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CHAPTER 9 Inventory Management
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-2 Learning Objectives F To determine the costs of holding inventory F To identify the costs associated with a stockout F To understand the EOQ concept
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-3 Learning Objectives F To differentiate the various inventory flow patterns F To appreciate the role of scanners in inventory control
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-4 Inventory Management F Key Terms –ABC analysis –Economic order quantity (EOQ) –Fixed order interval system –Fixed order quantity system F Key Terms –Handling costs –Insurance costs –Inventory carrying (holding) costs –Inventory shrinkage
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-5 Inventory Management F Key Terms –Marginal analysis –Obsolescence –Opportunity cost –Reorder point (ROP) –Safety stocks F Key Terms –Stockouts –Storage costs –Taxes –Vendor-managed inventory (VMI)
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-6 Inventory Management F Inventories are stocks of goods and materials that are maintained to satisfy normal demand patterns F Inventory management –Decisions drive other logistics activities –Different functional areas have different inventory objectives –Inventory costs are important to consider u Inventory turnover
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-7 Inventory Management F Inventory management (continued) –Inventory costs are important to consider u Inventory turnover: cost of goods sold divided by average inventory at cost cost of goods sold = inventory turnover average inventory $200,000 = inventory is sold 4 times per year $ 50,000 u Compare with competitors or benchmarked companies
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-8 Inventory Management F Low inventory turnover = high inventory carrying costs, little (or no) stockout costs F High inventory turnover = low inventory carrying costs, high stockout costs F Managing the tradeoff is important to maintain service levels
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-9 Inventory Classifications F Psychic stock (stimulates demand) F Cycle or base stock F Safety or buffer stock F Pipeline or in-transit stock F Speculative stock
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-10 Inventory-Related Costs F Inventory carrying (holding) costs –Obsolescence –Inventory shrinkage –Storage costs –Handling costs –Insurance costs –Taxes –Interest charges –Opportunity cost F Stockouts
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-11 Table 9-1: Determination of the Average Cost of a Stockout AlternativeLossProbabilityAverage Cost 1. Brand-loyal customer$00.00.10 $00.00 2. Switches and comes back $37.00.65 $24.05 3. Lost customer$1,200.25 300.00 Average cost of a stockout 1.00$324.05 These are hypothetical figures for illustration.
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-12 Inventory-Related Costs F Trade-offs exist between carrying and stockout costs –Marginal analysis
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-13 Table 9-2: Determination of Safety Stock Level Number of Units of Safety Stock Total Value of Safety Stock ($480 per Unit) 25% Annual Carrying Cost Carrying Cost of Incremental Safety Stock Number of Additional Orders Filled Additional Stockout Costs Avoided 10$4,800$1,200 20$6,481.00 20 9,600 2,400 1,20016 5,184.80 3014,400 3,600 1,20012 3,888.60 4019,200 4,800 1,2008 2,592.40 5024,000 6,000 1,2006 1,944.30 6028,800 7,200 1,2004 1,296.20 7033,600 8,400 1,2003 972.15
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-14 When to Order F Fixed order quantity system F Fixed order interval system F Reorder point (ROP) ROP = DD x RC under certainty ROP = (DD x RC) + SS under uncertainty Where DD = daily demand RC = length of replenishment cycle SS = safety stock
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-15 How Much to Reorder F Economic order quantity (EOQ) in dollars EOQ = √2AB/C Where EOQ = the most economic order size, in dollars A = annual usage, in dollars B = administrative costs per order of placing the order C = carrying costs of the inventory (%)
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-16 How Much to Reorder F Economic order quantity (EOQ) in units EOQ = √2DB/IC Where EOQ = the most economic order size, in units A = annual demand, in units B = administrative costs per order of placing the order C = carrying costs of the inventory (%) I = dollar value of the inventory, per unit
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-17 Figure 9-2: Determining EOQ by Use of a Graph
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-18 Table 9-3: EOQ Cost Calculations Number of orders per year Order size ($) Ordering cost ($) Carrying cost ($) Total cost (sum of ordering and carrying cost) ($) 11,000 25100125 2 500 50 100 3 333 75 33108 4 250 100 25125 5 200 125 20145
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-19 Figure 9-3: Inventory Flow Diagram
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-20 Inventory Flows F Safety stock can prevent against two problem areas –Increased rate of demand –Longer-than-normal replenishment F When fixed order quantity system like EOQ is used, time between orders may vary F When reorder point is reached, fixed order quantity is ordered
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-21 Contemporary Approaches to Managing Inventory F ABC Analysis F Just-in Time (JIT) Approach F Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI) F Inventory Tracking
© 2008 Prentice Hall 9-22 Inventory Management: Special Concerns F Defining stock-keeping units (SKUs) F Dead inventory F Deals F Substitute items F Complementary items F Informal arrangements outside the distribution channel F Repair/replacement parts F Reverse logistics
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