Presentation on theme: "Nonrenewable Energy Resources Chapter 17 APES Ms. Miller Chapter 17 APES Ms. Miller."— Presentation transcript:
Nonrenewable Energy Resources Chapter 17 APES Ms. Miller Chapter 17 APES Ms. Miller
Key Concepts Available energy alternatives Oil resources Natural gas resources Coal resources Nuclear fission and fusion
Evaluating Energy Resources Renewable energy—wind, solar, biomass, hydropower Non-renewable energy—Coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power Fig. 17-3b p. 352
Future availability—non-renewable sources running out
Net energy yield—ration of useful energy produced to energy used to produce it Figure 3 - This map shows simulated solar fraction using an average residential SWH. Numbers represent percentage of net energy savings for systems in that area, e.g.,0.6 represents 60% net energy savings.
Environmental effects Costs—are not only financial but also to the environment
Important Nonrenewable Energy Sources Fig p. 351
Questions for Figure 17-2 pg 351 Which type of fossil fuel is normally found on a layer above oil? What are two methods to remove coal from the earth? What is geothermal energy? Is geothermal energy a type of renewable or nonrenewable resource?
North American Energy Resources Fig p. 357
Questions for Figure 17-9 pg 357 What type of fossil fuel is found in Michigan according to Figure 17-9? From what you know, are there any other fossil fuels found in Michigan? In which state would you find the arctic national wildlife refuge? In what area of the United States would one go in search of an oil field?
Oil Petroleum (crude oil)—thick liquid that is separated into many products (gasoline, asphalt) Fig p. 356
Come and listen to a story about a man named Jed A poor mountaineer, barely kept his family fed, Then one day he was shootin' at some food, And up through the ground came a bubblin' crude. Oil that is Black gold Texas tea.
Recovery—removed from ground by drilling and pumping
Looks weirdly the same!!!!
Petrochemicals—products of oil distillation used to make other products (pesticide, plastics, paint, medicine, synthetic fiber)
Refining—heating and distillation of crude oil for separation
Transporting—most oil held in 11 countries (OPEC) and oil is main export
Conventional Oil: Advantages Relatively low cost High net energy yield Efficient distribution system Relatively low cost High net energy yield Efficient distribution system Refer to Fig p. 360
Conventional Oil: Disadvantages Running out Low prices encourage waste Air pollution and Greenhouse gases Water pollution Running out Low prices encourage waste Air pollution and Greenhouse gases Water pollution Refer to Fig p. 360
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Controversy: Trade-offs Would create jobs Refer to Fig p. 360
Oil resources are uncertain
Uncertain environmental impacts
Oil Shale and Tar Sands Oil shale—fine grain sedimentary rock that can be distilled to to yield shale oil Kerogen—combustible mixture of hydrocarbons found in oil shale Oil shale—fine grain sedimentary rock that can be distilled to to yield shale oil Kerogen—combustible mixture of hydrocarbons found in oil shale Tar sand (oil sand)—mixture of clay, sand, water and combustible organic material Bitumen—combustible organic material in tar sand Tar sand (oil sand)—mixture of clay, sand, water and combustible organic material Bitumen—combustible organic material in tar sand Fig p. 362
Natural Gas 50-90% methane Conventional gas—mostly found above crude oil reservoirs Unconventional gas—found in other underground sources Methane hydrate—natural gas found in ice crystals Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)—stored in pressure tank (rural areas, grills, etc) Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Way to transport at low temp Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Way to transport at low temp Approximate 200 year supply Fig p. 363
Coal Stages of coal formation: Peat Lignite Bituminous Coal Anthracite Primarily strip-mined Used mostly for generating electricity Enough coal for about 1000 years High environmental impact Coal gasification and liquefaction
Fig p. 364 Coal Formation and Types
Coal: Trade-offs Fig p. 365
Synthetic Fuels Solid coal can be converted into synthetic natural gas or into a liquid fuel Synthetic natural gas—made from coal by coal gasification Synthetic gasoline and liquid fuels—made from coal by coal liquefaction Both have advantages and disadvantages
Synthetic Fuels: Trade-offs Fig p. 365
Nuclear Energy Fission reactors Uranium-235 Potentially dangerous (3 Mile island and Chernobyl) Potentially dangerous (3 Mile island and Chernobyl) Radioactive wastes—where do you store? Make sure to Read: Introductory Essay p. 350 Fig p. 367
Locations of U.S. Nuclear Power Plants Fig p. 369
Questions for Figure ) How many operating nuclear power plants are in Michigan? 2) What states have the most operating nuclear power plants? 3) In which state is the high-level nuclear waste storage site? 4) How do nuclear wastes get to Yucca Mountain?
The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fig p. 368
Conventional Nuclear Power: Trade-offs Fig p. 370
Serious Nuclear Accidents Three Mile Island (1979)
Chernobyl (1986): p. 350
Several thousand volunteers died on the scene, and it is estimated that 7,000 to 10,000 volunteers died in total, considering short and long-term effects. Thousands of miles from the scene, the birth defect rate became double the world average.
Dealing with Nuclear Waste High- and low-level wastes: classification Terrorist threats: increased since 9/11 How do you dispose? Underground burial How do you dispose? Underground burial Disposal in space—send to sun? Burial in ice sheets: Antarctic or Greenland Dumping into subduction zones: deep ocean Burial in ocean mud: geologically stable for 65 million years Conversion into harmless materials: currently no way to do this
Yucca Mountain Controversy Wastes stored and guarded in one place Possible long-term groundwater contamination Security and safety concerns during waste transport to the site Refer to Fig p. 374
Permanent Underground Disposal of Nuclear Wastes Storage Containers Fuel rod Primary canister Overpack container sealed Underground Buried and capped Ground Level Unloaded from train Lowered down shaft Personnel elevator Air shaft Nuclear waste shaft Fig p. 373
Nuclear Alternatives Breeder nuclear fission reactors Expensive to build Expensive to opearate Technology has been abandoned due to French failure Breeder nuclear fission reactors Expensive to build Expensive to opearate Technology has been abandoned due to French failure Nuclear fusion 50 years of research Billions in funding Still in lab stage (uses more energy than produced) Nuclear fusion 50 years of research Billions in funding Still in lab stage (uses more energy than produced) New reactor designs: advanced light- water reactors (ALWRs) Expensive to build ($2 billion) New reactor designs: advanced light- water reactors (ALWRs) Expensive to build ($2 billion)