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Guidelines for Handling Lithium Batteries as Air Cargo Aligned to V3.3 March 2015Intellectual Property of Professional Aviation Services © 2015 All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Guidelines for Handling Lithium Batteries as Air Cargo Aligned to V3.3 March 2015Intellectual Property of Professional Aviation Services © 2015 All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Guidelines for Handling Lithium Batteries as Air Cargo Aligned to V3.3 March 2015Intellectual Property of Professional Aviation Services © 2015 All rights reserved

2 Important Disclaimer: Please note: The information contained in these Guidelines is purely illustrative and does not replace the study of the current edition of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations to perform any tasks related to the preparation of shipments containing Lithium Batteries. Professional Aviation Services does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of the content. Professional Aviation Services will not be held responsible for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause.

3 IMPORTANT NOTE This presentation has been compiled to assist in the understanding of the handling of Lithium Batteries for transport by air. Final details should ALWAYS be checked against the current version of the IATA DGR. This is regularly updated. The electronic DGR is recommended. You should ALWAYS connect to the internet before use, as it automatically updates. Should you be using the printed DGR it is important that you check for updates/revisions; at present (56 th Edition: 10 February 2015) there is one available: – Addendum posted 8 Jan 2015 - effective January 1, 2015 NOTE: These addenda contains changes effecting Lithium Batteries in a variety of sections of the DGR

4 Background Section

5 Background Section Why the Attention? What is Lithium? A short history of incidents Why are lithium batteries dangerous?

6 What is Lithium? Lithium (from Greek lithos 'stone') is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3 It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements The lithium ion Li + administered as any of several lithium salts has proved to be useful as a mood- stabilizing drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries

7 Background February 7, 2006 Flight 1307, N748UP, a Douglas DC-8, was destroyed by fire at Philadelphia International Airport. Just before landing the crew reported a smoke detector activated in the cargo hold. After landing, the cargo hold of the aircraft caught fire. The source of the fire was never resolved.

8 What’s the history of incidents? … out of 44 incidents* involving lithium batteries since 1991: – 21 involved passenger aircraft; of those, 16 involved carry-on luggage, and 1 involved checked baggage – 23 incidents involved cargo aircraft, presumably in pallets of batteries being transported by air *(in the US)

9 Why are Lithium Batteries Dangerous? …other types of batteries use a water-based electrolyte in each cell, lithium ion relies on a highly flammable solvent. When heated up, that solvent tends to vaporize, spraying the burnable gas into the surrounding air. As a result, lithium ion battery fires burn extremely hot, as high as 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1200 o C).

10 Why are Lithium Batteries Dangerous?

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14 End of Background Section

15 Basic Understanding Section

16 Basis of the Information Cells vs Batteries Lithium Ion and Lithium Metal Dealing with Specifications What do these things look like? Batteries, or batteries in or with equipment?

17 Handling Lithium Batteries as Air Cargo Basis of Information 2015 IATA DGR – 56 th Edition

18 IMPORTANT NOTE This presentation has been compiled to assist in the understanding of the handling of Lithium Batteries for transport by air. Final details should ALWAYS be checked against the current version of the IATA DGR. This is regularly updated. The electronic DGR is recommended. You should ALWAYS connect to the internet before use, as it automatically updates. Should you be using the printed DGR it is important that you check for updates/revisions; at present (56 th Edition: 10 February 2015) there is one available: – Addendum posted 8 Jan 2015 - effective January 1, 2015 NOTE: This addendum contains changes effecting Lithium Batteries in a variety of sections of the DGR

19 Background Cells and Batteries … what’s the difference?

20 Main definitions What are CELLS? “Cell” means a single encased electrochemical unit (one positive and one negative electrode) which exhibits a voltage differential across its two terminals If the unit meets the definition of “cell”, it is a “cell”, not a “battery”, although some units may be termed a “battery” or a “single cell battery”. If all else fails … call for and check the MSDS

21 Main definitions What are BATTERIES? “Battery” means two or more cells which are electrically connected together and fitted with devices necessary for use, for example, case, terminals, marking and protective devices. A single cell lithium battery is considered a "cell" and must be tested according to the testing requirements for "cells" for the purposes of these Regulations and the provisions of subsection 38.3 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (see also the definition for "cell").

22 Main definitions What are BATTERY PACKS Units that are commonly referred to as “battery packs”, “modules” or “battery assemblies” having the primary function of providing a source of power to another piece of equipment are for the purposes of these Regulations and the provisions of Subsection 38.3 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria treated as batteries.

23 Cell vs Battery

24 Background Cells and Batteries … what’s the difference? Lithium Ion and Lithium Metal???

25 Comparison of “Power Potential”

26 Splitting things up to make it safer … and easier There are TWO types of Lithium Batteries First Question Are they Lithium ION (includes Lithium Polymer) or are they Lithium METAL (includes Lithium Alloy)

27 Main definitions What are Lithium ION batteries? – rechargeable, a.k.a “secondary lithium batteries” – normally shipped in a charged or semi-charged state, can still contain HIGH levels of energy – Found in cellphones, laptops and other electronic devices

28 … and Lithium Polymer? What makes lithium-polymer batteries special? In short, their density. Lithium Polymer (often abbreviated Li-Po or Li-Poly) batteries pack more capacity (mAh) into less space, which means lighter battery packs – especially for model aeroplanes, RC or otherwise. So, LIGHTER doesn’t mean less charge It’s the CHARGE not the mass that counts! They are classified WITH Li-ion at this stage

29 For Lithium Ion and Polymer What specs do I need? The Wh (Watt Hour) rating per cell or battery The voltage of the cell(s) or battery(s)* * you’ll see why later

30 The specs I get are in mAh IATA limits are expressed in Wh So how do you convert??? Easy formulae: mAh to Wh Wh = (mAh × v ) ÷ 1000 Wh to mAh: mAh = (Wh × 1000) ÷ v

31 Example: mAh to Wh mAh given: 1500mAh Voltage given: 3v FORMULA:Wh = (mAh × v ) ÷ 1000 CONVERSION: (1500 x 3) ÷ 1000 = 4500 ÷ 1000 = 4.5Wh

32 Example: Wh to mAh Wh given:15Wh Voltage given:3v FORMULA:mAh = (Wh × 1000) ÷ v CONVERSION: (15 x1000) ÷ 3 = 15000 ÷ 3 = 5000mAh

33 What does a 20Wh Cell Look Like?

34 What does a 100Wh (or bigger) battery look like? 240Wh

35 Main definitions What are Lithium METAL batteries? – disposable, a.k.a. “primary lithium batteries” – generally NOT rechargeable, therefore normally shipped fully charged – Found in watches, calculators, cameras etc.

36 For Lithium Metal and Alloy What specs do I need? The mass in Grammes (g) of lithium in each cell or battery

37 Splitting things up to make it safer … and easier Second Question Are they a) BATTERIES (ON THEIR OWN)? OR are they b) BATTERIES CONTAINED IN EQUIPMENT? OR are they c) BATTERIES PACKED WITH EQUIPMENT?

38 Before you start …. CERTIFICATION ALL cells and batteries must be tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria Part lll subsection 38.3 (DGR 3.9.2.6 Lithium Batteries) Handout available ASK for proof – just as you would ask for an MSDS

39 End of Basic Understanding Section

40 The Handling Process

41 IMPORTANT NOTE This presentation has been compiled to assist in the understanding of the handling of Lithium Batteries for transport by air. Final details should ALWAYS be checked against the current version of the IATA DGR. This is regularly updated. The electronic DGR is recommended. You should ALWAYS connect to the internet before use, as it automatically updates. Should you be using the printed DGR it is important that you check for updates/revisions; at present (56 th Edition: 10 February, 2015) there is one available: – Addendum posted 8 January 2015 - effective January 1, 2015 NOTE: This addendum contains changes effecting Lithium Batteries in a variety of sections of the DGR

42 Getting closer to the process A word of caution Some other definitions UN Numbers and Proper Shipping Names Packing Instructions and Sections Getting it Right – a step by step approach

43 A word of caution STOP A154 Lithium batteries identified by the manufacturer as being defective for safety reasons, or that have been damaged, that have the potential of producing a dangerous evolution of heat, fire or short circuit are forbidden for transport (e.g. those being returned to the manufacturer for safety reasons).

44 Another word of caution STOP are forbidden from air transport A183 Waste batteries and batteries being shipped for recycling or disposal are forbidden from air transport unless approved by the appropriate national authority of the State of Origin and the State of the Operator.

45 Equipment with batteries? A182 Equipment containing only lithium batteries must be classified as either: UN 3481 Lithium ion batteries contained in equipment or UN 3091 Lithium metal batteries contained in equipment

46 ALL batteries and battery-powered equipment A164 Any electrical battery or battery-powered device, equipment or vehicle having the potential of a dangerous evolution of heat must be prepared for transport so as to prevent: a)a short circuit (e.g. in the case of batteries by the effective insulation of exposed terminals; or in the case of equipment, by disconnection of the battery and protection of exposed terminals); and b)unintentional activation.

47 Vehicles A185 Vehicles only powered by lithium metal batteries or lithium ion batteries must be consigned under the entry: UN 3171, Battery-powered vehicle

48 There are only FOUR UN numbers for Lithium Batteries Batteries – UN3480Lithium ion batteries – UN3090Lithium metal batteries If they are packed with equipment, or contained in equipment – UN3481Lithium ion batteries packed with equipment Lithium ion batteries contained in equipment – UN3091Lithium metal batteries packed with equipment Lithium metal batteries contained in equipment

49 AND there are 6 different Packing Instructions (PI’s) (… and there are subsections in the PI’s!) UN3480965 (Section lA, lB or ll) UN3481966 (Section l or ll) UN3481967 (Section l or ll) UN3090*968 (Section lA, lB or ll) UN3091969 (Section l or ll) UN3091970 (Section l or ll) *As of January 1, 2015 UN3090 will not be allowed to shipped on PASSENGER AIRCRAFT

50 STEP by STEP So how do we get it RIGHT??? STEP by STEP Step 1: All prechecks done before you begin the process (it will save your client, and you, time and trouble later) Step 2: Establish a)Wh (Watt hours) per cell, or battery OR g (grams) of Lithium per cell, or battery b)Net weight (of contents) per package c)Qty of cells or batteries* d)GROSS weight of package* Step 3: Lithium Metal or Lithium Ion? (n.b. Lithium Polymer included with Li-Ion) (n.b. Lithium Alloy included with Lithium Metal) Step 4: Batteries? or in/with equipment? Step 5: Establish SECTION of PI applicable (see process) * NOT always required, but if you establish these upfront, you won’t have to go scrambling for the information later

51 Fill in the Consignment Prep Sheet

52 First things first … get the details

53 The Practical Application Information is now all gathered Established now are: – UN Number – Proper Shipping Name (PSN) – Packing Instruction* *Check all details in the GENERAL section – Establish which SECTION applies – Establish all DGR requirements

54 The Practical Application A STEP-BY-STEP Process STEP ONE go to Page 5 GO TO the Packing Instruction (example page indicated)

55 The Practical Application STEP TWO – determine which section applies Choose which section: (example given) GO TO the page indicated

56 The Practical Application STEP THREE – follow the instructions: CHECK METAL or ION? Correct Proper Shipping Name Correct UN Number Correct Packing Instruction (VARIATIONS?) Correct Section IMP CODE BATTERIES or CELLS? Max Capacity for type Check Max Gross/Nett for Aircraft Type Packing Group for materials DGD: required or not? Waybill requirements Safety Document: required or not? Checklist: which one to use? Labelling requirements

57 Complete the Consignment Prep Sheet X = not permitted on passenger aircraft after January 1, 2015

58 For further information and Training Sean Reynolds Professional Training Cell 082 689 5480 eMail sean@prisk.co.zasean@prisk.co.za THANK YOU Important Disclaimer: Please note: the information contained in this Guide is purely illustrative and does not replace the study of the current edition of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations to perform any tasks related to the preparation of shipments containing Lithium Batteries. Professional Aviation Services does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of the content. Professional Aviation Services will not be held responsible for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause.


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