1SWENG 505 Lecture 6: HR Management Dr. Phil Laplante, PE
2Today’s topics The human element Human metrics Dealing with difficult peopleTypical management approachesSelf-masterySummary adviceReferences
3The human element Often neglected aspect of project management. People are not “widgets.”You manage things and lead people.If the number of members of the project team is n, there are n(n-1)/2 interpersonal interactions, any of which can go sour.
5The human element – skills needed Team buildingNegotiation techniquesUnderstanding of psychology/group dynamicsMotivational techniquesCommunications skills (especially listening)
6Human metricsPersonality typesHow to use human metrics
7Myers-BriggsAccording to Jung's typology all people can be classified using three criteria. Extroversion - Introversion Sensing - Intuition Thinking – FeelingIsabel Briggs-Myers added fourth criterion: Judging - Perceiving
8Extrovert or Introvert Where, primarily, do you prefer to direct your energy?If you prefer to direct your energy to deal with people, things, situations, or "the outer world", then your preference is for Extraversion. This is denoted by the letter "E".If you prefer to direct your energy to deal with ideas, information, explanations or beliefs, or "the inner world", then your preference is for Introversion. This is denoted by the letter "I".
9Sensing or iNtuitive How do you prefer to process information? If you prefer to deal with facts, what you know, to have clarity, or to describe what you see, then your preference is for Sensing. This is denoted by the letter "S".If you prefer to deal with ideas, look into the unknown, to generate new possibilities or to anticipate what isn't obvious, then your preference is for Intuition. This is denoted by the letter "N" (the letter I has already been used for Introversion).
10Thinking or Feeling How do you prefer to make decisions? If you prefer to decide on the basis of objective logic, using an analytic and detached approach, then your preference is for Thinking. This is denoted by the letter "T".If you prefer to decide using values and/or personal beliefs, on the basis of what you believe is important or what you or others care about, then your preference is for Feeling. This is denoted by the letter "F".
11Judging or Perceiving How do you prefer to organize your life? If you prefer your life to be planned, stable and organized then your preference is for Judging (not to be confused with 'Judgmental', which is quite different). This is denoted by the letter "J".If you prefer to go with the flow, to maintain flexibility and respond to things as they arise, then your preference is for Perception. This is denoted by the letter "P".
12Myers-Briggs This yields 16 personality types Compatibility between themSome companies hires based on this.
15How to use human metrics Understanding peopleOrganizing teamsHiring and corporate cultural alignmentUnderstanding yourself
16Dealing with difficult people Hostile aggressivesSherman tanksSnipersExplodersIndecisivesWhinersNegativistsClamsBulldozersSuperagreeablesSource: Robert Bramson, Coping with Difficult People, Dell Paper Backs 1988.
17Hostile aggressives Sherman tanks Snipers Exploders These are bullies : stand up to themSnipersThey like to hurl sarcasm from the bushes : call them outExplodersThey explode when they don’t get their way : engage them in problem solving
18Indecisives They can’t make up their mind and won’t make a decision. Find out the real thing that is bothering them and prevent them from making the decision.
19Whiners They will complain about everything Don’t apologize to them. Actively listen to them and acknowledge their complaints, without agreeing with them.Try to engage them in problem solving by asking them to put their complaints in writing with specific details.
20Negativists These are wet blanket individuals. They complain, usually, because they perceive that they have no power.Stay positive and realistic with them.
21ClamsThese personalities tend to provide no reaction at all to situations even direct questions to them.They are very hard to deal with.The solution is try to elicit a response from them by asking a specific question like “what is your response to my statement?” or “what do you think about the situation?”Then go into a silent, friendly stare of your own, allowing the dead time to encourage the clam to respond.If they still don’t respond, provide a response that indicates you are unhappy with direct consequences.
22Bulldozers Expert know-it-alls Take their analysis to the extreme and show them that their fears are unfounded.In essence have them extend their ideas.Often they will discover that their fears are ridiculous or they will find another solution to the problem.
23SuperagreeablesThey dismiss people with patronizing agreeability, but at the end of the day, they are just as unhelpful as an indecisive.Like the indecisive, hold them accountableGive them deadlines.Get them to tell you what is really on their mind and preventing them from making the decision… “I know you like the idea, but was is missing…”
24Fatal Attractions What are they? Five common types of “fatal attractions”Seven stages of fatal attractions“Unhooking” from fatal attractions“Working with You is Killing Me,” Katherine Crowley and Kathi Elster, Harper Collins, 2006.
25What are Fatal Attractions? Involve persons who initially fulfill some need, then turn destructiveHappen because they are initially exhilaratingCan consume endless time, physical, and emotional energyRequire advanced “unhooking”
26Five Common “Fatal Attractions” Exploder – starts out as dynamic, subject to fits of rageEmpty pit – appears to be worthy person in need of help – really wants attention, not helpSaboteur – flatters you to infiltrate your network or destroy youPedestal smasher – builds you up, then expects miracles from youChip on the shoulder – people who are constantly being wronged by others
27Seven Stages* Magnetism/honeymoon Consumption – time and thinking Rehearsal and recovery (pre- and post-meeting obsession)Conversion obsessionPost interaction heartburn (battle fatigue)Allergic reaction (autonomic physical response to other person)Imprisonment (you look like a POW)*May occur in any order, some or all , and may cycle through one or more times.
28Unhooking Detect – identify the problem and problem type Detach – separate emotionallyDepersonalize – you are not the first person to deal with this fatal attractionDeal – strategy for dealing with the situation – the other person is not going to change
29Dealing with difficult people : general advice Don’t form an opinion too soonListen to all sides of the storyFocus on issues not peopleSet or clarify expectationsAssume the best in people - even the best people fail in bad systems
30Some management approaches Theory XTheory YTheory WTheory ZManagement by sight
31Theory X Authoritative management The average human has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid itMost people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatenedMost people prefer to be directed
32Theory Y Work is as natural as play External control and threats are not the only means for achieving organizational goalsCommitment is a function of requirementsMost humans seek responsibility
33Theory W Developed by Boehm and Ross Establish a set of win-win preconditionsStructure a win-win software processStructure a win-win software product
34Establish a set of win-win preconditions Understand how people want to winEstablish reasonable expectationsMatch people’s tasks to their win conditionsProvide a supportive environment
35Structure a win-win software process Establish a realistic process planUse the plan to control the projectIdentify and manage your win-lose or lose-lose risksKeep people involved
36Structure a win-win software product Match product to users’ and maintainers’ win conditions
37Win-win negotiating Understand people’s expectations Set the ground rules up frontLook for early successesBe sure to give a littleConclude negotiating only when all parties are satisfied
38Theory ZDeveloped by Ouchi based on Japanese Philosophy of lifetime employmentSlow evaluation and promotionNon-specific career pathsImplicit control mechanismsCollective decision-making and responsibilityCareer paths that emphasize cross-training
39Management by sight People-oriented approach Also called management by walking aroundMeans just what it says
40Managing agile teams Agile Manifesto Some agile (lightweight) methodologiesExtreme ProgrammingManaging agile teams
41Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum, Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin Fowler, James Grenning Jim Highsmith, Andrew Hunt, Ron Jeffries, Jon Kern, Brian Marick, Robert C. Martin, Steve Mellor, Ken Schwaber, Jeff Sutherland, Dave ThomasAgile ManifestoWe are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a planThat is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
42Principles Behind the gile Manifesto Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.Ref:
43Principles Behind the Agile Manifesto Working software is the primary measure of progress.Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential.The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.Ref:
44Agile methodologiesAdaptive programming -- offers a series of frameworks to apply adaptive principles and encourage collaboration.Agile Programming -- is divided into four activities: planning, designing, coding, and testing, all performed iteratively.Crystal -- empowers the development team to define the development process and refine it in subsequent iterations until it is stable.Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) -- conceived as a methodology for rapid application development. Relies on a set of principles that include empowered teams, frequent deliverables, incremental development and integrated testing.
45Agile methodologiesExtreme Programming (XP) -- is based on twelve practices (discussed later). Perhaps, the most prescriptive of the agile methodologies.Feature-Driven Development -- a model-driven, short-iteration methodology built around the feature, a unit of work that has meaning for the client and developer and is small enough to be completed quickly.Scrum -- based on the empirical process control model, the name is a reference to the point in a rugby match where the opposing teams line up in a tight and contentious formation. Relies on self-directed teams and dispenses with much advanced planning, task definition and management reporting.
47Managing agile teamsThe agile manifesto has built-in advice for managers.On the surface, managing agile teams is fun.But agile methods require much more autonomy than many managers are willing to give.Not everyone fits the agile methodology.Agile methodologies don’t work in every environment or with every project.
48The seven habits of highly effective people (Covey) Be proactiveBegin with the end in mindPut first things firstThink win-winSeek first to understand, then to be understoodSynergizeSharpen the sawSelf-masteryRemember the only person that you can effectively change is yourself.People will respond positively to you if you are forthright, reliable, consistent, and hard-working.Maintain a healthy life balance to reduce your stress level.
49Principle Centered Leadership Developed by Stephen CoveySimilar to theory WBased on “inside-out” leadership
50Principle Centered Leadership Principles are more important than values.“You reap what you sow.”Manage things and lead people.Manage people and projects with the approach of farming and not cramming for exams.There are no quick fixes.
51The Law of the Harvest You reap what you sow. There are no quick fixes.You can ‘cram’ for an exam and succeed, butYou CAN’T forget to plant in spring and hope to harvest in the fall.Life is governed by natural laws that cannot be short-circuited.
52Leadership from the inside out An atmosphere of trust creates the basis for a managerial style of empowering others to unleash their potentialWe must be trustworthy before we can achieve trustPERSONALTrustworthinessORGANIZATIONALalignmentMANAGERIALEmpowermentINTERPERSONALTrustThe 3 levels of personal, interpersonal and managerial relationships form the necessary conditions for harmonizing the organization’s shared mission and values with its strategy, structures and systems.
53Principles into Practice Three Factors determine a leader’s effectiveness:Pathfinding – creating an exciting visionEmpowerment – teaching people to become relatively independent and part of interdependent, self-managing teamsTeam building – involving people in activities that improve the team’s productivity and cooperation.
54Pathfinding A worthy end cannot come from unworthy means Five questions to ask in creating an inspiring mission statement:Does it have both means and ends?Does it deal with all stakeholders?Does it deal with all 4 needs: economic, social, psychological, and spiritual?Does the mission statement come from the core of the organization?Is it used as a constitution?
55EmpowermentEmpowerment cannot come without first establishing trust. From trust we can establish win-win performance agreements.Desired Results – specify desired results, don’t supervise methods and meansGuidelines – go heavy on guidelines, light on proceduresAccountability – involve people in setting standards of acceptable and exceptional performanceConsequences – reach an understanding of the positive and negative consequences
56Team Building RESTRAINING FORCES DRIVING FORCES Desired level ofeffectivenessRESTRAINING FORCESCurrent level ofeffectivenessDRIVING FORCESForce-field analysis theory explains that the current level of effectiveness is the equilibrium between the restraining forces and the driving forces. To improve to the desired level must we increase the driving force, or decrease the restraining forcesFocusing on team-building is analogous to decreasing the restraining forces and we should spend two-thirds of our energy on it.
57Summary advice: managing conflict Sources of ConflictManaging ConflictProcessesScarce resource of timeUser vs. technical requirementsTime managementPlan for schedule overrunsManage effect of schedule changesLearn from project experienceCommon goalsAlign individual goals with process metricsValue team more than individual successPeopleDifferent strokesPersonalization of codeTeam buildingTrain in conflict resolutionSponsor group activitiesSupport informal social contactUnderstanding of one another’s point of viewOrganizationPower and politicsManager’s matterStructure for successCo-locate teamsIntegrate development/testing functionsInstill ownershipInvolved leadershipCreate collaborative atmosphereModel effective conflict managementSource: Cohen
58Summary adviceFactors affecting organizational change in software process improvement effortsChange agents and opinion leadersEncouraging communication and collaborationManagement commitment and supportManaging the improvement processProviding enhanced understandingSetting relevant and realistic objectivesStabilizing changed processesStaff involvementTailoring improvement initiativesUnfreezing the organizationStelzer and Mellis, based on analysis of experience reports from 56 companies.
59Summary advice Boehm’s five staffing principles The principle of top talent: use better and fewer people (I know many companies that do this).The principle of job matching: fit the tasks to the skills and motivation of the people available (remember this when we talk about outsourcing/offshoring).The principle of career progression: an organization does best in the long run by helping its people to self-actualize (all hail Maslow).The principle of team balance: select people who will complement and harmonize with one another.The principle of phaseout: keeping a misfit on a team doesn’t benefit anyone.
60ReferencesBarry Boehm, Software Engineering Economics, Prentice-Hall, 1981.Robert Bramson, Coping With Difficult People, Dell Paperbacks, 1988.Cynthia Cohen, Stanley Birkin, Monica Garfield, and Harold Webb, “Managing Conflict in Software Testing,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, no. 1, January 2004, ppStephen R. Covey, Principle-Centered Leadership, Simon & Schuster, 1991.Dirk Stelzer and Werner Mellis, “Success Factors of Organizational Change in Software Process Improvement”, Software Process – Improvement and Practice, vol 4, 1980, pp