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1 Questions to Ask, Pitfalls to Avoid and Problem Recovery Tips ? ? ? ? Quick Toolkit for Project Leaders, Champions and Mentors.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Questions to Ask, Pitfalls to Avoid and Problem Recovery Tips ? ? ? ? Quick Toolkit for Project Leaders, Champions and Mentors."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Questions to Ask, Pitfalls to Avoid and Problem Recovery Tips ? ? ? ? Quick Toolkit for Project Leaders, Champions and Mentors

2 2 QUICK TOOLKIT TIPS: Stay focused on clear team objectives, purpose and deadlines. Plan regular work reviews. Promote accomplishment. ? ? ? ?

3 3 Business: Process: Problem: Primary Metric: Current Performance: Target Performance: Objective: Estimated Financial Impact: Financial Impact To-Date: Date: Start Date: Estimated Completion Date: Finance:Ph#: Fax: Black Belt:Ph#: Fax: Notes: (Issues/Challenges) Define  On-Going Measurement Plan Developed, Documented And Implemented Date:  Procedures Documented Date:  Systems And Structures Modified (i.e. Communication Boards, Kanban, Poka- yoke, Automation) Date: MeasureAnalyzeImproveControl  Solution Design Developed And Documented Date:  Cost/ Benefit Analysis Date:  Implementation Plan Developed And Executed Date:  Improvement Targets Established Date:  Process Streamlining Opportunities Identified Date:  Problems Clearly Defined Date:  Causes Identified/ Analyzed Date:  Opportunity Quantified Date:  Data Collection Plan, MSA Evaluated Date:  Establish Process Capability Date:  Analyze Special and Common Causes Date:  Data Displayed With Appropriate Charts And Graphs Date:  Problem Statement/ with ‘SMART’ Objective(s): Date:  Team Charter Documented And Reviewed Date:  Validated Process Map Completed Date:  Proj. #, Benefits Model Completed Date: Team Summary and Project Review

4 4 What To Expect From Your Team: Charter: Written documentation of Team Charter, including Problem Statement, Objective, Benefit analysis, Team Members, preliminary Budget, all signatures and preliminary Milestones. Revisions to Team Charter highlighted and explained. Customer Perspective: List of customers of the process being improved, segmenting primary and secondary customers. List of data collection methods to be used to develop understanding of customers’ needs and requirements. Visual display of numerical and qualitative data collected. High Level Process Map: Visual display of high level “As Is” Process Map developed in SIPOC format identifying suppliers, inputs, process activities, outputs, and customers. Validated process map or value stream analysis. Define

5 5 Questions To Ask Or Actions To Look For: Customer requirements Is this an important Customer issue? What data has been collected to understand the problem? Charter What are the business reasons for completing this project? What Breakthrough Objectives will this project impact? How? What is the problem being addressed? Where, when, and to what extent does the problem occur? Has another Improvement Team tried to solve this or a similar problem? What can we learn from their efforts? What are the boundaries of this project? What is the goal for the project? Is the goal developed in the “SMART” format? How will we know if the team is successful? Are key milestones established? High-Level Process Map Describe how this map was developed. How was the map validated? Is the process actually followed? Are multiple versions necessary to account for different types of input? Define

6 6 Pitfalls To Avoid Assuming that the team is meeting regularly, that team members are spending sufficient time outside of their meetings, and that the team is making progress on the project. Adhering rigidly to the original Team Charter – it needs to be adjusted when new information is surfaced. Expecting smooth, linear progress from day one. Rushing to solve the problem/opportunity well before the problem has been clarified, analyzed with objective data, or its root causes identified. Assuming that the team will function smoothly and know what to do just because “good” people have been assigned. Assuming the team can develop its charter and goals on its own or with just a high level project statement. Problem Recovery Tips Problem/SymptomProbable CauseRecovery Ongoing confusion within team. Inadequate Charter discussions. Inadequate start-up sponsorship. Conduct discussion clearly define Team Charter, and key team processes. Use project definition tools. Involve Black Belt or Master Black Belt to assist in clarification. Clearly contract expectations for Champion, Team Leader, and team members. Meet with sponsor to clarify expectations. Define and communicate the need for the project as both a threat and opportunity using T vs. O and 3D’s analysis (data, demand, and demonstration). Identify other key stakeholders beyond sponsor and involve in chartering. Utilize Black Belt or Master Black Belt for mediation, conflict negotiation. Communicate two-way to seek understanding of resistance. Explore expanding Six Sigma team to include representatives from additional departments, also consider ‘neutral’ member to ask questions. Open dialog with team about situation and reasons. Sponsor should communicate clear expectations to team. If primary job duties are preventing work on project, discuss situation with relevant managers to understand their position, seek solution. Resistance/antagonism between team and people in other areas not on the team, e.g., department heads, specialists. Need for project has not been communicated Lack of involvement of key stakeholders upfront. Insufficient membership on Six Sigma team. Teams not meeting sufficiently or individual members not working between meetings. Inadequate chartering on roles and responsibilities. Poor communication by sponsor of team expectations. Conflicts between regular work and project. Define

7 7 What To Expect From Your Team: Agreement on what measures, especially output measures, are important to the project’s success. A sound data collection plan covering the above measures. Identification of critical defect areas (ie – preliminary 7W’s) within the process. A description/calculation of the baseline level of process capability or delta/sigma level. Questions To Ask Or Actions To Look For: What key Y’s and x's (output, process, and input measures) indicate the performance of this process? What are the definitions of defect, unit, and opportunity that you will use to calculate process yields and/or capability measures? And to track project performance? What is your data collection plan? How much data did you collect? How did you sample? What potential stratifying factors (i.e. over time, shift to shift etc ) will you use in your data analysis? What have you done to ensure the reliability and validity of the measurement process? Show me the charts that you used to assess the variation in your process What is the current (performing) process level and goal for this project? Have you found any “quick hit” improvements? Is the scope of the project manageable? Measure

8 8 Discover that the data collected is not right for the problem being solved. Poor identification of key measures. Insufficient data collection plan. Involve Black Belt or MBB in reviewing key measures and data collection plan. Consider rewriting the problem statement. Lack of cooperation from others to provide or collect the data. Need for project is unclear / not understood Lack of involvement of key stakeholders. Data collection plan too dependent on others. Create a Shared Need - communicate need for project as both a threat and opportunity (T vs. O analysis) using 3 D’s analysis (data, demand and demonstration). Identify other key stakeholders beyond sponsor and involve in project. Consider expanding team. Review data collection plan – Consider ways the team can collect data. Moving to solutions without having begun or completed analyze phase. Pressure from the organization to act. Some obvious process problems. Protect the team from pressures. Review data supporting implementing “quick-hit” solutions, check for linkage to customer requirements. Pitfalls To Avoid Excessive costs to collect data (inputs, processes, outputs) compared to the practical value of the information in leading to improvements. Use judgment coupled with discipline; don’t be rigid. Not collecting certain types of data simply because “we’ve never done that before,” or the fear that it might be inconvenient or threatening to some people. Rush to the solution before data is collected and analyzed. Paralysis by analysis – reams of data – unable to see the big picture while looking at the details. Waiting for perfect data to move forward. “We need more data” battle cry. Measuring only “Q” type factors. (defects, rework etc) Problem Recovery Tips Problem/SymptomProbable CauseRecovery Waiting for data. Lack of perfect information systems. Encourage team to utilize simple sampling and data collection methods. Data from “Sampling Plan” should be representative, adequate and random. Measure

9 9 What To Expect From Your Team: Data analyzed and displayed properly for easy understanding. Visual display of a detailed process map of the “as is” process. Identification of key stakeholders. Detailed Process Analysis. Analysis of the critical subprocesses utilizing moments of truth, value-added/nonvalue- added, time value analysis, cycle time and/or other analytical tools. Analysis of stakeholders, resistance, and influence strategies. Identification and verification of root causes and the “vital few” factors. Rationale for decision as to why focus on process analysis, data analysis, or designed experimentation. Sharpened problem statement reflecting process analysis, data analysis, and/or experimental data. Estimates of the quantifiable opportunity represented by the problem. Analyze

10 10 Questions To Ask Or Actions To Look For: What are the vital x's linked to the project Y? How did you draw that conclusion? Show me your detailed process map. How was it created? What level of detail did you include? What did you learn from analyzing this map? What are the critical moments of truth? How much time does it take to complete each phase? Which phases are non-value- added? How coded? (Value Stream Analysis, Process Detailing) How have you analyzed the data to identify the factors that account for variation in the process? How was your data stratified? Show me your cause & effect diagram. How were potential causes identified? How were the key factors identified? How were the key factors verified? Did you collect additional data? What was measured? What did you learn from the analysis? What is the financial opportunity represented by addressing the problem? What are the quantifiable costs of our current process performance (the cost of poor quality)? What intangible benefits are anticipated? What revisions have been made to the charter, particularly the problem statement and the project scope? Analyze

11 11 Pitfalls To Avoid: Confuse correlation with causation – simply because one factor is associated with some outcome, doesn’t mean it causes changes in the outcome (e.g., a rooster crowing at dawn does not cause the sun to rise). To forget about looking at suppliers (they’re inputs to the process) as a source of unwanted variation or root cause to the problem. Not acknowledging the role that a “sacred cow” (e.g., a certain function, policy /practice) or other “Acceptance” issues have in a root cause. Problem Recovery Tips Problem/SymptomProbable CauseRecovery Disagreements over how to interpret the data. Team Dynamics. Poor understanding of analysis tools. Have the Black Belt or MBB facilitate a team building session, focusing on conflict resolution and decision making. Review training for team on methods for analysis. Resistance to the data which indicates that the preliminary problem was not really the issue, and a turnaround of the project charter needs to occur. Team locked into conclusions prior to having the data. Fear of being criticized for “wasting time” on the wrong issue. Praise the team for discovering the “real” problem. Conduct discussion to clarify and/or modify charter. If appropriate, close the project and/or restart new project with different charter and team members. Data that was collected and analyzed was easy to obtain, but not what was needed to identify the reasons for defects. Time Pressures to complete project. Lack of thorough data collection plan. Clarify data collection plan goals and review linkage to project objectives and/or customer requirements. Recontract for appropriate timeframes for data collection. Analyze

12 12 What To Expect From Your Team: Solutions to the problem generated and selected (based on those that best address the root cause(s) found). “Should be” or “Could be” process map developed. “Vision” of solutions is translated to behaviors (more of / less of) -- “should be” behaviors needed in new “should be” process. Cost/ benefit analysis of proposed solutions. Pilot -experiments conducted of proposed solution and results evaluated. Full implementation plan developed, including project, change management and communication plans. Improve

13 13 Questions To Ask Or Actions To Look For: How did you generate solution alternatives? What methods were used to encourage “out of the box” thinking? What elements of mistake proofing were you able to incorporate into your solution? What criteria did you use to evaluate the potential solutions? Show me your “should be” or “could be” process map. How does the solution link to the vital x's of the problem? How was the solution tested on a small scale? – How representative was the test? – What did you learn about full-scale implementation from the pilot? Walk through your cost/ benefit analysis. – What assumptions were made? How did you evaluate your solutions to handle potential controllership issues? Improve

14 14 Pitfalls To Avoid: Failing to anticipate how the proposed solution will adversely impact the ability of other processes to function well. Not being clear about the assumptions involved when estimating both costs and benefits. All proposed solutions require significant investments, rather than also proposing solutions which do not require additional investments. Not obtaining the full commitment of people that are involved in implementing or impacted by the proposed solution – some people have concerns that were not listened to, or were not adequately addressed. Not celebrating effort and success (progress, not perfection) frequently enough throughout the different phases. Problem Recovery Tips Problem/SymptomProbable CauseRecovery Team is stuck on one best solution that has heavy investment requirement. Wanting to “fix everything.” Focus on going for “10x improvement”. Looking for “easy” solution – someone else has to do it. Review process for generating potential solutions. Discuss assumptions that the team has regarding criteria for solutions. Challenge team to develop list of alternative solutions. Too much emphasis by team on technical solution (“Q”) and not enough on organizational acceptance / commitment (“A”) to the proposed change. Team underestimates resistance to change. Team uncomfortable dealing with change management issues. Assign Change Acceleration Process coach or MBB to assist the team. Utilize Stakeholder Analysis. Review process for change – Shared Need, Vision, Buy-in, Make It Last, Monitor Progress, Change Systems and Structures. Have the team conduct a focus group with impacted employees to gauge their resistance / identify key areas of concern. Too much turnover among team members, resulting in little sustained progress. Low level of interest for the project. Low priority of project. Inadequate project management. Conduct open dialog with team regarding turnover – discuss reasons and next steps. Meet with the other key stakeholders to discuss importance of project and/or closing the project due to low priority. Help team leader with project management skills. Improve

15 15 What To Expect From Your Team: Ongoing monitoring plan that captures the results derived from the improved process. Statistical data that the new process is operating “in control.” Documented procedures of the improved process. Evidence that the solution has been integrated into day-to-day operations. Broader systems and structures changes to institutionalize the improvement. Questions To Ask Or Actions To Look For: What is the new Process performance measure? Does it meet the target for the project? What is the control plan? What is being measured? How are control charts being used? How well and consistently is the process performing? Is a response plan in place for when the process measures indicate an “out of control” condition? Has the process been standardized? Show me the documentation that will support this improvement. How has job training been affected? Who is the process owner? How will responsibility for continued monitoring and improvement be transferred from the team to the owner? What systems and structures (rewards, measures, staffing, training, information, etc.) still need to change in order to institutionalize the improvement? What are some other areas of the business that can benefit from your learning’s? How can we most effectively share our learning’s with them? What is the next problem that should be addressed in this process? What did you, as a team, learn about the process of making improvements? Control

16 16 Pitfalls To Avoid: Neglect to create serious accountability for transition of the process changes to the natural work team. Ignore doing follow-up monitoring and reporting. Problem Recovery Tips Problem/SymptomProbable CauseRecovery Team is thrilled by their solution to the problem, but not interested in the hard work of effectively monitoring results. Lack of clear charter statement regarding control responsibility. Lack of motivation. Reclarify charter – emphasize responsibility for control. Provide appropriate recognition and reward for progress-to-date. Quality Leaders approve an alternative project team that would negate the proposed solution of this team. Lack of clear communication. Provide opportunity for team to present to Leadership regarding their project, solution, results and impact for leveraging elsewhere. Too much resistance from key stakeholders to the proposed change (they may be sabotaging it, either actively or passively undermining it). Lack of involvement of key stakeholders in the team’s efforts. Re-engage the key stakeholders with the team; if necessary, “plow over old ground.” Explain thought process, tool application and linkage. Develop and implement an influence strategy regarding the key stakeholders. Control


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