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IAS 18 Revenue. Slide 1 Scope This Standard shall be applied in accounting for revenue arising from the following transactions and events: (a)the sale.

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Presentation on theme: "IAS 18 Revenue. Slide 1 Scope This Standard shall be applied in accounting for revenue arising from the following transactions and events: (a)the sale."— Presentation transcript:

1 IAS 18 Revenue

2 Slide 1 Scope This Standard shall be applied in accounting for revenue arising from the following transactions and events: (a)the sale of goods; (b)the rendering of services; and (c)the use by others of entity assets yielding interest, royalties and dividends.

3 Slide 2 Scope out This Standard does not deal with revenue arising from: (a)lease agreements (IAS 17); (b)dividends arising from investments which are accounted for under the equity method (IAS 28); c)insurance contracts within the scope of IFRS 4, Insurance Contracts; (d)changes in the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities or their disposal (IAS 39) (e)changes in the value of other current assets; (f)initial recognition and from changes in the fair value of biological assets related to agricultural activity (g)initial recognition of agricultural produce (IAS 41); and (h)the extraction of mineral ores.

4 Slide 3 Effective Dates This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1995.

5 Slide 4 Definition Revenue : –“gross inflow of economic benefits during the period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an entity when those inflows result in increases in equity...” –“measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable”

6 Slide 5 Measurement of Revenue Sales date Nominal amount : 100$ To be paid in 180 days 180 days Discounted amount : 95$ Interest income : 5$ Financing component of revenue : When the arrangement effectively constitutes a financing transaction, (e.g. an entity may provide interest free credit to the buyer or accept a note receivable bearing a below-market interest rate from the buyer), the fair value of the consideration is determined by discounting all future receipts using an imputed rate of interest. Discounted at market rate

7 Slide 6 Sale of Goods Revenue from the sale of goods shall be recognised when all the following conditions have been satisfied: (a)the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods; (b)the entity retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold; (c)the amount of revenue can be measured reliably; (d)it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and (e)the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

8 Slide 7 Rendering of Services When the outcome of services rendered can be estimated reliably, revenue shall be recognised by reference to the stage of completion at the balance sheet date. The outcome of a transaction can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied: (a)the amount of revenue can be measured reliably; (b)it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; (c)the stage of completion of the transaction at the balance sheet date can be measured reliably; and (d)the costs incurred for the transaction and the costs to complete the transaction can be measured reliably.

9 Slide 8 Interest, Royalties and Dividends (a)interest shall be recognised using the effective interest method as set out in IAS 39, paragraphs 9 and AG5–AG8; (b) royalties shall be recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement; and (c) dividends shall be recognised when the shareholder's right to receive payment is established (e.g. Formal approval of shareholders rather than expectation of management)

10 Slide 9 Measuring Revenue "Gross" Or "Net“ In an agency relationship, "gross" amounts collected by the agent on behalf of the principal are not benefits that flow to the agent and, therefore, are not revenue. The agent's revenue is the "net" amount of the commission. INDICATORS OF AGENT The supplier (and not the seller) is the primary obligor in the arrangement. The seller earns a fixed or determinable amount. The supplier (and not the seller) has credit risk.

11 Slide 10 MEASURING REVENUE "GROSS" OR "NET“ INDICATORS OF PRINCIPAL : Is the primary obligor in the arrangement. Has general inventory risk (before the customer order is placed or on customer return). Has latitude in establishing price. Changes the product or performs part of the service. Has discretion in supplier selection. Is involved in determining product or service specifications. Has physical loss inventory risk (after the customer order or during shipping). Has credit risk. Is responsible for warranty or quality risk on the product(s) sold or service(s) rendered.

12 Slide 11 SALES ARRANGEMENTS IN WHICH THE SELLER HAS PARTIALLY PERFORMED ITS OBLIGATIONS Q: Does failure to deliver one item or to perform one service specified by a sales arrangement preclude the immediate recognition of any revenue for that sales arrangement? A: No. Revenue from the sales arangement may be recognised in full if the remaining obligation is inconsequential or perfunctory. Costs to complete shall be reliably estimable and accrued for.

13 Slide 12 SALES ARRANGEMENTS IN WHICH THE SELLER HAS PARTIALLY PERFORMED ITS OBLIGATIONS Not Inconsequential - Perfunctory if : Essential to functionality of delivered item (e.g. installation, training) Faliure to complete would result in customer’s rejection or right to refund No history of timely completion or reliable estimate of costs by seller Historically, cost to complete varied significantly Sources required to complete are specialized and are not readily available in the market. Cost to complete is more than insignificant compared to total fee / profit.

14 Slide 13 UP-FRONT FEES Upfront fee is recognised as revenue over the life of the agreement if : The fee is not in exchange for products delivered or services performed The fee is negotiated in conjunction with the pricing of other elements Customer would ascribe a lower value or no value to the upfront fees in the absence of the performance of other elements of the arrangement The vendor does not sell the initial right or activities seperately.

15 Slide 14 GOODS SHIPPED FOB SHIPPING POINT BUT SELLER ARRANGES SHIPPING May Company A recognise revenue once its products have been shipped? No. While title has passed, Company A has retained a significant risk of ownership. The fact that Company A's insurance would cover a substantial loss is evidence that it has managed its risk, but Company A has still retained the risk. Company A FOB Shipping Point Assumed risk during shipment Insured by Company A

16 Slide 15 GOODS SHIPPED FOB DESTINATION BUT SHIPPING COMPANY ASSUMES RISK May Company A recognise revenue once its products have been shipped? No. While Company A has managed its risk, it has not transferred tisk to the buyer. Company AFOB Destination

17 Slide 16 UNLIMITED RIGHT OF RETURN Q: Company A distributes VCDs and DVDs and allows key customers to return any slow-moving stock. The returns could result in replacement with other VCDs and DVDs or return of cash. Company A is able to make a reliable estimate of the amount of returns.How should Company A account for its revenues? A: The entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership. Revenue should be recognised on initial delivery of the goods in an amount that reflects a reduction for the estimated amount to be returned.

18 Slide 17 RETENTION OF TITLE Non-cancellable purchase order Title is witheld until payment Company A Customer May Company A recognise revenue once its products have been shipped? A : If a seller retains legal title “solely to protect the collectibility of the amount due”, revenue recognition is not precluded.

19 Slide 18 CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE PROVISION -Only if the probability of non- acceptance can be reliably estimable based on historical data. Production Delivery Customer Acceptance Collection Recognize revenue at delivery with a provision for estimated returns? OR? Wait until acceptance? -Otherwise wait until earlier of acceptance and expiry of acceptance period.

20 Slide 19 LAY AWAY SALES (ÖN ÖDEMELİ SATIŞLAR) Company Z's lay away policy requires that customers put down at least 25 per cent of the sales price as an up-front, non-refundable deposit. Once a deposit is received, Z identifies the product to be sold and segregates it in its warehouse. Company Z's experience with lay away sales is that most sales are consummated with an average six-month lay away period before the customer pays the entire sale amount. How should Company Z account for the deposit received? Company A Delivery is witheld until final payment Total price :$2000 Upfront paid: $1200

21 Slide 20 LAY AWAY SALES Revenue is recognized when a "significant" deposit is received. The determination of whether a deposit is considered significant is a matter of careful judgment, based on all of the relevant facts and circumstances. In any case, the final conclusion should be supported by sufficient objective evidence. In this case, the deposit is significant, and therefore, Company A would recognise the sale for the home theatre for $2,000 in November 2001, with a receivable for $800.

22 Slide 21 REVENUE RECOGNITION: "TRADE LOADING" AND "CHANNEL STUFFING" Sometimes manufacturers or dealers try to enhance the apparent volume of their sales, profits, and/or market share by inducing their wholesale customers to buy more product than they can promptly resell. The result is accelerated, but not increased, volume, because the wholesalers' inventories become bloated and their future orders from the manufacturers are reduced. This practice is known as "trade loading" or "channel stuffing". How is revenue recognised in the case of trade loading or channel stuffing? If the revenue recognition criteria in IAS for sales of goods are met, the revenue should be recognised. Revenue is recorded net of the expected returns. Therefore, management must estimate the amount of product to be returned.

23 Slide 22 BILL AND HOLD SALES Non-cancellable purchase order Company A Customer Delivery is delayed on customer’s request Revenue can only be recognized only if the following are met : –Delivery is probable –Item is identified and ready for delivery –Buyer specifically acknowledges the deferred delivery instructions –Usual payment terms apply –Buyer must have a substantial business purpose for bill and hold basis

24 Slide 23 SALE WITH A BUYBACK AGREEMENT/OPTION Company A Bought back for 60m$ Sold for 50m$ - agreed to buyback at 60m$ Should Company A recognise revenue and cost of goods sold at the time of delivery? A : No. Company A has not transferred to the buyer the significant risk and reward of ownership. Transaction is in the nature of a financing arrangement. Title is transferred at delivery

25 Slide 24 SALE WITH A BUYBACK AGREEMENT/OPTION Company A is A : a) Company A retains benefit of ownership (ability to profit from price difference). If significant, revenue should not be recognised until expiration. b) If A had the right to buy back at market price and the goods are readily available in the market, revenue is recognized at the time of delivery.

26 Slide 25 SALES WHERE THERE ARE SEPERATELY IDENTIFIABLE COMPONENTS Q : Company Z operates a chain of supermarkets and they have just launched their campaign for the month of Ramadan. The campaign includes a fixed price of 240 TL for a Ramadan pack which includes an assortment of different food products, an alarm clock, 5 time free car washing service from the car washing centers operated next to the supermarkets (the car washing service is owned by Company Z) and cell phone top up card for 1,000 minutes to be used in the mobile virtual network operated by Company Z. How should Company account for the 240 TL received from the customers of this campaign? A: IAS 18 paragraph 13 requires to apply the recognition criteria to the separately identifiable components of a single transaction in order to reflect the substance of the transaction. As a result, Company Z would have to divide this pack to separately identified components and recognise revenue separately for every component by applying appropriate recognition criteria.

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