Presentation on theme: "The effect of landscape structure on biodiversity: beyond fragment based spatial and conservation models Hartel Tibor Mihai Eminescu Trust, Segesvár Mountain."— Presentation transcript:
The effect of landscape structure on biodiversity: beyond fragment based spatial and conservation models Hartel Tibor Mihai Eminescu Trust, Segesvár Mountain hay meadows - hot spots of biodiversity and traditional culture – 9 June, 2010
“The cultural landscape is an important element of the European identity” (R.H.G. Jongman, 2002, Landscape Research). - high level of biodiversity - high spatial heterogeneity - dynamism - cultural diversity - etc. Cultural landscapes in Europe Gyimes – Hidegség pataka Varga Anna Balaton-felvidék, Monoszló Varga Anna Szászföld – Neustadt (Újváros) HT Hátszeg – Demsus (Demsdorf) Dan Cogalniceanu Bucovina – Alina Ionita
Problems: Increased use of chemicals Increased use of chemicals Homogenization Homogenization Land use intensification Land use intensification Habitat loss Habitat loss Land abandonment Land abandonment Invasive species Invasive species Infrastructure, urban development etc. Infrastructure, urban development etc. (Donald et al. (2002) – Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment). Piotr Skórka - Poland
About the transferability of patch (island) based spatial and conservation models (ex.) somewhere in France... Matrix -Binary space: habitat versus matrix -Easy to delineate habitats and populations -Island like protected areas (island biogeography), -Fragment based spatial models perform well -Humans are not part of „nature”, -Everything is fixed, -The habitat islands need management, while the “matrix not”. -Land sparing for nature strategy. In intensively used agricultural landscapes...
Landscape composition and configuration in binary (i.e. habitat versus matrix like – „pattern oriented”) landscape. Matrix „Habitat” Source: This is how the human “umwelt” is visualized
-The habitat versus matrix delimitation is not obvious therefore… -…it is not easy to quantify the habitat and landscape effect (of course, there are exceptions…), -The space is fluid, landscape elements are not fixed, -Potentially huge level of resilience, -Ecological memory! -Humans are part of nature, -Wildlife friendly farming strategy In traditionally managed landscapes… Cris – Southern Transylvania Cris – Southern Transylvania Where are you matrix? -How to delineate habitats and populations to use them as management units for conservation? -What is extinction, colonization, connectivity….?. -The fragment based spatial models does not work. -The “matrix” should be managed
Protected Not protected
Delineating protected areas: help or destroy biodiversity? SCI SPA
Case study: amphibian occurrence in Saxon landscapes (Southern Transylvania) Weak landscape effect due to ecologically (close to optimal) conditions assured by low intensity land use
Corncrake occurrence in Saxon landscapes (Southern Transylvania) 132 males in an area of 245 sqkm (2005)
Occurrence and number of nests in Buteo buteo is influenced only by two variables: - Arable land cover (in 2 km2 quadrates) - Orchard cover (2 km2 quadrates) - Forest cover – close to significant effects. Moga et al. in prep.
Meadows and pastures: many species threatened by land abandonment
Malmkrog – Malancrav - Almakerek
Alternative, complementing approaches New challenges for conservation biology! Space is not always so fragmented as we (humans) perceive it! The presence of humans in the landscape is not necessarily bad. Newly proposed spatial models and associated concepts: Variegation and contour models Dinamic landscapes – Landscape fluiditity Good umbrella for these: the High Nature Value Land concept.
Variegation, continua and umwelt models, dynamic landscapes and landscape fluidity Gradual changes are considered Allows talking about landscape species Allows the inclusion of concepts like: - (socio-) ecological resilience - Ecological memory - Umwelt „There - Umwelt „There are as many surrounding worlds as there are animals’’ (Von Üexküll, 1926)
Including humans in the formula: High Nature Value farmland (in nutshell) a)A HNV are agricultural lands but: HNV have a high species richness and spatially extent habitats HNV have high number of protected species b)The biodiversity of HNV lands is entirely dependent on the “wildlife friendly” low intensity agricultural works. Therefore, the HNV concept emphasize the importance of traditional agriculture to conserve biodiversity in farmlands.
Mark Redman, ADEPT, unpubl. data Protected areas and HNV areas in different countries of Europe Protected areas in Turkey (it is not Europe…sorry :D) HNV areas in Turkey Protected areas in Spain HNV lands in Spain
Conclusions (a bit beyond science) The fragment based spatial ecology and conservation models may not be entirely applicable in CE The fragment based spatial ecology and conservation models may not be entirely applicable in CE The need for new, complementing approaches – with taking humans into consideration. The need for new, complementing approaches – with taking humans into consideration. Big challenge: to integrate agricultural production with nature and not treating them separately Big challenge: to integrate agricultural production with nature and not treating them separately Are we able to manage our social-ecological systems in a sustainable way? Are we willing to do this? How? Are we able to manage our social-ecological systems in a sustainable way? Are we willing to do this? How?
Special thanks for the following persons for the clever ideas and conversations: Special thanks for the following persons for the clever ideas and conversations: Báldi András, Piotr Tryjanowski, Carmen Gil, Öllerer Kinga, Dan Cogalniceanu, Jan W. Arntzen, Joern Fischer. The material of this talk is based on the following work: