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Basics of MPEG Picture sizes: up to 4095 x 4095 Most algorithms are for the CCIR 601 format for video frames Y-Cb-Cr color space NTSC: 525 lines per frame.

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Presentation on theme: "Basics of MPEG Picture sizes: up to 4095 x 4095 Most algorithms are for the CCIR 601 format for video frames Y-Cb-Cr color space NTSC: 525 lines per frame."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basics of MPEG Picture sizes: up to 4095 x 4095 Most algorithms are for the CCIR 601 format for video frames Y-Cb-Cr color space NTSC: 525 lines per frame at 60 fps, 720 x 480 pixel luminance frame, 360 x 480 pixel chrominance frame PAL: 625 lines per frame at 50 fps, 720 x 576 pixel luminance frame, 360 x 576 pixel chrominance frame SIF (source input format) for digital TV Luminance resolution: 360 x 240 pixels at 30 fps or 360 x 288 pixels at 25 fps Chrominance resolution: half the luminance resolution in both dimensions

2 Detour: Motion Vectors with Subpixel Accuracy Find motion vector (u,v) with integer pixel accuracy Let the MAE be m 0 Compute the MAE at its 4-neighbor pixels (m 1.. m 4 ) Horizontal pixels Model with the function p(i)=a|i-b|+c If 2(m3 – m0) < (m4 – m0), the i coordinate is to the left of the center If (m3 – m0) > 2(m4 – m0), the i coordinate is to the right of the center Otherwise it is along the center line Similarly for the vertical direction

3 Basics of MPEG Types of pictures I (intra) frame compressed using only intraframe coding Moderate compression but faster random access P (predicted) frame Coded with motion compression using past I frames or P frames Can be used as reference pictures for additional motion compensation B (bidirectional) frame Coded by motion compensation by either past or future I or P frames D (DC) frame Limited use: encodes only DC components of intraframe coding

4 MPEG: Video Encoding The MPEG standards do not define an encoding process define syntax of the coded stream define a decoding process

5 MPEG: Video Encoding Pre processing Frame Memory + - DCT Motion Compensation Motion Estimation Frame Memory + IDCT Quantizer (Q) Regulator VLC Encoder Buffer Q -1 Output Input Predictive frame Motion vectors

6 MPEG: Video Encoding Some highlights Interframe predictive coding (P-pictures) For each macroblock the motion estimator produces the best matching macroblock The two macroblocks are subtracted and the difference is DCT coded Interframe interpolative coding (B-pictures) The motion vector estimation is performed twice The encoder forms a prediction error macroblock from either or from their average The prediction error is encoded using a block-based DCT The encoder needs to reorder pictures because B-frames always arrive late

7 MPEG: Structure of the Coded Bit-Stream Sequence layer: picture dimensions, pixel aspect ratio, picture rate, minimum buffer size, DCT quantization matrices GOP layer: will have one I picture, start with I or B picture, end with I or P picture, has closed GOP flag, timing info, user data Picture layer: temporal ref number, picture type, synchronization info, resolution, range of motion vectors Slices: position of slice in picture, quantization scale factor Macroblock: position, H and V motion vectors, which blocks are coded and transmitted GOP-1GOP-2GOP-n I B B B P B B.. Slice-1 Slice-2 … Slice-N mb-1mb-2mb-n Sequence layer GOP layer Picture layer Slice layer Macroblock layer 8x8 block

8 MPEG: Macroblock Coding A MQUANT= scale factor q Quantization matrix

9 MPEG-2 Why another standard? Support higher bit rates e.g., Mbits/s for HDTV instead of the 1.15 Mvits/s for SIF Support a larger number of applications The encoding standard should be a toolkit rather than a flat procedure Interlaced and non-interlaced frame Different color subsampling modes e.g., 4:2:2, 4:2:0, 4:4:4 Flexible quantization schemes – can be changed at picture level Scalable bit-streams Profiles and levels

10 MPEG-2: Effects of Interlacing Fields or frame pictures can be encoded Prediction Modes and Motion Compensation Frame prediction: current frame predicted from previous frame Field prediction: Top and bottom fields of reference frame predicts first field Bottom field of previous frame and top field of current frame predicts the bottom field of current frame 16 X 8 motion compensation mode A macroblock may have two of them A B picture macroblock may have four! Dual prime motion compensation Top field of current frame is predicted from two motion vectors coming from the top and bottom field of reference frame Works for P vectors

11 MPEG-2: Profiles and Levels Levels Profiles SNR 4:2:0 Spatial 4:2:0 High 4:2:0;4:2:2 Multiview 4:2:0 High Enhancement1920 X 1151/60 Lower960 X 576/ X 1151/60 Bitrate100, 80,25130, 50, 80 High-1440 Enhancement1440 X 1152/ X 1152/60 Lower720 X 576/ X 1152/60 Bitrate60, 40, 1580, 60, 20100, 40, 60 Main Enhancement720 X 576/30 Lower352 X 288/30720 X 576/30 Bitrate15, 1020, 15, 425, 10, 15 Low Enhancement352 X 288/30 Lower352 X 288/30 Bitrate4, 38, 4, 4

12 MPEG-2 Applications Digital Betacam: 90 Mbits/s video MPEG-2 Main Profile, Main Level, 4:2:0: 15 Mbits/s High Profile, High Level, 4:2:0: adequate, expensive Image quality preserved across generations of processing Multiview Profile Stereoscopic view – disparity prediction Virtual walk-throughs composed from multiple viewpoints


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