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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO AROMATHERAPY"— Presentation transcript:


2 WHAT IS AROMATHERAPY ? Aromatherapy uses pure essential oils to balance the body’s equilibrium and to improve mental and physical health. Aromatherapy involves more than fragrance. Plant essential oils have therapeutic powers in addition to beneficial fragrance, and all are antiseptic in different degrees.

3 WHAT IS AROMATHERAPY ? The natural healing art of aromatherapy is an excellent way to promote optimum health and vitality. Aromatherapy can reduce stress, improve sleep and give you more energy. It can improve your complexion, treat an annoying skin itch and eliminate a stomachache.

4 WHAT IS AROMATHERAPY ? Aromatherapy is a healing therapy that utilises the properties and aromas of essential plant oils. Perhaps the best thing about aromatherapy is that it is so easy and pleasurable to engage in.

5 Definition of “Aromatherapy”
“Aromatherapy conveys the concept of healing with aromatic substances.” - Robert Tisserand “Aromatherapy is a caring, hands-on therapy which seeks to induce relaxation, to increase energy, to reduce the effects of stress and to restore lost balance to mind, body and soul.” - Robert Tisserand

6 Definition of “Aromatherapy”
“Aromatherapy can be defined as the controlled use of essential oils to maintain and promote physical, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing.” Gabriel Mojay “Aromatherapy is … the skilled and controlled use of essential oils for physical and emotional health and well being.” - Valerie Cooksley

7 Definition of “Aromatherapy”
“Aromatherapy” is derived from two words. Aroma - meaning fragrance or smell and Therapy - meaning treatment. “Aromatherapy” can be defined as the art and science of utilizing naturally extracted aromatic essences from plants to balance, harmonize and promote the health of body, mind and spirit.


Aromatherapy was used by the most ancient civilizations and is reputed to be at least 6000 years old. It is widely thought that Aromatherapy began in Egypt. The Egyptians used a method known as infusion to extract the oils from aromatic plants and incense was probably one of the earliest ways of using aromatics.

Frankincense was burned at sun rise as an offering to the sun god, Ra and myrrh was offered to the moon. The Egyptians were experts at embalming using aromatics to help preserve flesh. The Egyptians used to be massaged with fragrant oils after bathing .

The Greeks continued the use of aromatic oils and used them medicinally and cosmetically. A Greek physician, Pedacius Dioscorides, wrote a book about herbal medicine and for at least 1,200 years as the Western world's standard medical reference. Many of the remedies he mentions are still in use today in Aromatherapy.

The Romans took much of their medical knowledge from the Greeks and went on to use and improve the ability of aromatics with Rome becoming the bathing capital of the world. After bathing they would be oiled and massaged.

The Romans started to import new aromatic products from East India and Arabia through the opening up of trade routes. During the crusades the knowledge of aromatic oils and perfumes spread to the Far East and Arabia.

It was a physician called Avicenna who lived from A.D 980 to A.D that is understood to have first used the process known as distillation to distil essence of rose, although it probably took many years to perfect the process. The Arabs also discovered how to distil alcohol around the same time making it possible to produce perfumes without a heavy oily base.

There is a strong possibility that the ancient Chinese civilizations were using some form of aromatics at the same time as the Egyptians. Shen Nung's Herbal book is the oldest surviving medical book in China which is dated about 2700 B.C. and contains information on over 300 plants.

The Chinese used aromatic herbs and burned aromatic woods and incense to show respect to God. Traditional Indian medicine known as ayurveda has been practiced for more than 3,000 years and it incorporates aromatic massage as one of its main aspects.

The North American Indians also used aromatic oils and produced their own herbal remedies. It wasn't until the 19th century that scientists in Europe and Great Britain began researching the effects of essential oils on bacteria in humans.

18 Origin of the word “Aromatherapie”
The term “aromatherapie” was coined by a French chemist called Rene Maurice Gattefosse in 1928. Gattefosse whose family owned a perfumery business, while working in the laboratory one day burned his hand badly. He plunged the injured hand into a container of lavender essential oil and was amazed at how quickly the burn healed without blistering.

19 Origin of the word “Aromatherapie”
And this event set Gattefosse on a lifetime study of the therapeutic properties of plant oils. He utilized the word to imply the therapeutic use of aromatic substances. A French medical doctor, Jean Valnet, discovered Gattefosse's research and began experimenting with essential oils during the World War II.

20 Origin of the word “Aromatherapie”
Around the same time, Marguerite Maury, a French biochemist developed a unique method of diluting and applying these oils to the skin with massage - the treatment which we know today as Aromatherapy.

21 What are Essential Oils ?
Essential oils occur widely in the plant kingdom and are sometimes referred to as the plants’ ‘life force’ or ‘essence’ or ‘soul’. They are minute drops of liquid occurring in glands, glandular hairs, sacs or veins of different plant parts: flowers, leaves, seeds, bark (twigs) and wood (stem), resin (gum), roots, berries or fruit peel of the plant.

22 What are Essential Oils ?
Essential oils give each plant its very specific or unique scent or fragrance. (E.g. as you smell the beautiful fragrance of a rose, you are actually experiencing the joy of essential oils as they are released into the atmosphere) Essential oils droplets are a mixture of complex, organic compounds. When extracted, they are highly concentrated and highly fragrant.

23 What are Essential Oils ?
Essential oils are volatile, which means that they turn quickly from a liquid into a gas at room temperature or higher. They are also non-oily, despite their name. A good test of the purity of these aromatic substances is that they do not leave a greasy mark on a piece of paper. However, there are a few exceptions to this rule, such as myrrh and patchouli.

24 What are Essential Oils ?
Essential oils are soluble in oils, fats and pure alcohol, but they are partially or non-soluble in water. Essential oils are also flammable!! (Experiment: Squeeze a lemon or orange rind into a candle flame to see tiny fireworks!) They can be damaged by light, heat, air and moisture. Therefore, we must know how to take good care of our precious essential oils.

25 What are Essential Oils ?
Essential oils are usually very liquid and do not feel greasy at all. Essential oils can only be produced by nature. Therefore, they are natural.


27 Where Essential Oils are found?
Flowers  chamomile, lavender, neroli, rose Leaves  eucalyptus, peppermint Wood  cedarwood, rosewood, sandalwood Fruits  bergamot, grapefruit, lemon, orange Berries  black pepper, juniper

28 Where Essential Oils are found?
Twigs  petitgrain Roots  angelica, ginger, vetiver Seeds  angelica, cardamon, carrot, nutmeg Gum  myrrh Whole plant  basil, citronella, lemongrass

29 Where Essential Oils are found?
It is interesting to note that different oil can sometimes be extracted from different parts of a particular plant: Angelica – seed oil and root oil Cinnamon – leaf oil and bark oil

30 Where Essential Oils are found?
Clove – leaf oil and bud oil Orange tree: blossom  neroli; fruit  orange; leaves and twigs  petitgrain

31 Habitat Over 30 families of plants, with some 90 species, represent the main oil-producing group. The majority of spices (allspice, cardamon, clove, nutmeg, ginger, etc.) originate in tropical countries.

32 Habitat Conversely, the majority of herbs grow in temperate climates (bay, cumin, dill, marjoram, fennel, lavender, rosemary, thyme, etc.). The same plant grown in a different region and under different conditions can produce essential oils of widely diverse characteristics, which are known as ‘chemotypes’.

33 Habitat Therefore, it is important not only to know the botanical name of the plant from which an oil has been produced, but also its place of origin and main constituents.

34 Main constituents of essential oils
In general, essential oils consist of chemical compounds which have hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as their building blocks. These can be subdivided into two groups: Hydrocarbons – made up almost exclusively of terpenes. Oxygenated compounds – mainly alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, oxides and phenols.

35 Main constituents of essential oils
Acids, lactones, sulphur and nitrogen compounds are sometimes also present. True essential oils may only be obtained by the methods of distillation or expression that preserve the life-giving vital essence of the plant.

36 Main constituents of essential oils
Please refer to Table 1 for Chemical Groups Please refer to Table 2 for Aromatic Chemical Groups, and their Uses

37 How are Essential Oils produced?
Essential oils that have been extracted via the process of distillation or expression are the highest grade and purest and are most commonly used for the purposes of aromatherapy. Oils obtained by solvent extraction are primarily used by the perfume, herbal medicine, skincare and food industries.

38 How are Essential Oils produced?
Some plant materials, especially flowers, are subject to deterioration and so they should be processed as soon as possible after harvesting. Others including seeds and roots are either stored or transported for extraction, often to Europe or America.

39 How are Essential Oils produced?
The method of extraction which is employed depends on the quality of the material which is being used, and the type of aromatic product that is required. Steam distillation is by far the most widely used and most economical method.

40 Steam distillation process
The plant is heated by water or steam in a still which causes the cell structure to rupture and frees the essential oil. The steam carrying the aromatic molecules is cooled to produce a mixture of oil and water. The essential oil is then separated and bottled.

41 Expression process This method of extraction is employed for obtaining oil from citrus fruits such as bergamot, grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange, mandarin and tangerine, as their oil is present in the rind of the fruit. The expression process was originally carried out by hand, but now mechanical presses are employed.

42 Other processes Other processes do not yield true essential oils:
Solvent (alcohol, benzene, hexane) extraction which produces absolutes, concretes and resinoids. Enfleurage (infusion with fat) which produces pomades and then enfleurage absolutes. This process is virtually obsolete today.

43 Other processes Maceration with alcohol which produces tinctures. Carbon dioxide extraction which employs carbon dioxide under extremely high pressure to extract essential oils.

44 Other processes (latest)
Percolation (hydrodiffusion) whereby steam at atmospheric pressure disperses throughout the plant material from the top of the plant chamber. Turbodistillation extraction whereby the plants are soak in water, and steam circulates through this plant-and-water mixture.

45 Production Of Essential Oils
Plants contain from 0.01 to 10% essential oil content. The average amount found in most aromatic plants is about 1 to 2%. A 1% yield indicates that 100 kilos of plant material are required to produce 1 liter of essential oil. It is interesting to note that the amount nature has provided in its original plant form strongly correlates to the amounts used in aromatherapy applications!

46 Production Of Essential Oils
An oil such as the highly expensive rose oil yields just 0.01% essential oil. No wonder it is so costly! Rose oil Bulgarian takes approximately 4,000 pounds of hand-picked flower petals to make 1 pound of oil, making it one of the most expensive oils that can be purchased!

47 Production Of Essential Oils
60,000 rose blooms are required to produce 1 ounce of rose oil. 220 pounds of Lavender plant to produce 7 pounds of oil. 400 kg of Thyme would produce 1kg of essential oil. 6,000 kg of Orange blossoms to produce 1kg of Neroli.

48 Production Of Essential Oils
Jasmine flowers must be picked by hand before the sun becomes hot on the very first day they open. It takes eight million hand-picked jasmine blossoms to produce 2.2 pounds of oil! That is why, it is also one of the most expensive oils on the market. Sandalwood tree must be thirty years old and thirty feet high before it is cut down for distillation.

49 How do Essential Oils work?
Essential oils enter the body by two main routes – the nose and the skin. They enter and leave the body efficiently, leaving no toxins behind. Essential oils are taken directly into the blood stream; they have a positive effect on blood circulation, helping to bring oxygen and nutrients to the tissues whilst assisting in the disposal of carbon dioxide and other waste materials .

50 Nose-brain connection
The olfactory system, the nose-brain association, is the most direct connection we have with the environment or nature. We smell with every breath we take, constantly monitoring the world around us, although we are not always conscious that we are doing so.

51 Nose-brain connection
Our sense of smell is – approximately 10,000 times more sensitive than any other sensory organ we possess. Our nose-brain connection is very powerful. When we inhale an essential oil it affects the limbic part of our brain which is where our emotions and mood functions are seated.

52 The Power of our NOSE

53 Nose-brain connection
Aromas and memories are very strongly linked. Perhaps the smell of lavender will remind you of your favourite grandmother (or the grandmother you were not particularly fond of !)

54 Nose-brain connection
Whenever a smell, such as freshly baked bread, freshly ground coffee or a perfume that your mother wore, may evokes a memory. All the above happenings are because of the nose-brain connection.

55 Refresh - Memory

56 Absorption through the skin
Our skin (our largest organ) is designed to let some substances in and to keep others out. Essential oils, unlike many other substances, are able to penetrate through the skin (via pores and hair follicles) because of their small molecules. Essential oils are absorbed into the bloodstream from where they may be transported to any organs or structures where they are needed.

57 Absorption through the skin
Poor circulation, thick toughened skin, or excessive cellulite or fat may slow down the rate of absorption. Whereas heat (e.g. sauna or massage), water (e.g. aromatic bath), aerobic exercise, and broken or damaged skin will cause increased absorption.

58 Absorption through the skin
Also, the carrier oil used may affect the absorption rate, since some vegetable oils are heavier than others. It takes anywhere from 15 minutes to 12 hours for essential oils to be fully absorbed.

59 Absorption through the skin
It takes about 3 to 6 hours to expel or metabolize them in a normal healthy body, and up to 12 to 14 hours for an unhealthy, obese body. One factor that will make this time interval variable is the condition of the skin.

60 Method of excretions Unlike synthetic chemicals or drugs, essential oils do not accumulate in the body. Essential oils are then excreted in the urine, faeces or via our perspiration or our breath. If you find this difficult to believe, then do this experiment:

61 Method of excretions EXPERIMENT
Rub a freshly cut clove of garlic on the sole of your foot. After about 15 to 30 minutes, you (or your partner) will detect the smell of garlic on your breath! The method of excretion differs among oils.

62 Method of excretions Juniper and Sandalwood are excreted through the urine, as their aroma can be detected there. Geranium, which assists in increasing circulatory functions, is detected in the perspiration. Garlic, if you eat a lot of Italian food, will exit the body through our breath.

63 Method of excretions Essential oils basically have a low potential to be physically habit-forming because they are eliminated extremely quickly through the skin and organs. Hence, there is no residual or accumulative effect to withdraw from or become ‘addicted’ to.

64 Pharmacological Physiological Psychological Modes of action
It is important to recognize that essential oils have three distinct modes of action with regard to how they inter-relate with the human body: Pharmacological Physiological Psychological

65 Modes of action The pharmacological effect is concerned with the chemical changes which take place when an essential oil enters the bloodstream and reacts with the hormones and enzymes, etc. The physiological mode is concerned with the way in which an essential oil affects the systems of the body, whether they are sedated or stimulated, etc.

66 Modes of action The psychological effect takes place when an essence is inhaled, and an individual responds to its odor. With relation to the first two points, Aromatherapy has a great deal in common with the tradition of medical herbalism or phytotherapy. In fact, these two forms of therapy are not synonymous, but complementary.

67 Serene

68 What is not Aromatherapy?
The practice of using essences that did not originate from an aromatic plant that was once alive is not Aromatherapy. 95% of the products sold as aromatherapy are counterfeits – pseudo-aromatherapy. Their aromas derive from synthetic scents, and they offer no therapeutic value whatsoever.

69 What is not Aromatherapy?
True Aromatherapy never uses synthetic aromatic substances. Pseudo-aromatherapy relies on synthetic petrochemicals that merely smell but have no healing qualities. Simply having an aroma doesn’t make something Aromatherapy.

70 Pseudo-aromatherapy Everyday, thousands of consumers unknowingly purchase pseudo-aromatherapy products as mass marketers strive to gain a greater market share of the Aromatherapy ‘trend’. Mass marketers have corrupted the category and robbed the word ‘Aromatherapy’ of its original meaning and its authenticity.

71 Pseudo-aromatherapy In their confusion, and through misplaced trust, millions of people mistakenly purchase ‘Aromatherapy’ products they believe will improve their health and well-being. These petrochemical impostors possess the potential to seriously harm the health of the people who seek healing from them.

72 Natural versus ‘Nature Identical’
Many perfumes or oils, once obtained from flowers like Carnation, Gardenia and Lilac, are nowadays produced almost entirely synthetically. These chemically constructed products are called ‘nature identical’.

73 Natural versus ‘Nature Identical’
However, the so-called ‘nature identical’ products and the naturally occurring substances are of an entirely different character, which is reflected in their relative costs The synthetic types are much cheaper to produce than the genuine ones.

74 Natural versus ‘Nature Identical’
Most ‘nature identical’ oils are said to be only about 96% pure or accurate. Yet it is the remaining 4%, the trace elements (found in natural aromatic oils) that often really define a particular fragrance or odor.

75 Natural versus ‘Nature Identical’
It is also the specific combination of constituents in a real essential oil, including the trace elements, which give it value therapeutically. For e.g., Rose has over 300 different constituents, some of which have not yet been identified. Which is why synthetic Rose oil is unconvincing.

76 Natural versus ‘Nature Identical’
‘Nature identical’ oils cannot be used therapeutically as substitutes for the naturally occurring aromatic materials. It is because the subtle balance of constituents is lost and they lack the vital ‘life force’ of oils of natural origin.

77 Natural versus ‘Nature Identical’
Many, if not all, Aromatherapists believe the ‘whole’ or entire essential oil in its natural form should be used to insure its greatest therapeutic value. Otherwise, one increases the risk of toxicity!

78 Pure or Adulterated? The terms ‘pure’ or ‘natural’ when applied to an oil refer to its authenticity. They promise that the product is both unadulterated and derived from the actual botanical species for which it is named. Oils are adulterated for many reasons, including world demand, availability and cost.

79 Pure or Adulterated? Rare and expensive oils are the most likely candidates for adulteration. "Quality" refers to the degree of excellence or the grade of an oil. Quality can be affected by the methods under which the plant source was grown and picked, and its oils were extracted and processed.

80 Pure or Adulterated? Genuine and authentic essential oils are the most therapeutic and will have a fuller, sweeter, and milder character. Therefore, very little is needed, justifying the higher cost. When using a cheaper, perhaps adulterated oil, you naturally increase your risks considerably!

81 Pure or Adulterated? It is possible to assess the purity of individual essences using high-tech methods such as Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC). With GLC analysis, there is a good chance that any adulteration of the oil can be discovered. Because each essential oil has it’s own unique ‘fingerprint’.

82 Adulterated Oils Fractionated / Rectified / Redistilled Oils: Some oils are double/triple distilled to remove "undesirable" constituents. Though this may be useful in some situations (terpeneless citrus oils keep longer; redistilled eucalyptus or peppermint smells more pleasant), but many consumers want, and need, whole oils for therapeutic purposes.

83 Adulterated Oils Extended Oils: Often, less-expensive oils or synthetic ‘filler’ are added to expensive ones. Rose oil is often extended with the natural compound geraniol, found in the Geranium (or other plants), which has a distinctive rose-like scent. Sometimes essential oils are diluted with a vegetable oil (e.g. jojoba) or alcohol.

84 Adulterated Oils Reconstructed Oils: Sometimes individual constituents (may be fractions of other essential oils) are combined to match the major constituents found in essential oils. Example is a reconstructed Thyme, which might consist of carvacrol, thymol and linalol - all components found naturally in Thyme, but derived from other natural, or perhaps synthetic, sources.

85 Adulterated Oils Reconstituted Oils: There are also oils that have had natural or synthetic chemical components added to them after distillation. Co-distilled Oils: 1) Putting two different plants or plant parts in the still and steaming them together to produce one oil; 2) Adding an essential oil to plant material and distilling them together, again producing one oil.

86 Follow your Nose If all these adulterations can be overwhelmingly confusing, it's comforting to know that your own Nose can be your best resource. Preference in odor is a personal thing, but people can train their noses to detect the differences between real and synthetic oils and, to some extent, variations of quality.

87 Follow your Nose Please check in the CD for
Assesing Essential Oils At Home An article from AGORA (Aromatherapy Global Online Research Archives)

88 Guidelines When Using Essential Oils
Essential oils are highly concentrated plant constituents possessing potent medicinal and cosmetic qualities. The best way to use them is in diluted form. There are some that are skin irritants, phototoxic or abortive. Therefore, use with care. When a very high quality essential oil is used, less of it is needed to obtain the desired effect.

89 Guidelines When Using Essential Oils
More is not better. On the contrary, it can produce the opposite effect. For example, Lavender oil can cause restlessness, agitation, and insomnia if too much is used rather than relaxation. The difference in the effect between one drop and two drops can be substantial. It is important to follow the dosages recommended.

90 Less is OK

91 Guidelines When Using Essential Oils
There are several essential oils that are skin ‘friendly’ like Lavender and Tea Tree. These two oils can be used ‘straight’ or ‘neat,’ which means you can put these directly on your skin without diluting them. However, they are an exception, not the rule. Most essential oils you must dilute to use.

92 General Cautions Keep out reach of children.
Avoid using essential oils near eyes and other sensitive areas. Always read the precautions on the bottle before using. Use only 100% pure essential oils.

93 General Cautions Do not take internally. Use essential oils only externally, unless under expert guidance. If one suffers from any skin or any other allergies, use oils carefully. Be aware of contra-indications & precautions.

94 General Cautions Always test oils on a skin patch first, especially if you have sensitive skin or allergies. Skin that had any photo toxic essential oils applied to, should not be exposed to UV rays for at least 4 hours. Less is plenty. When in doubt, use less, not more.

95 General Cautions Essential oils are flammable, but will not self-combust. Keep oils away from any naked flame. Never use an essential oil about which you can find little or no information. Do not use essential oils on newborn babies.

96 General Cautions Never use neat on the skin, unless under special circumstances. Dilute oils as recommended. Always consult with your healthcare professional before starting any therapies with essential oils. Cap essential oil bottles tightly. Essential oils evaporate rapidly.

97 General Cautions Use glass bottles for undiluted essential oils.
Discontinue using any oil that causes irritation, sensitivity, or an unpleasant reaction. Wash your hands after using essential oils, especially before you eat.

98 Special Cautions Avoid the following essential oils during pregnancy: Basil, Cedarwood, Clary Sage, Clove Bud, Cypress, Fennel, Jasmine, Juniper, Lemongrass, Marjoram, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme. For other oils, use only in half the usual stated amount. If prone to epilepsy, do not use Fennel, Hyssop, Rosemary or Sage as there is a remote chance that these essences may trigger an attack.

99 Special Cautions The following oils should not be used on sensitive skins: Basil, Fennel, Lemongrass, Lemon, Lemon Verbena, Melissa, Orange, Peppermint, Thyme. If having to drive a long distance after a massage, do not use Clary Sage, Marjoram or Ylang Ylang – they can cause drowsiness.

100 Special Cautions Some oils can cause photo-sensitization of the skin, increasing the risk of sunburn. These include Angelica (root), Bergamot, Bitter Orange, Cumin, Ginger, Lemon, Lemon Verbena, Lime, Mandarin, Orange and Tangerine. They can cause unsightly pigmentation. Clary Sage should not be used while drinking alcohol.

101 Special Cautions Never mix essential oils with water. Essential oils are not water soluble. If they burn a little or you get them in your eyes by accident, always dilute with any pure vegetable oil. Do not add water as water drives the oils in deeper, creating more skin irritation. Hops should not be used by anyone suffering from depression.

102 Special Cautions Avoid Cypress, Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage (all types) and Thyme oil if there is any possibility of high blood pressure or kidney disease. Homeopathic treatment is not compatible with the following oils: Black Pepper, Camphor, Eucalyptus and the ‘mint’ oils as they may weaken or cancel out the effects of homeopathic remedies.


104 Mixing and using safely
Always wash your hands before and after using essential oils. Make sure you are in a well ventilated area. Mix away from other people who is around. Lavender and Tea tree are the only oils that can be applied directly on to the skin undiluted. Always skin test first.

105 Mixing and using safely
Use small quantities for babies, small children and the elderly. Handle oils carefully to prevent contact with skin and cross-contamination. Keep out of contact with the eyes. Avoid prolonged or excessive exposure.

106 Mixing and using safely
Take frequent breaks. If prescribing oils for another person's home use, ensure that they understand the instructions for use. Keep accurate records of treatment and blends. Use recommended dilution at all times.

107 How to use Essential Oils?
Aromatherapy can also be applied safely by massaging blended essential oils to the whole body. Carefully chosen and blended essential oils, used with massage and skilful relaxation techniques, are a major part of an Aromatherapy treatment and can produce a range of benefits. Other methods of application include ointments, creams, lotions and compresses, etc.

108 How to use Essential Oils ?
Since essential oils are highly concentrated fluid substances, they are rarely used in an undiluted form. Before application, oils are first blended with a carrier oil (any pure, cold pressed plant oil). This blending dilutes the essential oils so that they are safe, and also helps to slow down the rate of evaporation, to spread them evenly, and to increase their absorption into the skin.

109 Methods of application
Baths: Aromatic bath (Your Personal Spa) Epsom salts bath Foot and Hand bath Jacuzzi Sauna Shower (Aromatic) Sitz bath (Alternate hot and cold)

110 Aromatic Bath

111 Foot Bath

112 Methods of application
Aromatic ointment Cleaning Creams / Lotions / Gels Compresses Facial steam First aid Gargles and Mouthwashes

113 Aromatherapy Products

114 Methods of application
Inhalation / Diffusion / Environmental fragrancing / Vaporization Candle Car Aromatherapy diffuser Ceramic / Clay / Glass / Metal Vaporizer or Burner Electric pottery diffuser

115 Aromatherapy Candles

116 Car Aromatherapy Diffuser

117 Vaporizer / Burner

118 Methods of application
Handkerchief Humidifier Lamp / Light-bulb ring Nebulizer (electronic glass diffuser) Room spray / Mist spray / Atomizer Tissue paper

119 Glass Nebulizer / Diffuser

120 Methods of application
Ultrasonic Aromatherapy diffuser Water bowl Massage Natural perfumes Neat application Powders (rice or corn flour - for foot and body)

121 Ultrasonic Aromatherapy Diffuser

122 Using Diffuser during Meditation

123 Massage Oil

124 Methods of application
Please refer to: Table 3 for Methods of Applications Table 4 for Using Essential Oils

125 Which oil to use? Please refer to Table 5 for Which Oil To Use?

126 How can you benefit from essential oils?
Each essential oil has unique properties which can be used to relieve stress, stimulate body processes such as elimination or circulation, ease painful muscular tensions and generally give the recipient a heightened feeling of well-being. People have described having calming, cheering, soothing or uplifting experiences.

127 Relaxation

128 How can you benefit from essential oils?
Emotion based benefits Anxiety Depression Fear Frustration Grief Hopelessness Hysteria Insomnia

129 Anxiety / Depression?

130 How can you benefit from essential oils?
Emotion based benefits Irritability Lack of Concentration Moodiness Nervous Tension Panic Attacks Poor Memory Sadness Worry

131 Release nervous tension

132 How can you benefit from essential oils?
Medicinal benefits Bruises / Sprains / Strains Burns (including sunburn) Digestive disorders such as Constipation Enhance wound healing Fatigue Fungal infections such as athletes foot and nail fungus

133 How can you benefit from essential oils?
Medicinal benefits Motion Sickness Muscular aches and pains Nervousness / Tension / Stress Purifying the Air Reduce skin inflammation Respiratory Conditions including colds, flu, sore throat, asthma and bronchitis Wounds and Scars


135 How can you benefit from essential oils?
Skincare benefits Acne Antifungal activity Antibacterial activity Cellulite Dermatitis Dry Skin

136 How can you benefit from essential oils?
Skincare benefits Eczema Enhanced wound healing Mature Skin Psoriasis Stretch Marks Varicose Veins Wrinkles

137 Actions of essential oils
Adrenal stimulants – for stress-related exhaustion Analgesic. Antibiotics and bactericidals – for fighting bacterial infection. Antiseptic – almost all are antiseptic.

138 Actions of essential oils
Anti-depressants – for uplifting the spirits. Anti-diabetics or Hypoglycaemics – for helping to balance blood-sugar levels. Anti-inflammatory – helpful for skin rashes and wounds; as well as helping to reduce pain and inflammation in arthritic joints.

139 Actions of essential oils
Anti-fungal – for combating fungal infections. Anti-Galactogogues – for reducing mother’s milk flow. Anti-rheumatics- preventing and relieving rheumatic problems. Aperitifs – stimulate the appetite.

140 Actions of essential oils
Anti-virals – for protecting against and helping to reduce serious complications of viral infections such as colds, coughs and flu. Anti-spasmodics – relax spasms in the bronchial tubes; and for spasm and pain. Balance thyroid secretion – for balancing excessive secretions of thyroxine.

141 Actions of essential oils
Carminatives and stomachics – for flatulence and nausea. Cicatrisant - stimulates the growth of healthy skin cells. Cholagogues – for stimulating the gall-bladder, and thus the flow of bile.

142 Actions of essential oils
Contain oestrogen-like substances – to help menopausal symptoms. Contain Phyto-Steroids – substances that are said to resemble the male and female sex hormones are found in frankincense and myrrh. Cytophylactics – for increasing the activity of white blood cells which help in our defense against infection.

143 Actions of essential oils
Depuratives – for helping to combat impurities in the blood and organs. Detoxifying agents - help to detoxify the system of metabolic wastes. Deodorant – helpful for excessive perspiration. Diaphoretics or Febrifuges - induce sweating, and thus reduce fever.

144 Actions of essential oils
Emmenagogues – for inducing menstruation and or normalizing menstrual flow. Expectorants - promote the removal of mucus. Galactogogues – for stimulating the flow of mother’s milk. Hepatics – for strengthening, toning and stimulating the secretive functions of the liver.

145 Actions of essential oils
Hormone influencing – for a broad spectrum of problems associated with the female reproductive system. Hypertensives – stimulate the circulation. Hypotensives – lower high blood pressure.

146 Actions of essential oils
Hypnotics – specifics for inducing sleep. Insect repellent – to repel insects. Nervines – strengthen and tone the nervous system. ‘Normalizing’ – for stimulating or relaxing, depending on the state of the individual.

147 Actions of essential oils
Parasiticides – prevents and destroys parasites. Rubefacients – by stimulating the periphery circulation, the blood supply will be increased to the affected areas, which in turn relieves congestion and inflammation. Sedatives – for calming a jangled nervous system.

148 Actions of essential oils
Stimulants – to help restore energy levels depleted through illness or nervous fatigue. Tonics and Astringents – strengthen and tone the whole system. Uterine tonics – for toning and regulating the female reproductive system, and for excessive menstruation.

149 Actions of essential oils
Vermifuges – for expelling intestinal worms. Vulneraries – for helping to heal wounds. Please refer to Appendix 1 for Glossary of Medical Terms.

150 Detoxification problems
Many people have reported that when applying too many different oils or too much of one oil, the body any be subjected to a cleansing response which can cause headaches, rashes, nausea, burning, diarrhea, etc. Should this occur, simply reduce the amount of oil used and the number of times applied and drink plenty of purified water.

151 Detoxification problems
If you have used liberal amounts, of cosmetics, shampoos, perms, hair coloring, hair sprays, deodorants; or products containing chemicals, petrochemicals and many synthetic ingredients, you may have an unpleasant cleansing experience. When using pure essential oils, some people experience the release of stored toxins through the skin, especially on the face and neck area.

152 Detoxification problems
You may even want to consider an internal cleansing program before continuing to use the oils. For this reason, you should always start with 1-2 drops of oil diluted with 1/2 tsp. of carrier oil. Rarely is there a problem, but it is best to be cautious until you see how your body responds.

153 Pregnancy What a beautiful time for a woman to indulge! This is an important time for mother and baby to be as healthy as possible. After the first four months of the pregnancy, essential oils can be used to enhance the feeling of wellbeing. During pregnancy, the body changes are so rapid that after the first four months, the benefits of Aromatherapy Massage are enormous, both physically and emotionally.

154 Pregnancy During pregnancy, there are some essential oils definitely not to be used. Because some essential oils can relax muscles, stimulate contractions, or possibly get to the baby. (See Table 6 & 7) A few essential oils are considered abortifacients, meaning they have the potential to cause abortion. (See Table 8) Be sure to avoid all essential oils that may be unsafe during this time.

155 Pregnancy It is recommended that a 1% dilution (of the safe oils), instead of the typical 2% dilution be used for body oils and lotions for expectant mothers. (See Table 9) Essential oils are best avoided in the first trimester of pregnancy, especially if history of miscarriages is present. Morning Sickness and Fainting – Add 2 drops of Lavender to a tissue and inhale deeply. Repeat till you feel better.

156 Pregnancy - Relaxation

157 Baby and Child care Aromatherapy is invaluable when caring for young children. Careful use of pure, natural essential oils provides a natural alternative to chemical drugs. Essential oils can be used for everyday common ailments and as a complementary treatment for general wellbeing.

158 Baby and Child care Essential oils are not intended to replace the health care practitioner, however, and for serious or ongoing condition a professional should be consulted. Children from as young as 48 hours old can be gently massaged daily using lavender and chamomile oils. This will help bond mother and baby and ensure security and stability. Apricot kernel or jojoba carrier oil is very nourishing for young skin.

159 Baby and Child care Use with care, in accordance with age:
Babies (0-12 months) – use 1 drop of Lavender, Rose, Chamomile or Mandarin diluted in 1 – 2 tsp base oil for massage or bathing. Infants (1-5 years) – use 2-3 drops of ‘safe’ essential oils (non-toxic and non-irritant to the skin), diluted in 1tsp base oil for massage or bathing.

160 Baby and Child care Children (6-12 years) – use as for adults, but in half the stated amount. Teenagers (over 12 years) – use as directed for adults. For the bath, use 1 drop of Lavender oil in 1 teaspoon of carrier oil. For massage, blend 1 drop of Lavender or Chamomile oil to 10 ml of carrier oil. These two oils calm the nervous system.

161 Beauty and Skin care A healthy, glowing skin is the basis for looking and feeling great. Using natural products with essential oils, which have nourishing and healing properties that penetrate the skin, you are on the way to healthier younger-looking skin.

162 Beauty and Skin care Please refer to:
Table 10 for Essential Oils for Complexion Types Table 11 for Skin Care Charts

163 Beauty and Skin care Skin-Care Properties of Essential Oils:
Penetrate to the dermal layer of skin where new cells are developing; Stimulate and regenerate; produce healthy skin cells quickly following sun damage, burns, wrinkles or healing of wounds; Reduce bacterial and fungal infections, acne and other related skin problems;

164 Beauty and Skin care Soothe delicate, sensitive, inflamed skin;
Regulate sebaceous secretions, balancing over-or underactive skin; Promote the release and removal of metabolic waste products; Contain plant ‘hormones’ that help balance and alleviate hormonally related skin problems;

165 Beauty and Skin care Skin-Care Properties of Essential Oils (cont.):
Affect the mental and emotional state positively, thus alleviating stress-related skin problems. Please see: Table 12 for Essential Oils For Facial Treatments. Table 13 for Essential Oils for Skin Problems.

166 Treating Common Ailments
Essential Oils assist the body to heal itself by lowering stress levels, relaxing and toning the muscles, stimulating the immune system, the organs and the glands in the body to fight bacteria, fungi and viruses. These oils can be used to relieve symptoms and help the natural healing of common, everyday ailments. Please see Table 14 for Essential Oils for Treating Common Ailments.

167 Aromatherapy Care Please refer to:
Table 15 for Essential Oils For Body Treatments Table 16 for Essential Oils for Physical Problems Table 17 for Fragrances for Emotions Table 18 for Essential Oils for Hair Care

168 Aromatherapy Massage

169 Aromatherapy Massage The purpose of aromatherapy massage is to aid the penetration of essential oils into the body and to treat problem areas. Massage can be stimulating or relaxing depending on the oils used and the technique applied. It is an effective way to relieve stress, anxiety and tension.

170 Aromatherapy Massage Aromatherapy massage combines the balancing properties of the essential oils with the relaxing benefits of touch. As the oils are absorbed into the skin and the muscles relax, the therapeutic benefits manifest. Psychologically, massage promotes a wonderful feeling of lightness and wellbeing.

171 Island Massage Therapy

172 Aromatherapy Massage Massage not only soothes the mind and body, but it has numerous other benefits. A good aromatherapy massage will: Increase metabolism. Speed up the healing process. Enhance the removal of toxins. Increase muscle and joint mobility.

173 Aromatherapy Massage Aid relaxation by calming the nervous system.
Relieve mental and physical tiredness. Reduce aches, pains, spasms and stiffness. Improve digestion. Improve skin tone. Improve circulation of blood and lymph.

174 Relaxing Massage

175 Massage dosage guide Massage oil: A 2.5% dilution is recommended for adults & 1% for children under 12. To determine this dilution in drops, figure out how many ml (or cc) are in the bottle you are using, then divide that number by 2. Example: You have a 30 ml bottle of carrier oil that you are going to use for your blend. 30/2 = 15 Therefore, a 2.5% blend for a 30 ml bottle is 15 drops of essential oil. You can add 15 drops to 30 ml of whatever carrier oil you are using.

176 Popular Aromatherapy Oils
Basil Bergamot Cedarwood Chamomile Clary sage Eucalyptus Geranium Ginger Grapefruit Jasmine Lavender Lemon Lemongrass Lime Mandarin Marjoram

177 Popular Aromatherapy Oils
Melissa Neroli Orange Patchouli Peppermint Petitgrain Pine Rose Rosemary Rosewood (Bois de Rose) Sandalwood Tea tree Vetiver Ylang ylang

178 Basil Ocimum basilicum The aphrodisiac oil.
Used for nervous insomnia, anxiety and tiredness. Helpful for insect bites, headaches, muscular aches and pains. Avoid during pregnancy. Use with caution on sensitive skin, as it can be an irritant.

179 Bergamot Citrus aurantium The uplifting oil.
Good for relaxing tight, aching muscles. For massage, it is extremely versatile and can lift any blend. Do not use when going in the sun. Because it is phototoxic!

180 Cedarwood (Atlas) Cedrus atlantica A refreshing oil for men.
It has a stimulating, refreshing and tonic effect on the body. It is good for dandruff, eczema, greasy skin and acne. It is an effective insect repellent. Avoid during pregnancy. Should be avoided by breast-feeding mothers and by children.

181 Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile The soothing oil.
Is a natural anti-inflammatory with great healing properties as well as relaxing sedative benefits. Is an expensive oil and you can substitute some drops with Lavender when using to ease pain. Safe for use on babies, children and pets.

182 Clary Sage Salvia sclarea The anti-depressant oil.
Calming, promotes a peaceful state of mind and restful sleep. Improves mental clarity and alertness, and reduces stress and tension. Is well known for its euphoric action. Not to be used during pregnancy.

183 Eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus The perfect insect repellent.
Because it prevents bacterial growth and inhibits the growth of viruses, it is used to treat burns, blisters, cuts, herpes, wounds and sores. It can soothe the pain of sore muscles, arthritis and rheumatism. Do not use whilst on homeopathic remedies.

184 Geranium Pelargonium graveolens The women’s oil.
It has a regulatory action on the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. Ideal for PMT and menopause. It reduces stress and tension. Is calming and uplifting, speeds body healing, and eases depression And is helpful in managing asthma.

185 Ginger Zingiber officinale The warming oil.
A warming oil that relaxes tight muscles, relieve aches and pains, making it a natural choice to threat arthritis. Useful in the treatment of cold and coughs. Also improves digestion as it stimulates the gastric juices.

186 Grapefruit Citrus paradisi The cellulite oil.
It has an uplifting and reviving effect, making it useful in treating stress, depression and nervous exhaustion. Is a lymphatic stimulant, so it is helpful in the treatment of water retention as well as having fat-dissolving properties. A very safe oil to use. It is non-toxic, non-irritant and is non-phototoxic!

187 Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum The romantic oil.
Uplifting, relaxing and an excellent brain stimulant. It is good for dry sensitive skins and to treat muscular aches and menstrual cramps. Always use this oil to lighten the emotional load. Not to be used during pregnancy.

188 Lavender Lavandula angustifolia Essential oil for the first aid kit.
Generally regarded as the most versatile essence therapeutically. Is well known for its sedative properties and is useful in treating depression, migraine, insomnia and nervous tension as well as dealing with stress. Can be used neat on burns and even sunburn.

189 Lemon Citrus limon The cleansing oil.
Is stimulating, invigorating, astringent, deodorizing and antiseptic. Very helpful in treating mental exhaustion. Also for energizing an aching body. Used in treatment of cellulite Is phototoxic!

190 Lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus The regenerative oil.
A good tonic for the skin, especially useful for athlete’s foot. It kills bacteria and fungal infections. It cools and reduces fever in the body and helps ease aching muscles. It calms the nervous system relieving depression, stress and nervous exhaustion. Use with care on sensitive skins – it can cause irritation due to high citrus content!

191 Lime Citrus aurantifolia The uplifting oil.
Is antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic. A great stimulant and tonic. Very useful for treating colds and flu, cellulite, poor circulation, greasy skin, arthritis and varicose veins. Is phototoxic!

192 Mandarin Citrus reticulata The children’s oil.
Having great digestive properties, it relieves cramps, spasms and stimulates bile production. It also aids digestion, constipation and hiccoughs. A great oil to be used for stretch marks, scars and aging skin. Use this oil during pregnancy to help reduce stretch marks. Is phototoxic!

193 Marjoram Origanum majorana The calming oil.
It relieves tight muscles, aches and pains. Reduces inflammation, improves digestion and helps relieve congestion. Avoid during pregnancy. Avoid if you suffer from low blood pressure.

194 Melissa Melissa officinalis The heart oil. Also known as Balm, Lemon.
It calms and soothes the skin as well as soothing the mind by calming the nervous system. Respiratory-related allergies respond well to it. It offers relief for problems of the digestive or circulatory system.

195 Neroli Citrus aurantium The mind, body and soul oil.
It helps prevent wrinkles, stretch marks and thread veins. It has a deep tranquilizing effect and is used for treating anxiety, depression, palpitations and nervous disorders. It can relieve diarrhoea, indigestion, cramps and spasms and help expel gas from the intestines. Safe and ideal to use during pregnancy.

196 Orange Citrus sinensis A calming and relaxing oil.
It has a refreshing and stimulating effect on the body whilst leaving you relaxed. It rejuvenates skin. Excellent oil for calming children as well as for reducing colds and flu. Is phototoxic! Do not use when pregnant.

197 Patchouli Pogostemon cablin The general tonic oil.
Useful in treatment of eczema, acne, scalp and fungal infection of the skin. For anxiety and depression, it helps keep one in touch with reality whilst encouraging spiritual wellbeing. Has a strong exotic perfume smell. Safe to use. Non-toxic.

198 Peppermint Mentha piperita The soothing digestion oil.
The cooling and refreshing effect on the body brings temporary relief from headaches, mental fatigue, toothache, sinusitis, travel sickness, sunburn, upset stomachs and hangovers. Avoid during pregnancy. Use with care on sensitive skins – it can be an irritant due to high menthol content.

199 Petitgrain Citrus aurantium var.amara The nerve oil.
It’s properties include being anti-depressant, deodorizing and a sedative. Use in your diffuser and inhale to reduce depression and to clear a confused mind. Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing and non-phototoxic.

200 Pine Pinus sylvestris The respiratory oil.
One of the best oils to treat head lice, sores, cuts and scabies. It has a great effect on the respiratory system and helps to loosen and remove mucus. Useful in the treatment of bronchitis, coughs, sore throats, colds, flu, asthma and for muscular aches and pains, arthritis and rheumatism. Avoid in allergic conditions.

201 Rose Rosa damascena The beauty oil. It prevents and reduces scaring.
It is a helpful oil for asthma and chronic bronchitis. The beautiful fragrance helps bring balance and harmony as well as stimulating and elevating the mind. Non-toxic and safe to use.

202 Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis The oil for protection.
It is a powerful stimulant and has impressive healing properties, strengthening the nervous system, improving memory and restoring sense of smell. It can ease the pain of arthritis, gout, rheumatism, stiff and sore muscles. Also used with success in treating asthma, colds, flu, bronchitis and coughs. Avoid during pregnancy and if suffering from epilepsy.

203 Rosewood Aniba rosaeodora A gentle balancing oil.
It is soothing, uplifting, refreshing and balancing. It is calming and relaxing for the emotions and gently sensual. Non-toxic and safe to use.

204 Tea Tree Melaleuca alternifolia First aid in a bottle.
It has many outstanding properties. It can be used to treat anything from blisters, boils, burns, rashes, gingivitis, mouth ulcers, burns, insect bites, nappy rash, ringworm to athlete’s foot and thrush, infected wounds, coldsores, corns and warts! Non-toxic and safe to use. Repeated neat application might induce sensitization!

205 Vetiver Vetiveria zizanoides The oil of tranquility.
One of the best oils to use to strengthen the immune system. It is a deeply relaxing oil. It can be used to ease stress, lift depression, calm the nerves and for insomnia. Its antiseptic properties heal acne, cuts and infected wounds. Non-toxic, non-irritant. Safe to use.

206 Ylang Ylang Cananga odorata The sensual oil.
The first distillate (about 40%) is called Ylang Ylang Extra, which is the top grade. There are then three further successive distillates, called Grades 1, 2 and 3. Deeply relaxing, de-stressing, soothes troubled mind and spirit. Thought to be an aphrodisiac. Non-toxic, however, some people find the sweet fragrance causes a headache or nausea.

207 Carrier Oils Carrier oils or vegetable oils are also known as base oils. Base oils are vegetable, nut, or seed oils, many of which themselves have therapeutic properties. Vegetable oils are obtained from the seeds of plants that grow all over the world. There are several hundred different plants known to have oil-bearing seeds, but only a few are produced commercially.

208 Carrier Oils Vegetable oils are in the main produced for food, and are a good source of nutrients and energy. They enable the body to produce heat and are a good source of protein, as well as providing lubricants and cooking materials for industry and home use. The vegetable oils used in aromatherapy should be cold pressed, as the oils on your supermarket shelves may have been processed with a chemical agent.

209 Carrier Oils Essential oils in the pure state are too highly concentrated to be used directly on the skin. Therefore you need to dilute them in a base oil, so that they can be massaged or rubbed onto the skin in the correct dosage. One drop of an essential oil may be all you need to use, which obviously will not go very far. But when it is diluted in a base oil, it will cover quite a much larger area.

210 Diluting Essential Oils
Use the following measurements as a guideline when diluting the essential oils in a carrier base oil. 0 - 1 drop into 1/5 teaspoon base oil drops into 1 teaspoon base oil drops into 2 teaspoons base oil drops into 1 tablespoon base oil drops into 4 teaspoons base oil drops into 5 teaspoons base oil drops into 2 tablespoons base oil

211 Popular Carrier Oils Almond oil (sweet) Apricot kernel oil Avocado oil
Evening primrose oil Grapeseed oil Jojoba oil Rosehip seed oil Virgin coconut oil Wheatgerm oil

212 Almond Oil (Sweet) A fine, very pale yellow oil.
Slow to become rancid. Rapidly absorbed; excellent for oily, sensitive skins. Recommended for body massage even in newborn babies. A useful source of Vitamin D.

213 Apricot Kernel Oil Pale yellow, rich in Vitamins E and A.
Easily absorbed by the skin, nourishing and moisturizing. It is suitable for facial treatments. Especially suitable for sensitive and inflamed dry skin.

214 Avocado Oil Rich, nourishing and compatible with the skin’s own sebum.
High in Vitamins A, C and E. It aids regeneration of scarred skin. Recommended for facial and body treatments. Although thick, it leaves the skin feeling smooth and silky. Useful in treating dry and mature skin as well as nappy rash and eczema.

215 Evening Primrose Oil Excellent, pale-yellow carrier oil, rich in fatty acids, particularly gamma linolenic acid (GLA). This acid affects much enzyme activity in the body. Effective in the treatment of eczema, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, premenstrual syndrome and weight reduction when used as a massage oil.

216 Grapeseed Oil Very fine and clear, giving a satin-smooth finish without a greasy touch. Most often used as a bath oil. When diluting essential oil in this carrier oil, it needs to be dispersed well throughout the water when used in aromatic bath.

217 Jojoba Oil The most luxurious of all the carrier oils.
It is in fact a wax pressed from the bean of the plant. It does not go rancid. Light and rich in Vitamin E. Gives a satin-smooth finish and feel to the skin. Useful in treating acne, eczema, psoriasis and inflamed skin.

218 Rosehip Seed Oil Good oil for cosmetics and for tissue regeneration.
Also good for eczema, psoriasis, PMS and menopause. May be combined with Calendula infused oil to treat stretch marks, burns or scars. Contains: GLA, linolenic acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid. Goes rancid rather quickly!

219 Virgin Coconut Oil It is one of the healthiest oils one can use on the skin because of its antioxidant properties. Is nature’s richest source of medium chain fatty acids and has antimicrobial properties. It will absorb easily, keep the skin soft, and yet without feeling greasy. Unlike other oils, it can be used to soften rough, dry skin. It has a mild delicate aroma of coconut milk and is highly resistant to spoilage (long shelf-life).

220 Wheatgerm Oil Rich, nourishing, fine healing oil.
Yellow-orange in colour. It contains proteins, minerals and Vitamin E and is perfect for anti-stretch-mark blends. Often recommended as addition to other oils to increase stability and shelf life.

221 Getting started This workshop is not intended to enable you to treat the public professionally or to replace your general practitioner (doctor). It is intended to give you the confidence to use essential oils safely, have fun, treat your friends and family and enjoy the wonderful benefits of aromatherapy in the home or office. Treat simple everyday ailments, but if they persist or become severe, then seek professional help.

222 Measurements 20 – 25 drops = 1 ml essential oil
1 ml essential oil = 1 cc 10 ml bottle contains 200 drops 100 drops = 5 ml = 5 cc = 1 teaspoon drops = 15 ml = 1/2 ounce = 1 tablespoon drops = 30 ml = 1 ounce = 2 tablespoon

223 Buying essential oils Do try to find an established and reliable supplier. Do look out for a recommendation. Do find an aromatherapy specialist. Do compare the prices of the oils. There should be a wide difference in prices. Essential oil of jasmine or rose should be far more expensive than lavender or lemon.

224 Buying essential oils Do ask if the oils are 100% pure.
Do read labels carefully – check for words such as ‘nature identical’ or ‘fragrance’ indicating impurity. Do trust your nose. The more you use the essential oils, the more easily you will be able to detect a ‘true’ essential oil. Do put a few drops on a piece of blotting paper or fairly thick paper and allow it to dry. If a mark is left behind, be suspicious.

225 Buying essential oils Do rub a drop of essential oil between your thumb and forefinger. There should not be a greasy feel. Then quickly wash your hand. Do buy a small selection of oils to begin with. If you are happy with the quality, then purchase more. Do not confuse essential oils with vegetable oils, which are also sometimes called "carrier" or "base" oils.

226 Storing and caring essential oils
Oils should be stored in a cool (not cold) place, where they are not exposed to sunlight. UV rays affect the quality of the oils. Keep essential oils only in amber glass bottles which can protect them from damage by natural light. Refrigeration of essential oils is not recommended since some can be spoiled by this procedure.

227 Storing and caring essential oils
The shelf life of most essential oils is about months, with proper handling. Some may last as long as 5 years. (Citrus oils = 1 year) Once essential oils have been diluted in a blend containing a vegetable oil, the shelf life is reduced dramatically to between 3 and 6 months. Massage oils are always at their best when freshly prepared – this is why it’s not a good idea to buy them from a shop as you do not know how long ago it was blended.

228 Storing and caring essential oils
Do not decant (or transfer) them into plastic bottles, as they will buckle. Keep your oils at an even temperature. They are adversely affected by very hot or very cold conditions. Always store oils out of reach of young children. Essential oils are extremely potent. If they are swallowed, seek medical advice immediately.

229 Storing and caring essential oils
Make sure that the bottles have flow reduction inserts in them to allow you to gauge the number of drops. You should not keep them in bottles with rubber stoppers or bottles with pipettes as the rubber parts will be destroyed by the essential oils. Do not put them near a naked flame. Remember they are flammable.

230 Storing and caring essential oils
Open bottles only for use and keep caps securely closed, as exposure to air (oxygen) speeds the deterioration of any botanical product, including essential oils. And because they are extremely volatile, they will evaporate readily. Never put bottles onto a polished or plastic surface, as accidental spills of essential oils will damage such surfaces.

231 Storing and caring essential oils
Store essential oils away from homeopathic medicines. Certain oils, such as Eucalyptus,, Peppermint and Tea Tree may affect homeopathic remedies.

232 Useful information on a label on the bottle are:
Labeling Useful information on a label on the bottle are: Essential oil name. Botanical name of the oil. Source of the oil. Percentage of dilution if any. Date of expiry or production. Quantity of oil (normally in ml).

233 Essential oils in your Starter Kit
Eucalyptus oil Lavender oil Lemon oil Peppermint oil Tea Tree oil Ylang Ylang oil Carrier oils – Grapeseed, Jojoba, Rosehip Seed and Virgin Coconut Oil. Aromatherapy starter kit may be ordered at

234 RECIPES Please refer to following Recipes in the CD:
Aromatherapy Basics Aromatherapy Recipes 50 ways to use Essential Oils for a cleaner, sweet-smelling life

235 Relaxation with Aromatherapy & Music

236 Warning Aromatherapy is not intended to replace traditional medicine or traditional healthcare. It is simply an avenue for you to take more responsibility for your own health and to allow nature to do what it does best -- balance and heal body, mind and spirit. You should always consult with your healthcare professional before starting any nutritional, herbal, homeopathic, or dietary supplement program.

237 Warning OriDient Sdn Bhd does not warrant and shall have no liability for information provided in this workshop regarding recommendations for any and all health issues. This information is provided only as a guideline to be used when discussing a program with your healthcare professional. We make no warranty, express or implied, regarding any product or service sold, including any warranty of merchantability or fitness of a specific product.

238 Warning The way each person responds to a particular product or treatment may be significantly different from other people's reactions to the same treatment. That is why it is crucial that you consult with your health care professional before starting any new treatment or supplement regimen sold by OriDient Sdn Bhd or any other company.

239 Internet Resources / Links
Aromatherapy Global Online Research Archives (AGORA) Index Aromatherapy and Essential Oils Information from AromaWeb The National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA)

240 Internet Resources / Links
Aromatherapy Internet Resources Atlantic Institute of Aromatherapy The International Aromatherapy Journal & Website

241 References and Suggested Reading
Aromatherapy an A-Z – Patricia Davis Aromatherapy – A Complete Guide to the Healing Art – Kathi Keville & Mindy Green Aromatherapy – The Encyclopedia of Plants and Oils and How they Help You – Daniele Ryman Aromatherapy for the Beauty Therapist – Valerie Ann Worwood.

242 References and Suggested Reading
Aromatherapy Massage – Clare Maxwell-Hudson Aromatherapy Massage – Margie Hare Sensual Aromatherapy (a lover’s guide to using aromatic oils and essences) – Nitya Lacroix Secrets of Aromatherapy – Jennie Harding

243 Aromatherapy Books

244 References and Suggested Reading
The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aromatherapy – Valerie Ann Worwood The Encyclopedia of Aromatherapy – Chrissie Wildwood The Encyclopaedia of Essential Oils – Julia Lawless

245 Aromatherapy Books

246 Further Workshops Intermediate Aromatherapy Workshop
Creative therapeutic blending Hydrosols / Floral Waters Perfume blending Advanced Aromatherapy Workshop Aromatherapeutics Massage techniques Sensual Aromatherapy


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