Systems Inventory counting system can be either periodic or perpentual:Periodic SystemPhysical count of items in inventory made at periodic intervals such as weekly, monthly etc..many small retailers use this approach. i.e., shelves, stock room etc..Perpetual Inventory System(continual system) A system that keeps track of removals from inventory continuously, thus monitoring current levels of each itemTwo-Bin System – It is very elementary system.Two containers of inventory; reorder when the first is empty. Second bin contains enough stock to satisfy expected demand.Universal Bar Code (UPC) - Bar code printed on a label that has information about the item to which it is attached. i.e., supermarkets, discount stores etc..
19Key Inventory TermsLead time: time interval between ordering and receiving the orderHolding (carrying) costs: cost to carry an item in inventory for a length of time, usually a yearOrdering costs: costs of ordering and receiving inventoryShortage costs: costs when demand exceeds supply
20ABC Classification System Classifying inventory according to some measure of importance and allocating control efforts accordingly.A more reasonable approach would be to allocate control efforts according to the relatively importance of various items in inventory.A - very importantB - mod. importantC - least importantAnnual$ valueof itemsABCHighLowPercentage of Items
21Cycle Counting A physical count of items in inventory The purpose of Cycle counting is to find out the real amount between the amount indicated by inventory records and actual quantities of inventory on handCycle counting managementHow much accuracy is needed?When should cycle counting be performed?Who should do it?
22Example-ABC approachUsing the following annual demand & unit cost and calculate annual dollar value in each raw.Having computed the annual dollar values, use the concept of ABC classification and array from highest to lowestItem NumberAnnual demandUnit CostAnnual Dollar ValueClassification81000$ 400053900700319005006915125003304150010012400300
23Example-ABC approachThe first two items have relatively high annual dollar value, so it seems reasonable to classify them as A items. The next three items appear to have moderate annual dollar values and should be classified as B items. The remainder are C items due to their relatively low annual dollar value.Item NumberAnnual demandUnit CostAnnual Dollar ValueClassification81000$ 4000 A5390070031900500 950000B 6915 915000 B12500330825000 41500100150000 C12400300120000 C
24Economic Order Quantity Models (Ford Harris, 1915) The question of how much to order is frequently determined by using an economic order quantity model (EOQ).(EOQ) models identify the optimal order quantity by minimizing the sum of certain annual cost that vary with order size. Three order size models are described here:The Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) modelThe Economic Production Quantity ModelQuantity Discount Model
25Basic Economic Order Quantity Models The basic economic order quantity model (EOQ) is the simplest of the three model. It is used to identify a fixed order size that minimize the sum of annual cost of holding inventory and ordering inventory. The unit purchase price of items in inventory is not generally included in the total cost because the unit cost is unaffected by the order size unless quantity discounts are a factor. If holding costs are specified as a percentage of unit cost, then unit cost is indirectly included in the total cost as a part of holding costs.
26Assumptions of the basic EOQ Model Only one product is involvedAnnual demand requirements are knownDemand is spread evenly throughout the year so that the demand rate is reasonably constantLead time does not varyEach order is received in a single deliveryThere are no quantity discounts
27Profile of Inventory Level Over Time The Inventory CycleProfile of Inventory Level Over TimeQuantityon handQReceiveorderPlaceLead timeReorderpointUsagerateTimeOrder size=350 units Useage rate= 50 units per day Lead time= 2 days Reorder point= 100 units
28Total Cost Annual carrying cost Annual ordering cost Total cost = + Q 2HDS+TC =Two basic inventory costs; Ordering Cost: are the basically the costs of getting the items into firm inventory, therefore these costs are the cost of replenishing inventory. Carring or holding cost: are the basically the costs incurred due to maintainance of inventories or are the costs of holding items in storage. As order size varies, one of type of cost will increase whilst the other decreases. The greater level of inventory over time, the higher the carring costs exist
29The relationship between the type of costs The Total-Cost Curve is U-ShapedAnnual CostOrdering CostsOrder Quantity (Q)QO(optimal order quantity)
30The relationship between the type of costs Carring costs are linearly related to order sizeOrdering costs are inversely and non linearly related to order sizeTotal cost curve is U-shapeThe total cost curve reaches its minimum where the carrying and ordering costs are equal.Q2HDS=
31Deriving the EOQUsing calculus, we take the derivative of the total cost function and set the derivative (slope) equal to zero and solve for Q.
32Example- EOQ modelA local distributor for a national tire company expects to sell approximately 9600 steel-belted radial tires of a certain size and tread design next year. Annual carring cost is $ 16 per tire, and ordering cost is $ 75. The distributor operates 288 days a year.(a) What is the EOQ?(b) How many times per year does the store reorder?(c) What is the length of an order cycle?(d) What is the total annual cost if the EOQ quantity is ordered?
33Example- EOQ model-Answer (a) What is the EOQ?(b) How many times per year does the store reorder?(c) What is the length of an order cycle?(d) What is the total annual cost if the EOQ quantity is order?
34Example- Optimal Quantity Piddling manufacturing assembles security monitors. It purchases 3600 black and white cathode ray tubes a year at $ 65 each. Ordering costs are $ 31, and annual carring costs are 20 percent of the purchase price.(a) Compute the optimal quantity(b) What is the carring cost?(c) What is the ordering cost?(d) Calculate the total annual cost ?
35Example- Optimal Quantity-Answer (a) Compute the optimal quantity(b) What is the carring cost?(c) What is the ordering cost?(d) Calculate the total annual cost ?
36Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) Production done in batches or lots. Even in assembly operations, portions of the work are done in batches.Capacity to produce a part exceeds the part’s usage or demand rateAs long as production continious, inventory will continue to grow.This makes sense to periodically produce such items in batches or lots instead of producing continually.Assumptions of EPQ are similar to EOQ except orders are received incrementally during production
37Economic Production Quantity Assumptions Only one item is involvedAnnual demand is knownUsage rate is constantUsage occurs continuallyProduction rate is constantLead time does not varyNo quantity discounts
38Setup Cost and Economic Run Size (quantity) In the case of EPQ, there are no ordering cost, however there are setup costs-the costs required to prepare the equipment for the job, such as cleaning, adjusting changing tools etc.Setup costs are analogous to ordering costs because they are independent of the lot or run size.The larger run size, the fewer the number of runs needed as well as the lower the annual setup cost.D/Q is the number of batches per year.DS/Q0 is setup cost.
39Example- Run sizeA toy manufacturer uses rubber wheels per year for its popular damp truck series. The firm makes its own wheels which it can produce at the rate of 800 per day. The toy trucks are assembled uniformly over the entire year. Carring cost is $ 1 per wheel a year. Setup cost for a production run of wheels is $ 45. The firm operates 240 days per year. Determine(a) Optimal run size(b) Minimum total annual cost for carring and setup(c) Cycle time for the optimal run size(d) Run time
40Example- Run size-Answer (a) Optimal run size(b) Minimum total annual cost for carring and setup(c) Cycle time for the optimal run size(d) Run time
41The Quantity Discount Model Quantity discount rate are price reductions for large orders offered to customers to induce them to buy in large quantities.As prices decrease order of quantities increase.The buyer’s goal with quantity discount rate is to select the order quantity that minimize total cost in the following equation where p is unit priceAnnualcarryingcostPurchasingTC =+Q2HDSorderingPD
42The Quantity Discount Model In the basic EOQ model, determination of order size does not involve the purchasing cost. The rationale for not including unit price is that under the assumption of no discount discounts, price per unit is the same for all order sizes.Inclusion of unit price in the total cost computation in that case would merely increase the total cost by the amount P times DA graph of total annual purchase cost versus quantity would be a horizontal line. Hence, including purchasing costs would only raise the total cost curve by the same amount (PD) at every point. In the following graph, that would not change the EOQ.
43Total Costs with PD Cost Adding Purchasing cost doesn’t change EOQ TC with PDTC without PDPDQuantityAdding Purchasing cost doesn’t change EOQ
44The Quantity Discount Model When quantity discounts are offered, there is a separate U-shaped total cost curve for each unit price. Again, including unit prices merely raises each curve by a constant amount.However, because the prices are all different, each curve is raised by a different amount.Smaller unit prices will raise a total cost curve less than large unit pricesIn the following graph, no one curve applies to the entire range of quantities and each curve applies to only a portion of the range. Hence the applicable or feasible total cost is initially on the curve with highest unit price and then drops down curve by curve at the price breaks which are the minimum quantities needed to obtain the discount.
45Total Cost with Constant Carrying Costs Comparison of TC curves for constant carrying costs and carrying costs that are a percentage of unit costs. When carrying costs are constant, all curves have their minimum points at the same quantity. When carrying costs are stated as percentage of unit price, the minimum points do not line up.TCaTCbDecreasingPriceTotal CostTCcCC a,b,cOCEOQQuantity
46Example- Discount Model The maintenance department of a large hospital uses about 816 cases of luquid cleanser annually. Ordering costs are $ 12, Carring cost are $ 4 per case a year and the new price schedule indicates that orders of less than 50 cases will cost $ 20 per case, 50 to 79 cases will cost $ 18 per case, 80 to 99 cases will cost $ 17 per cases and larger orders will cost $ 16 per case.Determine(a) the common minimum point for EOQ(b) the total cost if the feasible minimum point is on the lowest price range, that is the optimal order quantity.(c) the total cost if the feasible minimum point is in any other price range.RangePrice1 to 49$ 2050 to 791880 to 9917100 or more16
47Example- Discount Model -Answer RangePrice1 to 49$ 2050 to 791880 to 9917100 or more16(a) the common EOQ(b) total annual cost(c) total annual costTC = Carrying cost + Order cost + Purchase costThe cases can be bought at $ 18 per case because 70 falls in the range of 50 to 79 cases.
48Example 2- Discount Model Surge Electric uses 4000 toggle switches a year. Switch are priced in the following table. It costs approximately $ 30 to prepare an order and receive it, and carring costs are 40 percent of purchase price per unit on an annual basis.RangePrice1 to 449$ 0.90500 to 9990.851000 or more0.80Determine(a) the common EOQ(b) the total cost if the feasible minimum point is on the lowest price range, that is the optimal order quantity.(c) the total cost if the feasible minimum point is in any other price range.
49Example- Discount Model -Answer RangePrice1 to 449$ 0.90500 to 9990.851000 or more0.80(a) the common minimum point or EOQ(b) total annual cost(c) total annual costH= 0.40 PH= 0.40 (0.80)=0.32H= 0.40 (0.85)=0.34TC = Carrying cost + Order cost + Purchase cost
50When to Reorder with EOQ Ordering Reorder Point (ROP) – This point occurs When the quantity on hand of an item drops to a predetermined amount, the item is reordered.Safety Stock - Stock that is held in excess of expected demand due to variable demand rate and/or lead time.Service Level - Probability that demand will not exceed supply during lead time.
51Determinants of the Reorder Point The rate of demandThe lead timeDemand and/or lead time variabilityStock out risk (safety stock)If demand and lead time are both constant, the reorder point is simply defined as ROP=(d) x (LT)Where d = demand rate units per day or weekLT= lead time in days or weeks
52Example - reorderTingly takes two a day vitamins which are delivered to his home by routeman seven days after an order is called in. At what point should Tingly reorder?.Usage is 2 vitamins per dayLead time is 7 daysROP=(2) (7)= 14 vitaminsThus, Tingly should reorder when 14 vitamin tables are left.
53Safety Stock Safety stock reduces risk of stockout during lead time LTTimeExpected demandduring lead timeMaximum probable demandROPQuantitySafety stockROP= Expected demand in (LT) + safety stock
54Reorder PointThe ROP based on a normal Distribution of lead time demandROP= Expected demand in (LT) + ZαdLT Where z is the number of standard deviationαdLT is the standard deviation lead time demandROPRisk ofa stockoutService levelProbability ofno stockoutExpecteddemandSafetystockzQuantityz-scale
55Example – ROP and ZA manager of a construction supply house determined from historical records that demand for sand during lead time averages 50 tons. In addition, the manager determined that demand during lead time could be described by a normal distribution that has a mean of 50 tons and a standard deviation of 5 tons as well as the manager is willingly to accept a stockout risk of no more than 3 percent.(a) What value of Z is appropriate?(b) How much safety stock should be held?(c) What reorder point should be used?
56Answer– ROP and Z (a) What value of Z is appropriate? Expected lead time is 50 tonsα dLT=5 tonsrisk =3 percent1-0.03=0.97 from z table (lead time), z= 1.88 (page 569, table 12.3)(b) How much safety stock should be held?Safety stock = Z αdLT= (1.88) (5)= 9.40 tons(c) What reorder point should be used?ROP= Expected demand in (LT) + ZαdLT = = tonsROP= Expected demand in (LT) + ZαdLT = = tons
57Example – shortage and service lead Suppose standard deviation of lead time demand is known to be 20 units. Lead time demand is approximately normal.(a) For lead time service level of 90 percent, determine the expected number of units short for any other cycle.(b) What lead time service level would an expected shortage of 2 units imply?
58Answer – shortage and service lead (a) For lead time service level of 90 percent, determine the expected number of units short for any other cycle.αdLT= 20 unitslead time service level is 0.90 from z table (lead time), (E) z= (page 569, table 12.3)E(n) =(E)z αdL= (0.048) (20)= 0.96 or about 1 unit.or E(N) =E (n) (D/Q)(b) What lead time service level would an expected shortage of 2 units imply?E(n) = 2E(n) =(E)z αdL or (E)z = E(n) / αdL =(2)/(20)= from the table, lead time service level is percent or 87%
59Fixed-Order-Interval Model Orders are placed at fixed time intervalsOrder quantity is for next intervalSuppliers might encourage fixed intervalsMay require only periodic checks of inventory levelsRisk of stockoutFill rate – the percentage of demand filled by the stock on hand
60Fixed-Interval Benefits Tight control of inventory itemsItems from same supplier may yield savings in:OrderingPackingShipping costsMay be practical when inventories cannot be closely monitored
61Fixed-Interval Disadvantages Requires a larger safety stockIncreases carrying costCosts of periodic reviews
62Example – Amount to order Given the following information:(a) determine the amount to orderAmount to order = expected time during the production interval + safety stock - Amount on hand at reorder time
63Single Period ModelSingle period model: model for ordering of perishables and other items with limited useful livesShortage cost: generally the unrealized profits per unitExcess cost: difference between purchase cost and salvage value of items left over at the end of a period
64Single Period Model Continuous stocking levels Identifies optimal stocking levelsOptimal stocking level balances unit shortage and excess costDiscrete stocking levelsService levels are discrete rather than continuousDesired service level is equaled or exceeded
65Optimal Stocking Level Service level =CsCs + CeCs = Shortage cost per unit Ce = Excess cost per unitService LevelSoQuantityCeCsBalance point
66Example-optimal stocking level Sweet cider is delivered weekly to Cindy’s bar. Demand varies uniformly between 300 lt and 500 lt per week. Cindy pays 20 cents per liter and charges 80 percent per liter for it. Unsold cider has no salvage value and cannot be carried over into the week due to spoilage.Find the optimal stocking level and its stockout risk for that quantitywhereCe = Cost per unit- Salvage value per unit=$ = $0.20 per unitCs = Revenue per unit-Cost per unit=$0.80-$0.20=$0.60 per unit
68Example-Discrete-optimal stocking level Demand for long-stemmed red roses at a small flower shop can be approximated using a poisson distribution that has a mean of four dozen per. Profit on the roses is $ 3 per dozen. Leftover flowers are marked down and sold the next day at a loss of $2 per dozen. Assume that all marked flowers are sold.Find the optimal stocking level and its stockout risk for that quantitywhereCe = Cost per unit- Salvage value per unit=$ 2 per dozenCs = Revenue per unit-Cost per unit=$ 3 per dozen
69Answer-Discrete-optimal stocking level Ce = $ 2 per dozenCs = $ 3 per dozenService level = Cs/(Cs+Ce) = 3/(3+2)Service level = .60It is neccessary to stock 4 dozan.(D) Dozen per dayCum.Freq.0.01810.09220.23830.43340.62950.785Service Level = 60%QuantityCeCsAppendix B, Table CStockout risk = 1.00 – 0.60 = 0.40