Presentation on theme: "Climate, Environment, & Resources"— Presentation transcript:
1Climate, Environment, & Resources Geography Unit 2
2Section 1’s BIG IDEAThe sun, location, wind, water, and mountains affect weather and climate.
3Weather & Climate What is weather? What is climate? While weather is short term, climate is a region’s average weather over a long period of time.
4Weather & Climate 4 Factors that Affect Climate Sun and Location on Earth – Creates seasonsEarth’s tiltMovement of EarthShapeWind – Moves the sun’s heat aroundWater – Moves the sun’s heat aroundMountains – affects temperature & precipitation
5Weather & Climate Energy from sun heats the earth. Different locations receive different amounts of sunlight.Earth’s tiltSeasonsMovementRotation around the sunShapeEarth is a sphere
6Weather & Climate Earth’s Tilt As the Earth revolves around the sun, the part of the Earth that is tilted toward the sun changes during the year.This process creates the seasons.
7Weather & Climate Earth’s Shape The sphere shape affects the amount of sunlight different locations receive.The sun’s rays directly strike the equator but only somewhat strike at the poles.
8Weather & ClimateThe farther from the equator, or higher the latitude, the colder the climate.Higher LatitudesArea near the polesCold year roundMiddle LatitudesAreas halfway between the equator and polesMore seasonal changesLower LatitudesAreas near the equatorHot year round
9Weather & Climate Wind and Water Heat from the sun moves across Earth’s surface.Air and water warmed by the sun are constantly on the move.Wind and water carry heat from place to place.
10Weather & Climate Global Winds Wind, or the sideways movement of air blows in great streams.Air has weight that changes with temperature.
11Weather & ClimateAt the equator, hot air rises and flows towards the poles.At the poles, cold air sinks and flows towards the equator.
12Weather & ClimateEarth’s rotation causes prevailing winds to curve east or west.Winds that form from warm air or pass over lots of water, carry moistureWinds that form from cold air or pass over lots of land are often dry.
13Weather & Climate Gulf Stream North Atlantic Drift Westerlies US East CoastWarm current that flows eastNorth Atlantic DriftAcross the Atlantic into EuropeWesterliesNorthwestern EuropeWarmed air blown across Europe
14Weather & Climate Large Bodies of Water Water heats and cools more slowly than land does. Large bodies of water make the temperature of the land nearby milder.
15Weather & ClimateThe state of Michigan is largely surrounded by the Great LakesThe lakes make temperatures in the state milder than other places as far north.
16Weather & ClimateWind, Water, and Storms: Most storms occur when two air masses collide.Air masses frequently collide in regions like the United States, where the westerlies meet the polar easterlies.Fronts can produce rain or snow as well as thunderstorms and icy blizzards.Hurricanes produce drenching rain and strong winds that can reach speeds of 155 mph or more.They can form tall walls of water called storm surges. When it smashes into land, it can wipe out an entire coastal area.
17Weather & Climate Thunderstorms Rain, lightning, thunder DetailsWhen Most Likely to OccurThunderstormsRain, lightning, thunderSpring and SummerBlizzardsStrong winds, large amounts of snowWinterTornadoesSmall, rapidly twisting funnel of air that touches the ground; highly destructiveSpring and summerHurricanesLargest and most destructive storm; forms over tropical waters in Atlantic OceanSummer to late fallTyphoonsHurricanes that form in the Pacific Ocean
18Weather & Climate Mountains Mountains can influence an area’s climate by affecting both temperature and precipitation.Many high mountains are located in warm areas yet have snow at the top all year.The reason is that temperature decreases with elevation.Mountains also create wet and dry areas.What is a rain shadow? A dry area on the mountainside facing away from the direction of the wind.
23World ClimateThere are 5 general climate zones. They are tropical, temperate, polar, dry, and highland.In addition, geographers divide some climate zones into more specific climate regions.
24World Climate How does climate affect vegetation? How does climate affect agriculture?
25World Climate Tropical Climate Humid Tropical Humid Tropical & Tropical SavannaHumid TropicalOn and near the equatorWarm and high amounts of rain year roundMonsoons create extreme wet seasonsTropical rain forest
26World Climate Tropical Climate Tropical Savanna Higher latitudes in the tropicsWarm all year; distinct raining and dry seasons; at least 20 inches of rain during summerTall grasses, scattered trees
27World Climate Dry Climate Desert Desert & SteppeDesertMainly center on 30* latitude; also in middle of continents, on west coasts, or in rain shadowsSunny and dry; less than 10 inches of rain a year; hot in the tropics; cooler with the wide daytime temperature ranges in middle latitudesA few hardy plants, cacti
28World Climate Dry Climate Steppe Desert & SteppeSteppeMainly bordering deserts and interiors of large continentsAbout inches of participation a year; hot summers and cooler winters with wide temperature ranges during the dayShorter grasses, some trees and shrubs by water
29World Climate Temperate Climate Mediterranean Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid ContinentalMediterraneanWest coasts in middle latitudesDry, sunny, warm summer; mild, wetter winters; rain averagesScrub woodland and grassland
30World Climate Temperate Climate Humid Subtropical Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid ContinentalHumid SubtropicalEast coasts in middle latitudesHumid with hot summers and mild winters; rain year- round, in paths of hurricanes and typhoonsMixed forest
31World Climate Temperate Climate Marine West Coast Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid ContinentalMarine West CoastWest coasts in the upper-middle latitudesA cloudy, mild summers and cool, rainy winters; strong ocean influenceEvergreen forests
32World Climate Temperate Climate Humid Continental Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid ContinentalHumid ContinentalEast coasts and interiors of upper-middle latitudesFour distinct seasons; long, cold winters and short, warm summers; average precipitationILLINOISMixed forests
33World Climate Polar Climate Subarctic Subarctic, Tundra, & Ice CapSubarcticHigher latitudes of the interior and east coasts of continentsExtremes of temperature; long, cold winters and short, warm summers; little precipitationNorthern evergreen forests
34World Climate Polar Climate Tundra Coasts in high latitudes Subarctic, Tundra, & Ice CapTundraCoasts in high latitudesCold all year; very long, cold winters and very short, cool summers; little precipitation; permafrostMoss, lichens, low shrubs
35World Climate Polar Climate Ice Cap Subarctic, Tundra, & Ice CapIce CapHigher latitudes of the interior and east coasts of continentsExtremes of temperature; long, cold winters and short, warm summers; little precipitationNorthern evergreen forests
36World Climate Highland Climate High mountain regions Wide range of temperatures and precipitation amounts, depending on elevation and locationRanges from forest to tundra
37Section 3’s BIG IDEAPlants, animals, and the environment, including soil, interact and affect one another.
38Natural Environments ecosystem A group of plants and animals that depend on each other for survival and the environment in which they livehabitatThe place where a plant or animal livesdesertificationThe spread of desertlike conditions
39Natural Environments The Environment and Life Limits on Life: The environment limits life.Factors such as temperature, rainfall, and soil conditions limit where plants and animals can live.All plants and animals are adapted to specific environments.
40Natural EnvironmentsConnections in Nature: The interconnections between living things and the environment form ecosystems.They can be any size and can occur wherever air, water, and soil support life.Each part of an ecosystem fills a certain role
41Forest EcosystemSunlight is the source of energy for most living thingsPlants use the energy in sunlight to make food. They serve as the basis for other life in the ecosystemAnimals such as rabbits eat plants and gain some of their energy.Predators, such as hawks and wolves, eat rabbits and other prey for energyLarger predators, such as mountain lions, compete for the prey that is available.
42Natural EnvironmentsChanges to Environments: The interconnect parts of an ecosystem exist in a fragile balance.A small change to one part can affect the whole system. Many actions can affect ecosystems.Actions such as clearing land and polluting can destroy habitats.Our most diverse habitats on Earth are tropical rain forests.Extreme changes in ecosystems can cause species to become extinct.
43Natural Environments Soil and the Environment Plants are the basis for all food that animals eat.Soils help determine what plants will grow and how well.Soils play an important role in the environment because they support plant life.Fertile soils are rich in minerals and humus.
44Natural Environments These soils support abundant plant life. Soils can lose fertility in several ways.Erosion through wind or water can sweep soil away.Planting the same crops over and over can also rob soil of its fertility.When soil becomes worn out, it cannot support as many plants.This can lead to desertification in fragile dry environments.
46Section 4’s BIG IDEAEarth’s natural resources have many valuable uses and their availability affects people in many ways.
47Vocabulary from Section 4 Renewable resourcesResources Earth replaces naturallyNon-renewable resourcesResources that cannot be replacedFossil fuelsNon-renewable resources that formed from the remains of ancient plants and animalsHydroelectric powerThe production of electricity from waterpowerNatural resourceAny material in nature that people use and value
48Natural Resources Earth’s Valuable Resources Using Natural Resources: Trees, oil, and metals are all examples of natural resources.Earth’s most important natural resources include air, water, soils, forests, and minerals.We use some resources as they are, like wind. Usually we change natural resources to make something new.
49Natural Resources Types of Natural Resources: We group our natural resources into two groups: those we can replace naturally, called renewable resources and those we will run out of one day, or non-renewable resources.Once we use those up, it is gone.
50Natural Resources Managing Natural Resources: Although forests are renewable, we can cut down trees faster than they can grow, which causes deforestation.Reforestation is the planting of trees to replace lost forestland.
51Natural Resources Energy Resources Energy resources power vehicles, produce heat, and generate electricity.They are some of our most important and valuable natural resources.
52Natural ResourcesNonrenewable Energy: Most of the energy we use comes from fossil fuels.The most important fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
53Natural ResourcesCoal has been a source of heat, however it pollutes the air and can harm the land. Today we use coal mainly to create electricity at power plants, not to heat single buildings. People are trying to find cleaner ways to burn coal
54Natural ResourcesPetroleum, or oil, is a dark liquid used to make oil and other products.When first removed from the ground, petroleum is called crude oil.
55Natural ResourcesFuels made from oil include gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.Oil is also used to make plastics and cosmetics.Oil-based fuels can pollute the air and land.Oil spills can harm wildlife.But, because we are so dependent on oil for energy, it is an extremely valuable resource.
56Natural Resources Natural gas is the cleanest-burning fossil fuel. We use it for heating and cooking.Some vehicles run on natural gas as well.These vehicles cause less pollution than those that run on gasoline.
57Natural Resources Renewable Energy Resources: Unlike fossil fuels, renewable energy resources will not run out.The main alternative is hydroelectric power that can be obtained from moving water by damming rivers.These dams harness the power of moving water in order to generate electricity.
58Natural ResourcesWhile hydroelectric can produce power without polluting and lessons our use of fossil fuels, the dams create lakes that replace existing resources and disrupt wildlife habitats.
59Natural Resources Wind is another renewable energy. Windmills have been used in the past, but today we use powerful wind turbines.At wind farms, hundreds of turbines create electricity in windy places.
60Natural Resources Solar power is a third source. We use the power of the sun to heat water or homes.We can also use solar panels to turn solar energy into electricity.We can also use geothermal energy, or heat from within Earth.Geothermal power plants use steam and hot water located with Earth to create electricity.
61Natural Resources Nuclear Energy: We obtain this energy by splitting atoms.This process uses the metal uranium.While nuclear power does not pollute the air, it does produce dangerous wastes.These wastes must be stored for thousands of years before they are safe.Accidents at nuclear power plants are extremely dangerous for the people and environment nearby.
62Natural Resources Mineral Resources Mineral resources are valuable. These resources include metals, salt, rocks, and gemstones.Minerals are nonrenewable.Recycling items such as aluminum cans will make the supply of these resources last longer.
63Natural Resources Resources and People Resources and Daily Life: In the United States, we have many different kinds of natural resources.We can choose different ways to dress, eat, live, travel, and entertain ourselves.People in places with fewer natural resources will likely have fewer choices and different needs than Americans.
64Natural Resources Resources and Wealth: The many natural resources in the United States have helped it become one of the world’s wealthiest countries. In contrast, countries with few natural resources often have weak economies.