Presentation on theme: "MASTERCLASS ON THE NEW COMPANIES ACT"— Presentation transcript:
1MASTERCLASS ON THE NEW COMPANIES ACT Special Focus on PE/VC and M&AImpact on Term Sheets & InvestmentsKhaitan & Co LLPIVCA Masterclass|New Delhi17 December 2013
2Background Company: XYZ Limited (public unlisted) Investor: You (through Mauritius)Promoter: One Promoter with several family members holding sharesExisting Investors: Angel investor and VC collectively holding 10%Business: 100% FDI permitted under the automatic routeYour Investment: 26%Note: Language in this font indicates term sheet extracts
3Background – What we are covering Pre-Investment Considerations:Further FundingFurther Issuances of CapitalStructuring your investmentPre-emptive RightsMaking the right choice of instrumentAnti-Dilution RightsConversionConditions PrecedentPenal RatchetsFinancial AssistanceExits & Transfer RestrictionsInsider TradingManagementTerm Sheet IssuesBoard CompositionIPOsBoard CommitteesTransaction DocumentationBoard PowersBoard MeetingsEnforceabilityReserved MattersEntrenchment
4PRE-INVESTMENT CONSIDERATIONS Structuring your InvestmentMaking the Right Choice of Securities
5Structuring – Layered Investments New Restriction | Layered InvestmentsA company cannot make investments through more than 2 layers of investment companies [S (1)]“Investment company” means a company whose principal business is acquisition of shares, debentures or other securities [Explanation, S 186]Whether the restriction is applicable only to ‘investment subsidiaries’?Exemptions [Proviso, S 186 (1)]:Offshore acquisition possible if the offshore target has investment subsidiaries beyond 2 levels, as per the laws of such countrySubsidiary can have investment subsidiary to meet regulatory requirements
7Structuring – Layered Investments ImpactTakes away flexibility to structure investmentsGenuine transactions will be severely impacted, in particular, investments in the Infrastructure sectorAbility of India Inc to monetise at various subsidiary levels will be impairedCompanies will have to demonstrate operations in the subsidiaries | operation and compliance costsOutbound AcquisitionsStatutory recognition of more than one layers for offshore acquisitionsWatch outsYour structure should be in conformity with the above
8Structure – Right Choice of Security INSTRUMENT:EQUITY SHARECCPSCCDECB (OCPS / OCD)OWNERSHIPYesNoOCPS: Yes | OCD: NoVOTING RIGHTSYes [S 47(1)]Voting right on matters affecting CCPS, winding up, repayment or reduction of capitalVoting right on all matters if no dividend is paid for 2 years or more [S 47(2)]No [S 71(2)]OCPS: Same as CCPSOCD: Class VotingNATURE OF RETURNDividends from Profits and subject to Transfer of Profits to Reserves Rules [S 123]Preferential dividend possible [S 43]Participating / Non-participating distinction possibleCumulative / Non-cumulative distinction removedInterestOCD: InterestISSUANCE REQUIREMENTSRights issue through Board resolution[S 62(2)(a)]Preferential allotment through special resolution [S 62(1)(c)]Special resolution[R 4.7(1)(a)][S 71(1)][S 71(1) r/w R 4.7(1)(a)]PRICING RESTRICTIONS UNDER FEMAListed: SEBI GuidelinesUnlisted: DCF Method
9Structure – Right Choice of Security INSTRUMENT:EQUITY SHARECCPSCCDECB (OCPS / OCD)VALUATION FOR PREFERENTIAL ALLOTMENT UNDER CA2013Valuation by Registered Valuer[S 62]N/AVALUATION UNDER INCOME TAX ACTListed- Price for which it is sold on stock exchangeUnlisted- Fair Market ValueCONVERSION UNDER FEMA ETCConversion formula to be agreed upfront limited by DCFPrice of resultant shares cannot go below DCF at the time of issuanceUpfront conversion formula not mandatoryPrice of resultant shares cannot go below DCF at the time of issuance and FDI sectoral caps complied with; FC-GPR and ECB-2 to be filedCONVERSION UNDER CA2013PossiblePrice of resultant shares to be fixed upfront if CCPS issued at preferential allotment [R 4.11(2)(h)]More onerous than FDI regime?Price of resultant shares to be fixed upfront if CCDS issued at preferential allotment [R 4.11(2)(h)]Price of resultant shares to be fixed upfront if OCPS/OCD issued at preferential allotment [R 4.11(2)(h)]OTHER CONSIDERATIONSConsider taking some equity to take voting rightsTenure of 18 months for CCDs issued by listed companiesPreference shares/debentures which are not compulsorily convertible are treated as debt under FEMA and need to comply with ECB norms
10Structure – Differential Rights Equity shares with differential rights as to dividend, voting or otherwise continue to be recognised [S 43(a)(ii)]No differentiation between private and public companies:Is the investee company public or private?Will rules be enacted similar to the existing rules for issuance of shares with differential rights by public companies?Shares with differential rights not to exceed 25% of the total post-issue paid up equity share capital [R 4.2(1)(c)]Can differential voting rights arguably trigger “control” issues under FDI regulations?Definition of “Control” under Press Note 4 of 2013 is wide and includes control by virtue of shareholding, management rights, shareholders agreements or voting agreementsVoting: The Series A Equity Shares shall carry voting rights equivalent to 26% (Twenty Six percent) of the Share Capital.ExampleIf a member holds 10% of the share capital with 51% voting rights, will he be deemed to have “control”?
12Conditions Precedent Conditions Precedent: The Closing of the Transaction shall be subject to the fulfilment of the following conditions (“Conditions Precedent”) to the satisfaction of the New Investor:Completion of legal, financial, environmental, technical and business due diligence processes to the satisfaction of the New Investor;The Promoter shall purchase all securities held by the remaining members of the Promoter Group at a price to be determined inter-se the Promoter Group and the Promoter Group shall no longer have any legal or beneficial interest in the Company upon the conclusion of such purchase;
13Financial Assistance No financial assistance [S 67] “No public company shall give, whether directly or indirectly and whether by means of a loan, guarantee, the provision of security or otherwise, any financial assistance for the purpose of, or in connection with, a purchase or subscription made or to be made, by any person of or for any shares in the company or in its holding company.”This section was present in the 1956 Act as well, but the interpretation may well be re-openedIssues?Payment of due diligence costs or advisor’s fees by targetIndemnity by target in the underwriting agreementAny exception?Provisions not applicable to private companiesFinancial assistance to subsidiary company not prohibitedImpactOne of the most severe consequences on defaultTo consider whether diligence costs should be pushed to the targetExpenses: The Company shall bear all costs and expenses relating to any due diligence exercise to be conducted in the course of the Transaction and any legal or other fees relating to the negotiation and finalization of the Transaction Documents and the Closing of the Transaction.
14Insider Trading – Mop-up Transactions New Concept [S 195]Seems to be applicable to all companiesProhibits persons, including directors and KMP from entering into insider trading (with exemption for communication in course of employment / profession, or under law)“Insider trading” refers to the act of buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in securities by person who is reasonably expected to have access to non-public price sensitive information in respect of securities of the companyOn contravention, person punishable with imprisonment upto 5 years or fine between INR 5,00,000 and INR 25,00,000 or 3x of profit made out of insider trading, whichever is higher, or bothThe Promoter shall purchase all securities held by the remaining members of the Promoter Group at a price to be determined inter-se the Promoter Group and the Promoter Group shall no longer have any legal or beneficial interest in the Company upon the conclusion of such purchase
15Insider Trading – Mop-up Transactions Impact | Unclear ConceptsThere was no requirement for this legislation to legislate on insider trading since listed companies are already covered under SEBI Insider Trading RegulationsDefines “insider trading” which is not defined under SEBI Insider Trading RegulationsMay apply even to unlisted companies, absurd consequences – clearly not intended!Blind Spots“Mop-up” transactions under cloud?How will test of “published information” be met for unlisted companies?What about subsequent rounds of funding?
17Board Composition Board Composition: On and from the Closing Date, the board of directors of the Company (the “Board”) shall comprise of 5 (Five) directors such that:The Promoter will be entitled to nominate 2 (Two) directors; andThe Existing Investors shall jointly be entitled to nominate 1 (One) director (the “Existing Investor Director”); andThe New Investor shall be entitled to nominate 2 (Two) directors (the “New Investor Directors”);The Existing Investor Director and the New Investor Directors shall hereinafter collectively be referred to as the “Investor Directors” and each shall individually be referred to as an “Investor Director”).The Investor Directors shall be appointed to each committee of the Board.
18Board Composition – Matrix TYPE OF COMPANYCSR TRIGGERSINDEPENDENT DIRECTORWOMAN DIRECTORSMALL SHAREHOLDER DIRECTORRESIDENT DIRECTORPrivate CompanyIndependent Director required on CSR Committee if:Net worth ≥ INR CroresTurnover ≥ INR CroresNet profit ≥ INR 5 crores[S 135(1)]1 Independent on CSR Committee if CSR requirement is triggeredRequired if paid-up share capital > INR crores (to be appointed within 3 years) [R 11.1(ii)]Not applicableOne director required to be resident in India for at least days in a calendar year[S 149(3)]Public Unlisted Company1/3rd of the Board to be Independent if the Company has:Paid-up share capital of INR crores or more;Turnover of INR 300 crores or more; orAggregate outstanding loans, borrowings, debentures or deposits exceeding INR crores [R 11.2]Required if paid-up share capital > INR crores (to be appointed within 3 years)[R 11.1(ii)]Listed CompanyAll listed companies to have 1/3rd of the Board comprised of independents [S 149(4)]Requirement increases to half of the Board if there is an executive chairmanAll listed Companies to have a woman director (to be appointed within 1 year) [R 11.1(i)]Mandatory? Suo motu optionRequest of 1/10th the number of small shareholders or small shareholders (whichever is lower)
19Board Committees: Applicability TYPE OF COMPANYAUDIT COMMITTEENOMINATION & REMUNERATION COMMITTEECSR COMMITTEESTAKEHOLDER RELATIONSHIP COMMITTEEPRIVATE COMPANYNot applicableIndependent Director required on CSR Committee if:Net worth ≥ INR CroresTurnover ≥ INR CroresNet profit ≥ INR 5 croresUnlikely to apply since the requirement is only triggered where a company has shareholders or morePUBLIC UNLISTED COMPANYBoth Committees required if the Company has:Paid-up share capital of INR crores or more; orAggregate outstanding loans, borrowings, debentures or deposits exceeding INR 200 crores [R 12.4]Applies if the Company has or more shareholdersLISTED COMPANYApplicable
20Watch outs on Board Composition Check the following parameters against the matrices above:Company’s net worth;Company’s net profit;Company’s turnover;Company’s paid-up share capital; andCompany’s outstanding borrowings.Restructure the Board and introduce committees to comply with requirementsImportance of proportionate representation instead of fixed number of directorsWatch outs on Board CompositionInvestor nominee directors should not be used to comply with requirementsChange in size and composition of the Board will be an essential Reserved Matter RightCompliance with requirements will need to be ensured as the Investee Company grows over the course of the investment lifeKeep a special watch in relation to listed companiesResidency test may be important for nominee directors
21Director’s Duties [S 166]The Investor Directors shall not be liable for any failure by the Company to comply with applicable law and shall not be considered as ‘officers in default’. The Company will indemnify the Investor Directors to the greatest extent permitted under applicable law and shall obtain directors and officers liability insurance to the satisfaction of the New Investor providing adequate insurance coverage to the Investor Directors.To act in accordance with the articles of association of the company;To act in good faith to promote the objects of the company for the best interests of the company and for the benefit of the members as a whole and in the best interests of the employees, shareholders, the community and the environment;To exercise his duties with due and reasonable care, skill, diligence and independent judgment;To avoid situations where he may have a direct or indirect interest which conflicts or may conflict with the interests of the company;To avoid any undue gain to himself or his relatives, partners, or associate (if found guilty of this, the director may be required to pay an amount equal to such gain to the company);
22Watch outs for Directors Board PowersKey Changes – Restrictions [S 179]Addition to the list of powers which can be exercised only at a Board meeting:Approval of financial statements and Board reportsDiversification of businessApproval of amalgamation, merger or reconstructionApproval of takeover of another company or acquisition of a substantial stake in another companyWatch outs for DirectorsAffirmative rights exercised at Board level may conflict with duties, preference for shareholders’ level/written consent affirmative rights | Most items should require shareholder’s approvalConflict with several interests of a nominee director towards the relevant shareholder;Duty of care is quite onerous and it seems it may be easy to slip up!Contravention to result in a fine of INR 1 lakh to INR 5 lakhs
23Board MeetingsAttendance of Meetings: To the extent permitted under and in compliance with applicable Law, any Director may participate in and vote at a meeting of the Board by means of telephone, video conferencing or similar communications equipment which allows all persons participating in the meeting to hear each other and to record the deliberations. Where any Director participates in a meeting of the Board by any of the means described in the preceding sentence, the Company shall ensure that that Director is provided with a copy of all documents to be referred to during such meeting of the Board before the meeting of the Board commences.Participation by video conference and other audio visuals as may be prescribed has been codified and permitted;Procedure for participation in a Board meeting by video conference to be provided
24Impact Board Restructuring may be required for existing investments: Independent directors may be required on private companies (CSR) – clarification awaitedWomen Directors may be required on private companies (share capital threshold)Directors’ LiabilityDirectors duties in direct conflict with investor interestsIncreased risk of nominee director liability (lack of diligence; knowledge attributable through Board process; non-objection)Insider Trading restrictions may extend to private companies [S 195]
25Reserved Matters Reserved Matters Schedule [--] hereto contains a list of indicative affirmative vote items, to be finalized in the SHA (the “Reserved Matters”).The Company shall not take any action in respect of any of the Reserved Matters (whether in a meeting of the Board, any committees or the Shareholders) without the consent of each Investor Director or each of the Existing Investor’s or New Investor’s representatives, as the case may be.Check statutory special resolution items, where investor holds > 26%Directors duties are now codified – reserved matters, if considered at Board level, may result in conflict with Director’s dutiesReserved matters to be provided for consideration on shareholder’s level
26Special Resolution Matters Matters requiring special resolution under the CA2013 expanded:winding up and appointment of liquidatorchange of registered officeImpactalteration of charter documentsReserved matter list may be shortened if the Investor has sufficient shareholding – to account for a dilution riskissue of ESOPsvariation of rights attached to a class of sharesList broadly the same as provided in CA1956 but applicable to private companies alsopreferential allotment of issue of shares, debentures or convertible instrumentsAmendment of charter documents should specifically be made subject to super majority votebuyback of shares or reduction of share capitalchange of auditorre-appointment of independent director after expiry of term“related party” transactions, provided that “related party” shall not votedirector’s remuneration, if prescribed in the articles
27Further FundingFurther Issuances of CapitalPre-emptive RightsAnti-Dilution RightsConversionPenal Ratchets
28Pre-emptive Rights; Further Funding In the event the Company proposes to offer Equity Shares, or other securities convertible into Equity Shares, to any person, the Investors and Promoter shall, within 30 (Thirty) calendar days after delivery of a notice from the Company describing such offering, have the right but not the obligation to offer to subscribe to any such instrument at the price mentioned in such notice in proportion to their shareholding in the Company to maintain their respective shareholding percentage in the Share Capital (the “Pre-emptive Right”)Further Capital Issues:If the Board determines that the Company requires additional funds, the additional funds shall be raised in the following order of priority:loans from banks/financial institutions inside or outside India on a non-recourse basis on terms acceptable to the Board; orsubject to the Pre-emptive Right, if the Company is unable to procure non-recourse loan funds, then equity contribution by the shareholders of the Company pro-rata to their shareholding in the Company
29Further Issue of Capital Watch Outs:Preferential allotment process applicable to private companies nowRules apply to both issue of shares and any other securities convertible into shares [R (2)]Issues with upfront determination of conversion priceIn preferential allotment, price of shares to be determined by the registered valuer | not applicable in case of preferential allotment by a listed company [S 62(1)(c), R 4.11]There seems to be a conflict with FEMA – formula v. upfront “price”Ensure that the identity of the registered valuer or the parameters to determine the registered valuer is agreed upfront
30Anti-Dilution & Conversion If at any time after Closing, the Company issues to any Person (other than pursuant to the ESOP or bonus issue) any Equity Shares or other instruments that are convertible into Equity Shares or which confer a right to subscribe to Equity Shares at a later date, at a price per share that is lower than the Investment Price, then the New Investor shall be entitled to anti- dilution protection on a [broad based weighted average basis]. In such an event, the Company shall be bound to, and the Promoter shall be bound to cooperate with the Investor and the Company such that, the Company forthwith takes all necessary steps to either adjust the conversion ratio or issue additional equity shares to the Investor.Conversion:The CCPS shall compulsorily convert into Equity Shares on the earlier of:Immediately prior to the filing of any offer document by the Company with SEBI in relation to an IPO; or20 years from the Closing Date; orVoluntarily, at the sole discretion of the New InvestorThe conversion of the CCPS into Equity Shares shall be at a price corresponding to the IRR Return unless conversion is in relation to an IPO. In the event of an IPO, conversion shall take place at the lower price of any price band conclusively determined for such IPO.
31Conversion, Anti-Dilution and Penal Ratchets Is a penal ratchet or other anti-dilution protection possible?Price of resultant shares to be fixed upfront if CCPS/CCDs issued at preferential allotment [R 4.11(2)(h)]May be structured as a rights issue! ?Renunciation [S 62(1)(a)(ii)]:In rights issue, unless the articles provide otherwise, the shareholder will have the right to renounce the shares offered to him in favour of any third person – applicable to private companies alsoIs it enforceable?Does it become a backdoor selective bonus issue?Renunciation to be clarified in articles?Promoter’s Waiver: The Promoter agrees and undertakes to waive and renounce his/her rights and entitlements to participate and subscribe to the Ratchet Securities in favour of the New Investor and the New Investor shall be solely entitled to participate and fully subscribe to the Ratchet Securities in accordance with their terms
32EXITS & TRANSFER RESTRICTIONS Term Sheet IssuesIPOs
33Transfer Restrictions Lock-in of Promoter SharesExcept in the event of an IPO, there shall be a lock-in on the Equity Shares held by the Promoter for a period of 5 (five) years from the closing date (“Promoter Lock-in”) and the Promoter shall be restricted from transferring any Equity Shares without the prior written consent of the New Investor and subject to the Transfer Restrictions enumerated below..Transfer Restrictions:In the event that the Promoter transfers any Equity Shares in accordance with the terms of this Term Sheet and the Transaction Documents, the Promoters shall provide the New Investor with:a “Right of First Refusal” to purchase any shares the Promoters may wish to sell to a third party (after obtaining the New Investor’s consent) at the price offered to the Promoters by such third party in writing; anda corresponding “Tag-along Right” to any such sale permitting the New Investor to sell its shares to such third party alongside the Promoters at the same price and upon the same terms and conditions as offered to the Promoters.
34Exit Rights Exit Rights: The Company shall provide an exit to the New Investor, as per the following waterfall:QIPO: A Qualified IPO (as identified in the SHA) on or before [●] (the “IPO Deadline”);Buy-back / Put Option: If no Qualified IPO happens within the IPO Deadline, then the New Investor will have a right to call for the Company and/or the Promoters to purchase/buy-back the Investor Securities at Fair Market Value. Such purchase/buy- back will be completed within 12 months of expiry of the IPO Deadline;Stake Sale: Upon expiry of the IPO Deadline, the Company will provide an exit to the New Investor via a sale to a financial/strategic investor at terms acceptable to the New Investor; andDrag Along Right: In case the Company fails to provide an exit to the New Investor by all the above means at the end of 12 months after the expiry of the IPO Deadline, the New Investor shall be permitted to sell its stake to any financial/strategic investor. The New Investor shall have the right to drag-along the shareholding of the other shareholders (including the Existing Investors) to such third party financial/strategic investor at the same price as offered to the New Investor.
35Transfer Restrictions and Exits Exit ModeCA2013Term Sheet ChangesPut/call optionRestriction on transfer provisions in contravention with SCRA (for listed and unlisted public companies) [S 59(4)]SCRA clarification issued by SEBI clears up enforceability restrictionsWould put/call options still be forward contracts?Improved enforceabilityDrafting should be clear to avoid forward contract implicationsBuy-back1 year cooling-off period can significantly impact transactions where multiple buy-backs are required (subject to the overall cap); Exits through buy-back will become more difficultApplicability of this restriction even where buy-back achieved through Court Scheme (which expressly recognizes and permits buy-back, but requires conditions of S 68 to be satisfied) [S 230(10)]Account for cooling-off period when utilising buy- back as an exit optionCombination with put option should be thought out to prevent an extended timelineROFO/ROFRContractually enforceable inter-se parties [S 58(2)]Tag/Drag- alongIPOFundamentally the same regime as under CA1956See below
36IPO/Offer for Sale – Issues in Documentation When should you convert?Conversion is mandatory prior to IPOConversion should occur upon the actual filing of a prospectusWhat price should you convert at?Conversion should happen only once a price is determinateConversion should ideally be linked to the lower end of the price band when conclusively determinedWhat if the IPO does not go through?Provision should be made to revert to convertible instrumentsMechanics of this require discussion
38Transaction Documents The following documents shall be executed or agreed pursuant to the Transaction contemplated under this Term Sheet:a share subscription agreement (the “SSA”) for the subscription to the Investor Securities to be entered into among the Parties which will govern the terms on which the New Investor will subscribe to the Investor Securities in the Company;a shareholders’ agreement (the “SHA”) to be entered into among the Parties which will govern the inter-se rights of the Parties;an agreed form of the restated articles of association of the Company (the “Articles”) incorporating the relevant terms of the SHA;
39Is this clause necessary? EnforceabilityBackgroundUnder CA1956, share transfer restrictions in shareholders’ agreement between shareholders of a public company challenging (S 111A; no safe harbour for transfer restrictions inter-se existing shareholders)Key ChangeCA2013 recognises that arrangements in respect of transfer of securities (even in case of a ‘public company’) shall be enforceable as a contract [S 58(2), Proviso]A public subsidiary will be treated as a public company regardless of whether it’s articles are in the nature of a private company [S 2(71), Proviso]ImpactThe change finally settles the position on enforceability of agreements providing for pre- emptive rights inter-se shareholders of a public company such as lock-in period, ROFR, ROFO, tag-along, drag-alongArticles of Association: The Articles of Association of the Company shall be amended and restated in order to reflect the provisions of the Transaction Documents at Closing.Is this clause necessary?
40Entrenchment S 5 What provisions should be entrenched? Flexibility to specify that certain provisions of the articles may only be altered if specified conditions or procedures more restrictive than a special resolution are complied with [S 5(3)]For a private company, entrenchment provisions must be inserted at the time of formation or by a unanimous shareholders’ resolution [S 5(4)]For a public company, entrenchment provisions must be inserted at the time of formation or by a special resolution [S 5(4)]ROC will need to be notified of entrenchment provisions within 30 days of incorporation or amendment to articles [R 2.7]What provisions should be entrenched?Unanimous voting in Closing meetingsAdditional post-closing filing, if provisions are entrenchedWatch outsProtective provisions provided to investors should be entrenched to prevent alteration without adequate consent