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Managing Inventory throughout the Supply Chain

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 2 Chapter Objectives Be able to: Describe the various roles of inventory, including the different types of inventory and inventory drivers. Distinguish between independent demand and dependent demand inventory. Calculate the restocking level for a periodic review system. Calculate the economic order quantity (EOQ) and reorder point (ROP) for a continuous review system. Determine the best order quantity when volume discounts are available. Calculate the target service level and target stocking point for a single- period inventory system. Describe how inventory decisions affect other areas of the supply chain. In particular, be able to describe the bullwhip effect, inventory positioning issues, and the impact of transportation, packaging, and material handling considerations.

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 3 Inventory Management Functions, forms, and drivers of inventory Inventory cost issues Tools: Economic order quantity (EOQ) Reorder point (ROP) and safety stock Dealing with quantity discounts

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 4 Types of Inventory Cycle stock Safety stock (buffer inventory) Anticipation inventory Others –Hedge inventories –Transportation inventory (pipeline) –Smoothing inventories

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 5 Four Inventory Drivers 1.Demand and Supply Uncertainties Safety stock, hedge inventory 2.Demand and Process Volume Mismatches Cycle stock 3.Demand and Capacity Mismatches Smoothing inventory 4.Demand and Supply Lead-Time Mismatches Anticipation inventory, transportation inventory

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 6 Independent Demand Demand from outside the organization Unpredictable usually forecasted Demand for tables...

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 7 Dependent Demand Tied to the production of another item Relevant mostly to manufacturers Once we decide how many tables we want to make, how many legs do we need?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 8 Two “Classic” Systems for Independent Demand Items Periodic review systems Continuous (perpetual) review systems Factors –Order quantity (Q) –Restocking level (R) –Inventory level when reviewed (I)

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 9 Restocking Levels Periodic Review Continuous Review

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 10 Periodic Review System (Orders at regular intervals) Inventory level Time 2 46

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 11 Continuous Review System (Orders when inventory drops to R) L-T Q R How is the reorder point ROP established? Inventory level Time lead time to get a new order in

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 12 Comparison of Periodic and Continuous Review Systems Periodic Review Fixed order intervals Variable order sizes Convenient to administer Orders may be combined Inventory position only required at review Continuous Review Varying order intervals Fixed order sizes (Q) Allows individual review frequencies Possible quantity discounts Lower, less-expensive safety stocks

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 13 Order Quantity Q and Average Inventory Level As the order quantity doubles so does the average inventory (= Q/2) Q1 Q2 Q2 2 Q1 2

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 14 What is the “Best” Order Size Q? Determined by: Inventory related costs –Order preparation costs and setup costs –Inventory carrying costs –Shortage and customer service costs Other considerations –Out of pocket or opportunity cost? –Fixed, variable, or some mix of the two?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 15 Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model Cost Minimizing “Q” Assumptions: Uniform and known demand rate Fixed item cost Fixed ordering cost Constant lead time

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 16 What are the Total Relevant Annual Inventory Costs? Consider: D=Total demand for the year S=Cost to place a single order H=Cost to hold one unit in inventory for a year Q=Order quantity Then: Total Cost = Annual Holding Cost + Annual Ordering Cost = [(Q/2) × H] + [(D/Q) × S] How do these costs vary as Q varies? Why isn’t item cost for the year included?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 17 Holding Cost $ Q Holding cost increases as Q increases... (Q/2)×H

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 18 Ordering Costs $ Q Ordering costs per year decrease as Q increases (why?) (Q/2)×H (D/Q)×S

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 19 Total Annual Costs and EOQ EOQ at minimum total cost

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 20 EOQ Solution When the order quantity = EOQ, the holding and setup costs are equal

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 21 Sample Problems Pam runs a mail-order business for gym equipment. Annual demand for the TricoFlexers is 16,000. The annual holding cost per unit is $2.50 and the cost to place an order is $50. What is the economic order quantity? Using the same holding and ordering costs as above, suppose demand for TricoFlexers doubles to 32,000. Does the EOQ also double? Explain what happens.

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EOQ tells us how much to order... …but when should we order? Reorder point and safety stock analysis

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 23 Safety Stock When both lead time and demand are constant, you know exactly when your reorder point is... Q L R

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 24 Safety Stock II Under these assumptions: Reorder point = total demand during the lead time between placement of the order and its receipt. ROP = d × L, where d = demand per unit time, and L = lead time in the same time units

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 25 Safety Stock III (Uncertainties) But what happens when either demand or lead time varies? Q L1L1 R L2L2

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 26 Safety Stock IV What causes this variance? Average demand during lead time

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 27 Uncertainty Drivers 1)The variability of demand 2)The variability of lead time 3)The average length of lead time 4)The desired service level 2) and 3) are determined by a company’s choice of supply chain partners

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 28 Safety Stock Additional inventory beyond amount needed to meet “average” demand during lead time Protects against uncertainties in demand or lead time Balances the costs of stockouts against the cost of holding extra inventory

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 29 Shown Graphically … Now, what is the chance of a stockout? 93% 7%

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 30 Recalculating the Reorder Point to include Safety Stock

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 31 Determining “z” z = number of standard deviations above the average demand during lead time The higher z is: The lower the risk of stocking out The higher the average inventory level What is the average inventory level when we include safety stock?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 32 Determining “z” Typical choices for z: z = 1.28 90% service level z = 1.65 95% service level z = 2.33 99% service level What do we mean by “service level”?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 33 Reorder Point + Safety Stock Formula: What happens if lead time is constant? What happens if the demand rate is constant? What happens if both are constant? If you wanted to reduce the amount of safety stock you hold, what is your best option?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 34 Problems I One of the products stocked by Sam’s Club is SamsCola. During the slow season, the demand rate is approximately 650 cases a month, which is the same as a yearly demand rate of 650×12 = 7,800 cases. During the busy season, the demand rate is approximately 1,300 cases a month, or 15,600 cases a year. The cost to place an order is $5, and the yearly holding cost for a case of SamsCola is $12.

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 35 Problems II According to the EOQ formula: How many cases of SamsCola should be ordered at a time during the slow season? How many cases of SamsCola should be ordered during the busy season?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 36 Problems III During the busy season, the store manager has decided that 98 percent of the time, he does not want to run out of SamsCola before the next order arrives. Use the following data to calculate the reorder point for SamsCola. Weekly demand during the busy season:325 cases per week Lead-time:0.5 weeks Standard deviation of weekly demand:5.25 Standard deviation of lead-time:0 (lead-time is constant) Number of standard deviations above the mean needed to provide a 98% service level (z):2.05

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 37 Quantity Discounts I What effect will quantity discounts have on EOQ? D = 1,200 units (100×12 months) H = $10 per unit per year S = $30.00 ordering cost Order SizePrice 0 - 89$35.00 90 and up$32.50 Note: When H is a cost based on a percent of the value of the item, these calculations become more complicated, but are done in the same way.

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 38 Quantity Discounts II 1. Calculate the EOQ for the non discount price: 2. If we can order this quantity AND get the lowest price, we’re done. Otherwise...

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 39 Quantity Discounts III Compare total holding, carrying, AND item cost for the year at: Each price break The first feasible EOQ quantity Do you understand why we must now look at item cost for the year?

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 40 Quantity Discounts IV Total costs at an order quantity of 85: (85/2)×$10 + (1200/85)×$30 + 1200×$35.00 = $425 + $423.53 + $42,000 = ?? Total costs at an order quantity of 90: (90/2)×$10 + (1200/90)×$30 + 1200×$32.50 = $450 + $400 + $39,000 = ??

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 41 Conclusions: When all costs are considered, it is cheaper to order 90 at a time and take the price discount. When there are volume discounts, the EOQ calculation might be infeasible or might not result in lowest total cost. If holding cost is a percentage of the item value (a common practice for more expensive items), analysis is more complex, but done the same way

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 42 Single-Period Inventory ( When safety stock is not an option) Inventory is perishable –Newspapers, periodicals –Fresh food, Christmas trees Must balance costs of –Being short = profit lost –Having excess = item cost + disposal cost – salvage value Requires a target service level that best balances shortage and excess costs

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 43 Target Service Level Sets expected shortage cost = expected excess cost Or (1–p) × C shortage = p × C excess Where p = probability of enough units to meet demand, (1–p) = probability of shortage Hence solving for p where the top equation is true provides the target service level SL T = C shortage / (C shortage + C excess )

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 44 Target Stocking Point Must know how demand is distributed –Is it roughly the same every day? –Are there different demand distributions? In all cases, develop the cumulative probability distribution for the demand levels in order of increasing demand and select demand level whose corresponding cumulative probability is nearest to the target service level.

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 45 Text Example for SL T = 65%

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 46 Inventory in the Supply Chain Bullwhip Effect –Small demand changes large order variations Inventory Positioning –Cost and value increases, flexibility decreases down the supply chain where do we hold inventory? Transportation, Packaging, Material Handling –Physical size and quantity of lot, how it is packaged, handling equipment needed,and disposal of packaging are all factors in choosing appropriate supplier and distribution process

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 47 Demand versus Order Size (Bullwhip Effect)

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Case Study in Inventory Management Northcutt Bikes: The Service Department

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 49 Supplement ABC Classification Method IDEA Companies have thousands of items to track Methods like EOQ only justifiable for most important items.

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 50 ABC Method 1.Determine annual $ usage for each item 2.Rank the items according to their annual $ usage 3.Let: Top 20% “A” items roughly 80% of total $ Middle 30% “B” items roughly 15% of total $ Bottom “50% “C” item roughly 5% of total $

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 51 ABC Analysis Example Total $ Usage = $98,500 ItemCostDemand$ Usage A1$46200$9,200 B2$4010$400 C3$56680$33,400 D4$81100$8,100 E5$2250$1,100 F6$6100$600 G7$176250$44,000 H8$6150$900 I9$1010$100 J10$1450$700

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© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall --- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2/e --- Bozarth and Handfield, ISBN: 0131791036 Chapter 14, Slide 52 Ranking by Annual $ Usage Item$ Usage Cumulative $ Usage % of Total $ UsageClass G7$44,000 44.67%A C3$33,400$77,40078.58%A A1$9,200$86,60087.92%B D4$8,100$94,70096.14%B E5$1,100$95,80097.26%B H8$900$96,70098.17%C J10$700$97,40098.88%C F6$600$98,00099.49%C B2$400$98,40099.90%C I9$100$98,500100.00%C

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