Presentation on theme: "State Support Team 3 Valley View, Ohio October 5, 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1 State Support Team 3Valley View, OhioOctober 5, 2012Early Learning Programs: A Collaborative Consultation Model for PreK ClassroomsLaurie Dinnebeil &Bill McInerneyUniversity of Toledo College of Education/ HSHSConsultants in Inclusive Early Education
2 CEC- DEC Position Statement on Inclusion “Early childhood inclusion embodies the values, policies, and practices that support the right of every infant and young child and his or her family, regardless of ability to participate in a broad range of activities and contexts of full members of families, communities, and society.” (DEC, 2009)
3 Early Childhood Inclusion means that ALL children Have full access to the general education curriculum Can participate MEANINGFULLY in ALL learning experiences Their teachers have the support they need in order to help children be successful
4 AccessYoung children with disabilities have access to a full range of activities and learning opportunities in diverse early care and education programs and other natural environments
5 ParticipationAdults find ways to help young children with disabilities participate and engage fully in a variety of activities. They promote children’s meaningful ‘belonging’ in intentional ways.
6 High Quality Preschool Process Quality emphasizes the actual experiences that occur in educational settings, such as child-teacher interactions and the types of activities in which children are engaged.Structural Quality of the program, such as teacher-child ratios, class size, qualifications and compensation of teachers and staff, and square footage.Espinosa, L. (2002). High quality preschool: Why we need it and what it looks like.
7 SupportsAdults who promote early childhood inclusion must have the support they need to help young children with disabilities. This support includes ongoing training and professional development.
8 What is Effective PD?Effective professional development (PD) occurs through individualized assistance and training.Coaching and Consultation provides this individualized assistance that is critical to supporting early childhood inclusion.In some states, a consultative itinerant model is recommended as “best practice”.
9 Basic Models of Itinerant Service Delivery ConsultationAssist educators and primary caregivers to provide specialized instruction and plan ways to address IEP goals within the course of the child’s typical day and routine activities.DirectTutor the child focused on IEP goals within the context of ongoing activities or outside of the child’s typical day. IEP-based instruction is limited to the Itinerant ECSE professional’s visit.Notes to TrainersAsk participants to share their experiences with the itinerant ECSE service delivery model. If they are itinerant teachers, what approach do they use? Direct service or consultative? What do they see as pros and cons of each approach (ask this question before showing slide).Many itinerant teachers have strong feelings (either positive or negative) about a consultative approach. Give them opportunities to voice those concerns, however, make sure that the conversation is productive and focused on helping young children succeed in general education settings.
10 Consultation: Preferred Model of Itinerant Service Delivery Project DIRECT focuses on consultation because we believe it is the BEST way to support successful early childhood inclusion. While there may be LIMITED times when a direct approach is preferred, in the overwhelming majority of cases, a consultative approach is most effective at helping children achieve positive outcomes.
11 Definition of Consultation Through a series of meetings and conversations, the consultant [itinerant ECSE professional] helps the consultee [ECE teacher or primary caregiver] through: • Systematic problem solving • Appropriate use of social influence • Professional support. In turn, the consultee helps the ‘client(s)’ [child/children] with full support and assistance from the consultant.Notes to Trainers:Emphasize key components of the definition. These will be discussed later in the training.Problem-solvingSocial influenceProfessional supportMake sure that participants understand who the consultant is (itinerant ECSE teacher), the consultee (ECE partner teacher) and client (child).
12 Definition….. continued The purpose of consultation is to address the immediate concern or goal as well as to prevent similar problems from occurring in the future (Buysse & Wesley, 2005).
13 What is Role of Consultation in Supporting Early Childhood Professionals? Effective professional development (PD) occurs through individualized assistance and training.Collaborative Consultation provides this individualized assistance that is critical to supporting early childhood inclusion.
14 Helping each other… Shares written information, There are different ways that itinerant ECSE professionals help other adults. Some include:Shares written information,Explicitly models intervention strategies, observes consultee and provides feedback to improve practiceCan you think of others?Notes to Trainers:Before showing this slide, ask participants to describe different ways that a consultant can “work with” or help a consultee (e.g., sharing written information, demonstrating strategies, providing feedback, problem-solving).
15 Elements of Effective IECSE Services Monitoring of Child ProgressAnalysis of Learning EnvironmentFeedback/Partner ProgressPrioritizing Child IEP ObjectivesTransfer of Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes & ValuesAdministrative SupportInterpersonal Communication SkillsCommunication with FamiliesSelf-Advocacy & Professional Development
16 Consultation & TRIADIC Intervention Consultation is defined as an INDIRECT intervention model in which the IECSE teacher and the PreK teacher work together to address an area of concern or common goal for change.
17 Consultation & TRIADIC Intervention In early childhood education, consultation is defined as an INDIRECT intervention model in which a consultant (Itinerant ECSE professional) and a consultee (ECE teacher or parent) work together (in a triadic service delivery model) to address an area of concern or common goal for change.
18 Definition of Consultation Through a series of meetings and conversations, the IECSE teacher helps the consultee (PreK teacher) through:Systematic problem solvingAppropriate use of social influenceProfessional support.In turn, the consultee helps the ‘client(s)’ [child/children] with full support and assistance from the IECSE teacher.Notes to Trainers:Emphasize key components of the definition. These will be discussed later in the training.Problem-solvingSocial influenceProfessional supportMake sure that participants understand who the consultant is (itinerant ECSE teacher), the consultee (ECE partner teacher) and client (child).
19 Consultation & TRIADIC Intervention “[A]n indirect, triadic service delivery model”Indirect and triadic—the focus of the work is still on meeting the needs of the child. However, the person who directly addresses those needs is the PreK teacher, not the IECSE teacher.Notes to Trainers:Make sure that participants understand the difference between “direct” and “indirect” as well as the term “triadic”. Triadic refers to three people who are involved in the intervention—in this case, the consultant, the consultee, and the client. (Dyad means two; triad means three).Jeanette McCollum was one of the first individuals to use the term “triadic intervention” when referring to the role of early interventionists who help parents interact or work with their infants or toddlers (McCollum & Yates, no date).
20 The TRIADIC ModelThe triadic service delivery model is an INDIRECT intervention model in which Itinerant ECSE professionals / RSPs support children’s development by working primarily with another teacher or parent rather than directly with the child.ChildItinerant ECSE /Related ServicesECE Teacher or Parent
21 Why use the triadic approach? Other adults spend more time with children then the IECSE teacher does. Through a triadic approach, the IECSE teacher can help the PreK teacher do what she does best—better help the child learn and reach his or her IEP goals.Many effective early childhood programs have used this model to provide high quality services to young children. For example, Head Start and Early Head Start have a rich history of incorporating a triadic model through the use of home visitors who work with parents to help them learn ways of supporting their children’s development. The Parents as Teachers program has demonstrated considerable success in supporting children’s development by teaching parents how to work with their children.Stress to participants that the quality of the adult’s interaction is critical to children’s developmental success.
22 Why use the triadic approach? A triadic model helps improve the FREQUENCY and QUALITY of IEP-based instruction that occurs between the visits of the IECSE teacher. A recent federal study indicated that very little specialized services are provided to preschoolers with disabilities by general early childhood teachers (PEELS, 2008)Notes to Trainers:Ask participants to think about a specific child with special needs with whom they work. After they’ve done that, ask them to identify specialized information or skills that teachers must have to work with that child and the degree to which the information or skills is appropriate to share with ECE partner teachers.
23 Distributed vs. Massed Instruction Instruction is most effective when opportunities to acquire and practice skills occur across the day as opposed to single points during the day (Dinnebeil & McInerney, 2011; Hemmeter, 2000; Sandall & Schwartz, 2002; Wolery, 2000; Wolery, Ault, & Doyle, 1992)Notes to Trainers:The reference citations included here provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of distributed practice.
24 Massed vs. Distributed Instruction DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Massed vs. Distributed InstructionMassed InstructionChild instructed with same materials, multiple times in single session, without a breakEXAMPLE: Identifying basic shapes for 20 minutes in one dayDistributed InstructionChild practices with same or different materials, multiple times, with breaks between instruction/ practiceEXAMPLE: Practice identifying basic shapes for 10 mins. during sessions scheduled several times per weekNEEDS TO BE PRACTICING the SAME concept/skillEven if we keep the total amount of time the same (20 min.) what’s the difference between practicing one time for 20 min. AND practicing 2 times for 10 min. each?Research on this ….+McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino24
25 Basic Principles of Massed Instruction Students are provided multiple opportunities to practice WITHIN a single learning session. These learning opportunities are provided continuously, without a break.For example, the itinerant teacher provides 20 minutes of instruction targeting children’s vocabulary development in a single session, in one day.
26 Basic Principles of Distributed Instruction Students are provided with many PLANNED learning opportunities across the day and throughout the week when the targeted skill is most likely to be required.The child’s teacher or primary caregiver plans for and provides opportunities for children to learn new vocabulary or practice using vocabulary at different times across the day or week when those words are meaningful and opportunities to use these words are in CONTEXT
27 Research on Distributed Instruction As early as the 1800s, researchers demonstrated that distributed practice supports learning significantly more than massed practice, particularly for language-based skills (Ebbinghaus, 1885/1964; Jost, 1897; Thorndike, 1912).Cepeda, Pashler, Vul, Wixted, & Rohrer (2006) suggests that the effects of distributed practice are consistent across the human life span. Babies as well as the elderly learn better when opportunities to learn are distributed across time rather than massed together.
28 Applying concepts of massed and distributed instruction to your life… The research on distributed instruction confirms what our teachers have always told us…We learn better when we study a little bit every day rather than spending hours cramming for a test! While cramming might produce short-term results, it DOES NOT result in long-term learning.
29 Importance of Distributed Instruction Since itinerant ECSE professionals have limited time with children, it is difficult to implement a distributed instruction model. However,Early childhood teachers are present all day and can provide opportunities for distributed practice across the day and during the weekBut they cannot be effective, if they do not have the knowledge and skills to do so…..
30 Consultation & Distributed Instruction Itinerant professionals should spend their time helping their ECE ‘partner’, discussing and planning for learning opportunities that will be distributed across the day and will occur during the week between itinerant visits.
31 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 Distributed Instruction Research ResultsBetter Learning with Distributed InstructionALL studies find that distributed practice results in better learning than massed practice.learned more words, more math facts, better phonics skillsin one study up to 6 times better in distributed than massed (Seabrook, Brown, & Solity, 2005 with phonics)CRAMMING works BUT only if the test is almost immediately after the practice. Not what we want - we want long-term learning.For long-term learning – ability to master and generalize – research indicates is better to distribute practice.McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino31
32 DiscussionWhat are the benefits of communicating, before itinerant services begin, the role and responsibilities of the Itinerant teacher toDirector of the ‘receiving’ preschool or child care center?Parent of the child receiving Itinerant services?ECE partner teacher/consultee?Notes to Trainers:Use these discussion questions to stimulate dialogue and help participants understand the importance of developing common expectations before itinerant services are provided.
33 Discussion…continued What are the limitations of failing to communicate the role and responsibilities of the Itinerant professional before itinerant services begin?Notes to Trainers:Use these case studies to facilitate discussion in small groups.
34 Steps in the Process Step 1: Determine functional IEP Objective Step 2: Evaluate "goodness of fit" between child and learning environment; modify learning environmentStep 3: Agree on mode and intensity of instruction for each IEP objectiveStep 4: Identify appropriate learning opportunities in daily routineStep 5: Identify appropriate teaching strategyStep 6: Identify progress monitoring strategyStep 7: Engage in coaching to transfer knowledge of strategy to general ECE teacherStep 8: Monitor use of teaching strategies in child's daily routineStep 9: Evaluate success of strategy
35 Step 1: Determine SMART IEP Objectives (Jung, 2007) The IEP team should make sure that all IEP objectives are:SpecificMeasurableAttainableRoutines-basedTied to a functional priority (and linked to district or state curriculum guidelines, where appropriate or required)
36 Examining Implementation of Embedded Intervention through Observation (EIEIO; McWilliam & Scott, 2001)Records the frequency with which individual goals are addressed during classroom routinesIf goals ARE being addressed frequently, teachers are using embedded intervention.If goals CANNOT be addressed during routines, they may not be functional.If goals CAN be addressed during routines, but are NOT, teachers may need more help planning and implementing.
37 the IEP: IDEA Requirements 1. Present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, including:How the child's disability affects the child's involvement and progress in the general education curriculum (i.e., the same curriculum as for nondisabled children), orFor preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child's participation in appropriate activities34 CFR §We have been focused on IFSP outcomes. It is also important to know the IDEA requirements for writing Individualized Education Program (IEPs). As we move through this section, please keep in mind that IEP requirements were originally written to cover school age children and have some academic language in them.There are seven major elements in the definition of the IEP.The first element of an IEP requires a statement of the child’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, including:How the child's disability affects the child's involvement and progress in the general education curriculum (i.e., the same curriculum as for nondisabled children); orFor preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child's participation in appropriate activities.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
38 the IEP: IDEA Requirements 2. Measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals:Related to the child's needs that result from the disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum, andMeet each of the child's other educational needs that result from the child's disabilityWhere required, benchmarks or short-term objectives must be included34 CFR §2. The second element is a statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals designed to:Meet the child's needs that result from the child's disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum; andMeet each of the child's other educational needs that result from the child's disability.Trainer notes: For children with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives must be included. Please note that states and local education agencies (LEAs) make these determinations.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
39 the IEP: IDEA Requirements 3. A description of how progress will be measured and when progress reports will be provided.34 CFR §The third major element includes a description of:How the child's progress toward meeting the annual goals will be measured; andWhen periodic reports on the progress the child is making toward meeting the annual goals (such as through the use of quarterly or other periodic reports, concurrent with the issuance of report cards) will be provided.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
40 the IEP: IDEA Requirements 4. A statement of:special education and related servicessupplementary aids and servicesprogram modifications and supports for school personnel34 CFR §Fourth is a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable, to be provided to the child, or on behalf of the child, and a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided to enable the child to:Advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals,Be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum,Participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities, andBe educated and participate with other children with disabilities and nondisabled children in the activities described in this section.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
41 the IEP: IDEA Requirements 5. The projected beginning service date including the anticipated frequency, location, and duration34 CFR §The fifth element is the projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of those services and modifications.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
42 the IEP: IDEA Requirements 6. An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and activities34 CFR §Sixth is an explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and in the activities.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
43 the IEP: IDEA Requirements 7. Individually appropriate accommodations necessary to measure the academic achievement and functional performance of the child on State and district-wide assessments34 CFR §And finally, seventh is a statement of any individual appropriate accommodations that are necessary to measure the academic achievement and functional performance of the child on State and district-wide assessments. If the IEP Team determines that the child must take an alternate assessment instead of a particular regular State or district-wide assessment of student achievement, a statement must be included that explains:Why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment, andWhy the particular alternate assessment selected is appropriate for the child.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
44 IEP GoalsWhat will the child need to do to be successful in learning and real life activities?Focus on:“academic” – activities of a child this age“functional”The big idea that we want to underscore for developing IEP goals is that the goals should focus on function related to real life activities that support learning.An IEP goal should answer the question “What will the child need to do to be successful in learning and real life activities?”NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
45 High-Quality, Functional IEP Goals Describe how the child will demonstrate what s/he knowsAre written in plain language and are jargon freeDescribe the child’s involvement in age-appropriate activities to address ‘academic and functional’ areasEmphasize the positiveDescribe conditions in which the child will demonstrate progressAre measurable and observableNow let’s combine what we know about IEP requirements and what we are learning about functional assessment to focus on writing high-quality functional IEP goals.High quality, functional IEP goals meet the following criteria…The GOAL describes how the child will demonstrate what s/he knows.The GOAL is written in plain language and is jargon free.The GOAL describes the child’s involvement in age-appropriate activities to address ‘academic and functional’ areas.The wording of the GOAL emphasizes the positive.The GOAL describes the conditions in which the child will demonstrate progress without naming placement.The GOAL is measurable and observable. Clear strategies and/or accommodations are included.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
46 High-Quality, Functional IEP Goals The child’s complete IEP will reveal if an IEP goal is:Achievable in one yearIncludes what the child is doing now and the family’s input and concernsIncludes special factors related to communication, assistive technology and supports specific to the child’s disability and/or English language learningAdditionally, the entire IEP document will include mandatory components:The GOAL is achievable in one year and specific timelines are noted.The IEP includes what the child is doing now and includes the family’s input and concerns.The IEP details Special Factors related to communication, assistive technology and supports specific to the child’s disability and/or English language learning.NECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
47 Authors Anne Lucas Kathi Gillaspy Mary Peters NECTAC / WRRC NECTAC / ECOMary PetersNECTACThis presentation was adapted from presentations originally created by staff from the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) and the Western Regional Resource Center (WRRC) and reviewed by staff from the South Eastern Regional Resource Center (SERRC), the Early Childhood Outcomes Center (ECO) and the Department of Defense/ Army Early Intervention Services.With contributions from Naomi Younggren, Department of Defense/Army Early Intervention; Debbie Cate, NECTAC; Megan Vinh, WRRC; Joicey Hurth, NECTAC/NERRC; Christina Kasprzak, NECTAC/ECO; and Grace Kelley, SERRCNECTAC/ECO/WRRC 2012
48 Step 2: Evaluate ”Goodness of Fit" Between child characteristics, need for support, and learning environment, and modify the environment if necessary.Conduct an analysis of the child’s learning environment using the Inclusive Classroom Profile (Soukokou, 2011)Conduct an analysis of the child’s engagement opportunities using the EIEIO (McWilliam & Casey, 2008)
49 Inclusive Classroom Profile Adaptations of space and materials or equipmentAdult involvement in peer interactionsAdults’ guidance of children’s playConflict resolutionMembershipAdult-child social- communicative interactionsSupport for Social CommunicationAdaptations of group activitiesTransitions between activitiesFeedbackPlanning and Monitoring of Children’s Individual Needs and Goals
50 Step 2…. continuedUse the results of the ICP to determine if there are environmental modifications or adaptations to make that will enhance the “goodness of fit” between the child’s needs and the learning environmentUse CARA’s Kit to identify possible environmental adaptations or modifications (Milbourne & Campbell, 2007)
51 Step 3: Agree on Mode and Intensity of Instruction for IEP Objectives The team should conduct an analysis of the child’s IEP objectives, using the MEPI model, in order to identify the spectrum of support for development and to prioritize instruction
52 Step 3 …continuedMight also consider other factors in terms of prioritizing instruction:Are there “quick wins” that could help the child be more successful?Are there particular routines or activities in which the child needs support in to be successful?Do any of the objectives address foundational or pivotal skills that affect the child’s success in other areas, or in the ‘next environment’ ?
53 What is MEPI?EIPMA system to analyze and prioritize how IEP teams and primary teachers (i.e. PreK general ed.) should focus their efforts in addressing children’s IEP objectives
54 Step 1: Determining Priority IEP Objectives DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Step 1: Determining Priority IEP ObjectivesMode and Intensity of InterventionMaturation - Biological influence and practiceEnvironment - Effect of materials, routines, expectations, etc.Peer Mediation - Structured peer interactionsIntensive - Direct intervention necessaryMcInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
55 M = MaturationIs‘target’ behavior / skill is likely to improve as a result of development and experience without significant teacher or peer involvement ?
56 Example of IEP Objective Subject to MATURATION Child will develop modified pincer grasp - may develop as a result of physical maturation and opportunities for ‘practice’ (e.g. log into centers, utensils, games, dressing tasks, etc.)• Child will improve gait – may be expected to develop with opportunities for practice (e.g. transitions between centers, outdoor activities, in-school errands, etc.)
57 E = Environmental Support Is ‘target’ behavior / skill likely to improve as a result of child having access to learning materials or intentional arrangement or expectations of the learning (or home) environment ?
58 Example of IEP Objective Subject to Environmental Expectations Child will identify printed name – expectations for children to place clothes, work, etc. in labeled cubby, select name tags for center occupancy, sit at specific location at table, select peers names in opening circle from array of names, etc.• Child will return items to appropriate locations – children expected to return items to cubby, containers, boxes, etc. with minimal prompting.
59 P = Peer Intervention / Support Is‘target’ behavior / skill likely to improve as a result of predictable or planned interactions with competent peers ?
60 Example of IEP Objective Subject to PEER MEDIATION Child will improve quality of speech –Selected peers (i.e. older and/or more developmentally mature) will be instructed by ECE teacher to withhold immediate transfer of requested item to child and ask child to ‘say it again’, etc. Peers provide opportunity for practice in delaying transfer of requested item.
61 I = Immediate / Intentional / Intensive Intervention Will‘target’ behavior / skill require IMMEDIATE intervention? Would child be expected to make reasonable progress in learning this skill/behavior without DIRECT and consistent ECE general education teacher intervention ?
62 MEPIM Skill is likely to improve as a result of maturation and experience without significant teacher or peer involvementE Skill likely to improve when the child has access to intentional arrangement of the learning environment?P Skill is likely to improve as a result of peer interactionI Needs intentional intervention to make reasonable progress in learning this behavior.
63 Example of IEP Objective Subject to Immediate / Intentional / Intensive Intervention Objectives related to developing pivotal behaviors (primary forms of movement or communication necessary to experience inclusive environment, management of disruptive or aggressive behavior, key skills related to transition to K-garten).Objectives related to key cognitive skills (i.e. comparison of items based on critical physical features that precede key early literacy skills, such as visual discrimination)
65 How Will MEPI Analysis Inform Decisions re: Instruction and Intervention ? Working with an ECE general education teacher ‘partner’ in analyzing IEP objectives with respect to mode and intensity of instruction will result in:• Improved awareness of the richness of the EC learning environment• Improved confidence and comfort of ‘partner’ teacher re: necessary supports for child attainment of IEP objectives in her classroom
66 How Will MEPI Analysis Inform Decisions re: Instruction and Intervention ?........ (cont.) • Awareness of the contribution of opportunity for practice of key skills in typical EC classroom activities on attainment of IEP objectives • Awareness of the role of classroom ‘culture’ and expectations for child function on attainment of IEP objectives • Awareness of the potential contribution of peers in supporting the development of peers who have IEPs
67 How Will MEPI Analysis Inform Decisions re: Instruction and Intervention ?........ (cont.) • Awareness of the potential effect of multiple modes of instruction and opportunities for ‘learning’ on child’s attainment of IEP objectives • Awareness of how to manage addressing multiple IEP objectives of child, or multiple children with IEPs, without relegating each IEP objective to I level of intervention
68 How Will MEPI Analysis Inform Decisions re: Instruction and Intervention ?........ (cont.) • Confidence that some IEP objectives can be addressed effectively via modes of instruction/intervention that are less intensive than direct instruction provided by a teacher • IECSE teacher awareness of ‘partner’ teacher knowledge, skills and comfort in addressing the needs of young children experiencing developmental delays
69 Step 4: Identify Learning Opportunities in Daily Routines Analyze the child’s daily routines and activities using the Curriculum Planning MatrixIdentify specific routines and activities in which teachers can embed IEP-focused interventionDecide on specific routines and activities within which to embed interventions
70 Avoid Frustration!Make sure that expectations for the PreK teacher’s embedding of instruction are reasonable and realistic—provide supports as necessary
72 A “Routines-Based” or “Activity-Based” Model for Intervention: Embedded Instruction Focuses on a child’s daily routines or activities like snack, playtime, circle time, dramatic play as a context for learning and OPPORTUNITY for EMBEDDINGTeachers give children opportunities to practice targeted IEP or IFSP goals or activities during these daily routines or activities instead of creating special instructional time.
73 Daily Routines and Activities Provide Opportunities for Learning for Young Children Play time! Blocks, dramatic play, outside play, manipulatives, art materialsReading! Reading alone or being read to individually or in groupsSinging songs! Participating in group songs or fingerplaysEating! Breakfast, snack, lunch or dinnerResting! Napping, sleeping, spending quiet time aloneTaking care of oneself! Bathroom, washing, getting dressedTransitioning! Coming to school and going home, changing activities during the dayOthers?? Are there other routines or daily activities that occupy the time of children you know?
74 How does a “routines-based” approach help young children learn? Children learn best when they’re interested and motivated.Children learn best when opportunities to learn and practice skills occur throughout the day, instead of just during one period of time.It’s difficult for busy early childhood teachers to take time out of the classroom schedule to provide special instruction to meet children’s learning needs.
75 How do we use “Routines-Based” Approach? Find good times to help children learn about and practice new skills or behaviors. Good times are times when children usually use certain skills. For example,Taking turns during a board gameUsing names of objects when playing in the housekeeping areaRequesting things during a meal
76 Using a “Routines-Based” approach: Know what children are interested in, what gets their attention or what motivates themFavorite activities…going down the slide, being read to, playing with blocksFavorite foods…apple juice, graham crackers, pizzaFavorite people…Ms. Susan, friend Tommy, next door neighbor Mr. Gray.
77 Embedded Learning Opportunities ELOs can be another way to easily monitor an adult’s implementation of an intervention strategy.Using ELOs (Horn et al., 2000) allows adults to embed child-focused intervention strategies in a child’s daily routine or schedule.
78 Exercise 3 - Embedding Opportunities for Teaching and Learning
80 What IS an Appropriate Model of Curriculum Planning in Early Childhood Education?................
81 “Top-Down” vs. “Bottom-Up” Curriculum Planning • Top-Down Model seeks to embed opportunities to address child’s IEP objectives within typical preschool activities • Bottom-Up Model seeks to create activities that address child’s IEP objectives
82 Benefits of “Top-Down” Curriculum Planning ? • Validates quality of learning environment • Reassures partner teacher that she can address IEP objectives w/in typical learning activities and routines • Reduces need to ‘change’ the curriculum to accommodate children who have IEPs. Partner teacher ‘sees’ options for addressing IEP objectives in ‘standard’ or general education curriculum • Consistent with UDL and access mandate
83 Limitations of “Bottom-Up” Curriculum Planning ? • Quality of learning environment in supporting child development may be called into question • Partner teacher may be concerned that she cannot address IEP objectives w/in typical learning activities and routines
84 Limitations of “Bottom-Up” Curriculum Planning (cont.) ? • Partner teacher may presume that she must development a parallel curriculum to accommodate children who have IEPs, in a addition to a general education curriculum. This would undermine rationale for UDL and access to general education curriculum
85 A Unified Model of Curriculum Planning and Instruction……..
86 Incidental Instruction Peer MediationDirect InstructionIEP AnalysisIncidental InstructionMatrix PlanningMonitoring of ChildProgressManagement of EnvironmentTop Down Activity Planning
87 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 Matching IEP Objectives, Gen Ed Learning Objectives and Teaching StrategiesMatching of Priority Learning Objectives with Gen Ed Curriculum Objectives Matching of Priority Learning Objectives with Teaching StrategiesDevelopment of Planning Matrix (Objectives x Activity x Teaching Strategy) with PreK Partner TeacherMcInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
88 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
89 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
90 Intervention Planning: Benefits of Matrix Model Identifies daily schedule & routinesIdentifies teaching opportunitiesSupports selection of appropriate teaching strategiesPlanning Matrices are indexed to priority IEP objectives so PreK teacher, school-based special educator, SLPs, and parents and administrators can see the link between daily schedule, daily routines and priority IEP objectivesINCIDENTAL and DIRECT instruction opportunities can be identifiedAppropriate strategies and opportunity for instruction linked with opportunitiessystematic planning includes awareness of teaching opportunities and selection of appropriate teaching strategies. Analysis of daily schedules and routines in search of ‘opportunities’ for learning/teaching is a valuable planning tool for the IECSE and her ECE partnerPlanning Matrices index IEP objectives with typical activities in the classroom environment OR with specific activities in an ‘activity’ plan (e.g.. a special learning activity created by the teacher, such as a group art activity)The matrix model that ‘references’ IEP objectives (either M, E, P or I level objectives) with classroom routines is most appropriate (see example on next slide…)
91 Step 5: Identify Appropriate Teaching Strategy Identify specific evidence-based teaching strategy to use to address IEP objective (e.g., time delay, system of least prompt, etc.)Identify ways of “setting up” learning opportunities within daily routines (e.g., placing object out of reach, use unexpected events, inadequate portions, etc.)Identify a naturally-occurring consequence(s) that will reward the desired behavior
92 Step 6: Identify Progress Monitoring Strategy (ies) Identify a data collection strategy related to the expected behavior/skillMake sure that data collection strategy will yield useful informationMake sure that data collection strategy is realistic for the PreK teacher, in a classroom settingMake sure that the PreK teacher has all of the materials needed (e.g., timer, clipboard, iPad, etc.)
93 More on Monitoring and Evaluating Child Progress
94 Monitoring Stages of Skill Acquisition DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Monitoring Stages of Skill AcquisitionMcInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
95 Monitoring Level of Assistance - Coding of Prompt Levels DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Monitoring Level of Assistance - Coding of Prompt LevelsChild’s Name: Steven L.Skill/Behavior: Steven will hold 4 “ brush(1/2” diameter) and create 6 “ stroke on paper or other art materials.PA - Hand (H) / Elbow (E) Teacher/peer supportM - Peer or teacher modelingV - Verbal prompt - peer/teacherI - Independent - No assistance* MOD - Independent with modified brush / utensilMcInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
96 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 Time SamplingMcInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
97 Step 7: Engage in Ongoing Coaching In order to transfer teaching strategy to PreK teacher:Design an Implementation Checklist that provides specific descriptions of the procedural components of the child-focused intervention strategyUse Implementation Checklist to help the PreK teacher learn to use the intervention strategy, with fidelity
98 The importance of follow through…… The success of consultation depends on the follow through of the partner.Wilkinson (2006) argues that the “consult and hope” strategy is ineffective in terms of ensuring intervention integrity.
99 Increase the odds for success By providing support BETWEEN visits
100 Adult Self-Monitoring Tools and Strategies IECSE teachers need tools to help the adults they work with implement child- focused interventions BETWEEN itinerant visits:Implementation checklistsGoal attainment scalingELO matricesSelf monitoring strategies
101 Implementation Checklists Provides a written sequence of steps or procedural components of a specific child-focused intervention strategy. Can serve as a reminder to adults of the important steps in an intervention strategy that will help adults implement interventions with fidelity.
102 Features of Effective Checklists Outlines critical procedural components of an intervention strategy (e.g., gaining child’s interest/attention before prompting a response)Uses language that is easy to understand (e.g. Substitutions for “successive approximations”?; “Contingent upon”?)
103 Steps in Using an Implementation Checklist Review the checklist with the user, making sure he or she understands all of the terms and language.Ask the user to observe you engaged in the intervention strategy, checking off the procedural components as he or she observes them. Repeat until the user can correctly identify the components.
104 Steps……. continuedAllow the user to give you performance feedback based on his or her use of the checklist.Switch roles—let the user try the intervention strategy with you providing performance feedback using the checklist.Discuss the performance feedback and repeat the process until both of you feel confident in the user’s ability to implement the intervention strategy.
105 Sources for Implementation Checklists: ocali.org
106 Step 8: Monitor Use of Teaching Strategies in Classroom Routines Identify ways to document the teacher’s use of the strategy, with fidelityMake sure monitoring method is realistic and reasonable for the teacherMake sure monitoring method will yield useful information
107 Evaluating the Success of Itinerant Consultation DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Evaluating the Success of Itinerant ConsultationJust as we need to verify that children achieve IEP objectives, we need to verify that consultants and consultees (or partners) have achieved theirobjectives through the process of consultation.McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
108 General vs. Specific Outcomes for Itinerant Consultation DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009General vs. Specific Outcomes for Itinerant ConsultationGeneral…Increase opportunities for ECE partner to practice communication skills.Specific…Provide ECE partner with at least two opportunities to initiate interactions with her peers during snack time.McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
109 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 General vs. Specific Outcomes for Itinerant ConsultationGeneral…Help Riley to remain engaged with toys and materials.Specific…During center time, help Riley play with a specific toy or material for at least 3 minutes.McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
110 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 General vs. Specific Outcomes for Itinerant ConsultationGeneral…Increase Jenni’s knowledge in regards to working with a child who has special needs.Specific…Jenni will identify four characteristics of children with Down syndrome and describe how those characteristics affect learning.McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
111 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 General vs. Specific Outcomes for Itinerant ConsultationSpecific…Pat will correctly use a system of backward chaining to help Jeremy put on his coat twice a day—once at recess and once when it’s time to go home.General…Enhance Pat’s ability to provide individualized instruction to the child with special needs.McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
112 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 General vs. Specific Outcomes for Itinerant ConsultationGeneral…Improve the quality of Parker’s learning environment.Specific…Tanisha and Erin (PreK teachers) will increase the number of materials (e.g., blocks of different sizes, shapes, and colors, signs, cars, and toy people) in the block area in order to expand opportunities for learning for Parker and the other children in the classroom.McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
113 Step 9: Evaluate Success of Teaching Strategy Conduct ongoing monitoring of child’s progress in attaining IEP objective
114 Self-Monitoring (Lee, Palmer, & Wehmeyer, 2009) Three basic steps:Goal setting: identify target or behavior that one wants to achieveSelf monitoring: actively self-observes and self-records behaviorSelf evaluation: reflecting on data recorded and modifying plan if needed.Can help adults develop new habits and facilitate transfer of training
115 Example of Self-Monitoring Chart MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday# of times I used positive reinforcement with Justin during centersCommentsGave J. 3 “High 5s” for sharing with othersGave J. 2 “thumbs up”—missed 2 other opps.No opportunity to positively reinforce Found 3 times to reinforce Justin—getting easierCenters cut short today.
116 Judging the Success of Consultation DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Judging the Success of ConsultationDid the consultation session go as planned?What does the data tell us (reflection) ?How was the learning environment changed ? What effect did it have on the child’s learning?Did the consultee acquire the knowledge and/or skills that were targeted for the session? How do you know?Was the consultee satisfied with the outcome of the session re: knowledge/skill gains? How do you know?McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
117 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
118 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
119 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 Following up …McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
120 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
121 DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009 McInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
122 ImplicationIf IECSE teachers can find ways to support PreK teachers’ use of child-focused intervention strategies during their absence, then everyone can make informed decisions concerning the efficacy of these strategies. These strategies help to ensure the fidelity of treatment that is critically needed in the field.
123 SummaryConsultation has been found to be effective at helping other adults help children improve academic performance and developmental progressHowever, the effects of consultation are enhanced when itinerant professionals provide partners with tools to use BETWEEN itinerant visits.A variety of self-monitoring strategies can be useful in helping adults implement interventions with fidelity and efficiency.
125 Progression of Consultation Partnership DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Progression of Consultation PartnershipPartnershipComfortRapport BuildingIntroductionCultivating AwarenessMcInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino125
127 Critical Components of Consultation Related components of consultationA. Problem-SolvingB. Professional SupportC. Social Influence(Buysse & Wesley, 2005)
128 Problem Solving Professional Support Social Influence IECSE & PreK teachers discuss embedding interventions into daily routinesIECSE teacher encourages PreK teacher to implement strategy during center timeIECSE teacher provides training/ coaching to help teacher learn the strategyProblem SolvingProfessional SupportSocial InfluenceLDProcess of consultation viewed as 3 interrelated tasks (Buysse & Wesley, 2005).PROBLEM SOLVING – SOCIAL INFLUENCE – PROFESSIONAL SUPPORTAssuming that teacher and consultant have already agreed upon a recommended practice and that both have agreed to participate in the change process.What would the consultant do to ENCOURAGE? What exactly does that mean?Providing information to people is usually not enough to effect change.
129 “More is Better”A collaborative consultation model can increase the ability of PreK teachers to provide specialized services to young children with disabilities throughout the day and across the week when the IECSE teacher is not present. This expands opportunity for teaching, learning AND practice of skills
130 Outcomes of Consultation Improved comfort level of other adultsEarly childhood teachers may feel less isolated and in greater control of classroom and instruction after working with consultant
131 Outcomes of Consultation Increased skills or knowledge of other teachersPreK teachers have a “bigger tool box” to use when dealing with challenging situations.The PreK teacher has increased knowledge about disabilities that helps them to become a better teacherIECSE teachers are able to provide IEP-based instruction BETWEEN visits.
132 Outcomes….. continued Children’s enhanced developmental success: Children are better able to participate in routine activities throughout the day.Children’s interactions with others (adults and peers) are improved.Children have the consistent support they need to access the general or regular education curriculumThrough the work of the consultant and consultee, children are likely to reach academic and developmental goals as identified on the IEP. With the consistent support of the child’s primary caregiver (e.g., parent or ECE teacher), children are also better able to access the general curriculum and actively participate in daily routines and activities, whether occurring at school, at home or in the community.
133 Outcomes of Consultation Changes in child’s environmentThe child’s classroom is rearranged to promote active exploration and interactionMaterials and expectations may be modified in accord with children’s skillsNotes to Trainers:Ask participants to share experiences they have had in which changes in the child’s environment resulted in improved developmental outcomes.
134 What About Challenges?A collaborative consultative approach isn’t easy (but many things that are worthwhile aren’t easy!)What are some of the challenges in adopting this approach that you can think of ?How can WE address them?
135 Key Factors in Consultation It is essential that both Itinerant ECSE professionals, their partners, and their supervisors agree on the intended outcome of the consultation processThe overall goal of consultation is to implement the child’s IEP by enhancing the skills of the ECE partner teacher or the child’s parent.Notes to Trainers:Ask participants to brainstorm possible outcomes or goals of the consultation process.
136 Other Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Consultation Time Demands (e.g. caseload, travel, planning time)Create released time (volunteers, college students, subs)Schedule consultation sessionsUse consultation logs / information exchange (e.g. listserv)Administrative SupportLetters of Introduction/Formal ‘Agreement for Services’Quality of Early Learning EnvironmentParent expectations for services in Itinerant Model
137 Factors that Affect Consultation Process continued… Administrative Support of LEA and ECE Program AdministratorsThis can be addressed, initially, through formal ‘Letters of Introduction’to Parentto Home-based Providerto ECE Partner Teacher/Consulteeto CC Administratorfrom Supervisor to CC AdministratorNotes to Trainers:If a consultative approach to itinerant ECSE service delivery is to be successful, there MUST be shared understanding of the roles and responsibilities of ALL professionals. Not only must ECE and itinerant ECSE as well as ECE program administrators (e.g., child care center directors) and ECSE supervisors understand and agree upon roles and responsibilities, but parents must also understand the importance of consultation as a legitimate way of supporting children’s development.
138 Factors that Affect Consultation Process continued… While the same kind of formal agreement may not be appropriate with a parent, there should be some kind of written information that is jointly reviewed and discussed before Itinerant services begin.Notes to Trainers:Share copies of form letters included with the curriculum materials as resources for teachers. Encourage itinerant ECSE teachers to share other materials that help increase a systems-level understanding of the importance of consultation.
139 Components of a Formal Agreement Formal Agreement should include:Description of services including emphasis on consultation modelName/contact information for immediate supervisor of Itinerant professionalName, credentials and experience of Itinerant professional
140 Components: Formal Agreement continued… Relationship between Itinerant professional and ECE partnerAddressing of child IEP requirementsAnticipated frequency and duration of scheduled visitsInteractive professional development ‘contact’ (Itinerant professional & ECE professional)
141 Components: Formal Agreement continued… Need for meetings with ECE partner teacher/consultee re: child progressPlans for communication with parents re: child progressDescription of related responsibilities of Itinerant professional
149 Project DIRECT Web Site DEC Conference - Albuquerque, N.M. October 2009Project DIRECT Web SiteWeb Site Includes:• Training Modules related to Itinerant ECSE Services• Articles and Links to Resources• Professional Development Tool (P.I.E.C.E.S.)• Information re: Training SessionsMcInerney, Dinnebeil, Hale & Spino
150 Helpful ResourcesDinnebeil, L.A., & McInerney, W. (2011). A guide to itinerant early childhood special education services. Baltimore: Paul Brookes.Dinnebeil, L.A., Spino, M., & McInerney, W. 2011). Using implementation checklists to encourage the use of child-focused intervention strategies between itinerant visits. Young Exceptional Children.Dinnebeil, L.A., Spino, M., & McInerney, W. (in review). Using goal attainment scaling to monitor the progress of young children with disabilities and the adults who work with them. DEC Monograph on Early Childhood Assessment.Grisham-Brown, J., Pretti-Frontczak, K., Hemmeter, M.L., & Ridgley, R. (2002). Teaching IEP goals and objectives in the context of classroom routines and activities. Young Exceptional Children, 6,Gomez, C.R., Wallis, S., & Baird, S. (2007). On the same page: Seeking fidelity of intervention. Young Exceptional Children, 10,Horn , E., Lieber, J., Sandall, S., Schwartz, I., & Li, S. (2000). Supporting young children's IEP goals in inclusive settings through embedded learning opportunities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20,Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure, 51,King-Sears, M. (2008). Using teacher and researcher data to evaluate the effects of self-management in an inclusive classroom. Preventing School Failure, 52,Kiresuk, T. J., Smith, A., & Cardillo, J. E. (1994). Goal attainment scaling: Applications, theory and measurement. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Raver, S. (2003). Keeping track: Using routines-based instruction and monitoring. Young Exceptional Children, 6,Roach, A., T., & Elliott, S. N. (2005). Goal attainment scaling: An effective and efficient approach to monitoring student progress. Teaching Exceptional Children, 37, 8-17.Sladeczek, I. E., Elliott, S. N., Kratochwill, T. R., Robertson-Mjaanes, S., & Stoiber, K. C. (2001). Application of goal attainment scaling to a conjoint behavioral consultation case. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 12,Suk-Hyang L., Palmer, S. B., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2009). Goal-setting and self-monitoring for students with disabilities: Practical tips and ideas for teachers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44,Wilkinson, L.A. (2006). Monitoring treatment integrity: An alternative to the “consult and hope” strategy in school-based behavioural consultation. School Psychology International, 27, 426–438.Wolery, M., Ault, M.A., & Doyle, P. (1992). Teaching students with moderate to severe disabilities: Use of response prompting strategies. New York: Longman.
152 Contact Information: Laurie Dinnebeil, Ph.D. – Bill McInerney, Ph.D. – Judith Herb College of Education, Health Science, and Human Service - MS 954 The University of Toledo 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606