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Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 1Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 1 Persuasion & Influence A Core Leadership Attribute Seminar on Negotiation.

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Presentation on theme: "Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 1Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 1 Persuasion & Influence A Core Leadership Attribute Seminar on Negotiation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 1Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 1 Persuasion & Influence A Core Leadership Attribute Seminar on Negotiation Created By: Vince Markovchick, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Past-President, American Board of Emergency Medicine Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, Colorado Tenet Editor: Barbara Blok, MD, FACEP Assistant Director, Denver Health Residency in Emergency Medicine University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado

2 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 2Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 2 Persuasion and Influence A diplomat is someone who can tell you to go to hell in such a way that you look forward to the trip. - Caskie Stinnett

3 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 3Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 3 Persuasion and Influence An EM physician cannot function effectively if he cannot persuade and influence those around him.

4 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 4Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 4 Outline Key terms Weapons of Influence Guiding Principles of Persuasion

5 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 5Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 5 Key Terms - Persuasion An act or the action of influencing the mind by arguments of reasons offered by anything that moves the mind or passions or inclines the will to a determination. The condition of having the mind influenced (as to a decision, acceptance or belief) from without. DEFINITION

6 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 6 Key Terms -Influence An ethereal fluid thought to flow from the stars and to affect the actions of men The act, process or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command and often without deliberate effort or intent. DEFINITION

7 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 7 Key Terms - A functional definition How to get people to do the things you want them to do How to positively manipulate your environment

8 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 8 Weapons of Influence -Six Methods of Persuasion 1.Reciprocation 2.Commitment and Consistency 3.Social Proof 4.Authority 5.Liking 6.Scarcity * Influence, The Psychology of Persuasion by Robert Cialdini, HarperCollins Publishing, 1984.

9 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 9 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation An innate obligation to RECEIVE results in a perceived obligation to REPAY in kind.

10 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 10 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation E.g., Hare Krishna association fundraising

11 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 11 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation Reciprocal Concessions –One type of reciprocation –Our sense of obligation to make a concession to others who have made concessions to us

12 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 12 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation Reciprocal Concessions –E.g., A 1976 study on blood donation made separate requests to 2 groups Group 1: started with request for long-term donation, then conceded to one-time donation Group 2: requested one-time donation up front Result: great donation in Group 1

13 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 13 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation Practical implication for negotiating –Start big –Have a plan when negotiating –Don’t be afraid to make the first concession

14 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 14 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Once a commitment is made, one is more likely to honor it later, even if terms are changed We feel the urge to be consistent with what we have already said or done

15 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 15 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Commitment precedes consistency –When possible, first get a commitment to the cause; once committed the party will likely respond in a manner that supports the commitment (and cause)

16 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 16 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency It is easier to resist at the beginning than at the end. – Leonardo da Vinci

17 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 17 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Strong commitments are: –Voluntary –In writing –Publicly made (visible to others)

18 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 18 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency E.g., A faculty makes a written or verbal commitment to assist with residency recruitment activities. When additional interview dates need to be scheduled, that faculty feel an obligation to help out.

19 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 19 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Negotiating for consistency –E.g., the late Egyptian President Anwar Sadat would often begin negotiations with a lengthy discussion of how the citizens of the opposing country were widely known for their fairness and cooperativeness –Opposing country felt the need to act in a manner consistent with their perceived prior behavior

20 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 20 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Application of Commitment and Consistency –E.g., You are the leader of your residency’s education track. Based on the theory of commitment and consistency, how can you increase the productivity of the members for the upcoming year?

21 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 21 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Working to change another’s commitment –The more publically a commitment is made, the harder it is to back away from it –Reframe the discussion to focus on the issue, not the commitment Turn the divisive issue into one that is shared Allow the other to retreat from a stated position

22 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 22 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency E.g., A legislator has taken a stance against your proposed tort reform bill due to specialty lobbyists. By reframing the issue and focusing on the improved access and availability of patient care that the bill will provide, the legislator might be willing to restate their position contrary to their prior commitment.

23 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 23 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof Making a decision based on the action of those around you Humans often rely on cues from those around them to determine how they should behave and feel

24 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 24 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof When we all think alike, no one thinks very much. - Walter Lippmann

25 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 25 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof E.g., Asch Conformity Experiments –Seven individuals had to verbally answer which line (A, B, C) was most like the target line (on left) with the research subject answering last. –Research subjects conformed to the other’s incorrect answer 32% of the time.

26 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 26 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof

27 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 27 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof Reliance on social proof –Unclear or ambiguous situations –Pressured decisions –When others are experts

28 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 28 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof Pitfalls –Social proof, like an autopilot, should never be trusted completely –“If everyone else jumped off a bridge, would you do it to?”

29 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 29 Weapons of Influence - Authority Perceived innate obligations –Defer to experts –Obey authority figures Even when asked (or ordered) to perform objectionable acts

30 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 30 Weapons of Influence - Authority “Nine out of 10 doctors prefer…”

31 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 31 Weapons of Influence - Authority E.g., The case of the rectal earache –Order written for patient with R otitis media to have drops placed in R ear. Nurse dutifully administered the drops rectally without questioning the order.

32 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 32 Weapons of Influence - Authority When possible, be authoritative –Come prepared –Look professional –State your qualifications – don’t assume others know Prior training Practical experience

33 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 33 Weapons of Influence - Authority Questioning Authority –To avoid being unduly influenced by an authority figure –Ask yourself Is this authority truly an expert? How truthful can we expect this person to be in this situation?

34 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 34 Weapons of Influence - Liking People are naturally persuaded by people they like –This emphasizes the importance of good interpersonal relations –More difficult to say “no” to someone you like

35 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 35 Weapons of Influence - Liking Characteristics associates with ‘liking’ –Physical attractiveness (e.g., the halo effect) –Similarity (real or desired) –Repeated contact –Positive circumstances

36 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 36 Weapons of Influence - Liking Halo Effect - Repeated Contact - Desired Similarity - Positive Circumstances

37 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 37 Weapons of Influence - Liking Getting someone to like you –Find common ground Sports, food, hobby, TV show We like people who are similar to us –Offer genuine praise ‘I really like how you handled X’ or ‘You have an amazing work ethic’ A positive comment will reliably generate ‘liking’ in return

38 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 38 Weapons of Influence - Liking

39 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 39 Weapons of Influence - Scarcity Innate motivator –The possibility of losing something if a more powerful motivator than or gaining something Perceived scarcity generates demand Hard-to-get things are perceived as better and more valuable than easy- to-get things.

40 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 40 Weapons of Influence - Scarcity The way to love anything is to realize that it might be lost. - G.K. Chesterton

41 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 41 Weapons of Influence - Scarcity E.g., When trying to influence individuals to write a book chapter, letting them know that there are only two left is a powerful motivator solicit volunteer

42 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 42 Weapons of Influence - Scarcity E.g., When trying encourage individuals to participate in committees, stating ‘you can only have 2-3 individuals involved’ will influence participation more than you ‘only need 2-3 individuals.’ You create a perceived scarcity of the opportunity.

43 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 43 Weapons of Influence - Putting it all Together Guiding Principles –Be upfront and honest at all times –Lead by example –Get a commitment to the cause –Come prepared –Work on being liked –Demonstrate authority –Use political capital carefully –Avoid unilateral decisions

44 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 44 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Be upfront and honest at all times –Gives one credibility –Admit any mistake –Make no excuses –Have no hidden agenda

45 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 45 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Lead by example –Demonstrate excellent work ethic Best way to gain trust and respect of subordinates –Adhere to same expectation as everyone else –Show up (early) –Dress appropriately

46 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 46 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Get commitment to the cause –Seek input from all stakeholders on issues that affect them Enables one to make more informed (and hopefully) better decisions Gives the stakeholders insight into the decision-making process –Get “buy in” from the stakeholders

47 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 47 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Come prepared –Know the subject –Use data and facts to make one’s case Crucial when negotiating for more resources or funds Difficult to dispute hard facts

48 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 48 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Work on being liked –Requires networking, communication and interpersonal skills –Find common ground –Emphasize the positive

49 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 49 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Demonstrate authority –Without being boastful, state your qualifications Prior training Prior experience

50 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 50 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Use political capital carefully –Takes time to acquire –Should only be used for the most important issues –It is a finite resource

51 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 51 Guiding Principles of Persuasion - Putting it all Together Avoid unilateral decisions –May be necessary to promulgate a policy or decision –Should be used as a last resort –Should always be accompanied by an explanation of the rationale for this decision

52 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 52 Suggested Readings Influence, The Psychology of Persuasion by Robert Cialdini. Published in 1984 by HarperCollins Publishing. Harnessing the Science of Persuasion by Robert Cialdini. Published in October 2001 in the Harvard Business Review.

53 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 53 National Residency Leadership Curriculum Questions? ?

54 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 54 National Residency Leadership Curriculum Special Thanks! Funded By: An American College of Emergency Physicians Chapter Grant Endorsed By: American College of Emergency Physicians Emergency Medicine Council of Residency Directors Emergency Medicine Resident’s Association Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

55 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 55 National Residency Leadership Curriculum Special Thanks! Senior Editors: Stephen Wolf, MD, FACEP Andrew French, MD Matthew Mendenhall, MD, MPH Tenet Editors: Britney Anderson, MD Barbara Blok, MD, FACEP Jeffrey Druck, MD, FACEP Maria Moreira, MD Lee Shockley, MD, MBA, FACEP Administrative Editor: Barbara Burgess

56 Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 56 National Residency Leadership Curriculum Thank You! For More Information Please Visit:


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