Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 – The Pacific World"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 29 – The Pacific World Section NotesVideoAustralia and New ZealandThe Pacific IslandsAntarcticaImpact of Nonnative WildlifeMapsThe Pacific World: PoliticalThe Pacific World: PhysicalSettling the PacificThe Pacific Islands: PoliticalThe Pacific WorldAustralia and New Zealand: ClimateClose-upMaori CultureWorld AlmanacEthnic Groups in Australia and New ZealandImagesGeographyFocus on Culture: Australian SportsVillagers on Tanna IslandAntarctic ExplorationQuick FactsChapter 29 Visual Summary
2Australia and New Zealand The Big IdeaAustralia and New Zealand share a similar history and culture but have unique natural environments.Main IdeasThe physical geography of Australia and New Zealand is diverse and unusual.Native peoples and British settlers shaped the history of Australia and New Zealand.Australia and New Zealand today are wealthy and culturally diverse countries.
3Main Idea 1: The physical geography of Australia and New Zealand is diverse and unusual. Australia is surrounded by water, but is considered a continent and not an island.The western half of Australia is covered by a huge, flat, and dry plateau.Eastern Australia has low mountains, valleys, and a major river system.Fertile plains lie along Australia’s coasts.The Great Barrier Reef—the world’s largest coral reef—is off Australia’s northeastern coast.New ZealandNew Zealand includes two main islands, North Island and South Island.North Island is covered with hills and coastal plains.South Island has a large mountain range—the Southern Alps—fertile hills, and rich plains.Fjords create many natural harbors on both islands.
4Climate Australia Much of Australia has desert and steppe climates. Temperatures are warm and rainfall is limited.The coast has a temperate climate.New ZealandNew Zealand has a marine climate.New Zealand is mild and wet.Much of the country receives plentiful rainfall and mild temperatures.
5Wildlife and Resources AustraliaAustralia is home to many unique animals (example: the kangaroo and koala).Australia is rich in resourcesWorld’s top producer of bauxite, lead, diamonds, and opalsEnergy resources include coal, natural gas, and oil.Farms and ranches raise wheat, cotton, and sheep.New ZealandNew Zealand is home to many unique animals (example: the kiwi).New Zealand has few mineral resources.Its main resources are wool, timber, and gold.New Zealand has a great deal of fertile land.
6Main Idea 2: Native peoples and British settlers shaped the history of Australia and New Zealand. The Aborigines were the first humans to live in Australia.The Aborigines likely migrated from Southeast Asia at least 40,000 years ago.Early Aborigines were nomads—fishers and hunters—who believed it was their duty to preserve the land.New ZealandNew Zealand’s first settlers came from other Pacific islands around 1,200 years ago.The Maori—descendants of the early settlers—settled throughout New Zealand.The Maori were mainly fishers and hunters, but also farmed.
7The Arrival of the Europeans AustraliaIn 1770 James Cook landed in Australia and claimed it for Britain.Many of the first British settlers were prisoners.British settlers took over the Aborigines land and many Aborigines died from diseases that the British introduced.Gained its independence in the early 1900sMember of the British Commonwealth of NationsNew ZealandIn 1769 James Cook explored the main islands of New Zealand.British settlers began to arrive in the early 1800s.Became a part of the British Empire in 1840.Tensions between the Maori and British settlers led to land wars.Gained its independence in the early 1900sMember of the British Commonwealth of Nations
8Main Idea 3: Australia and New Zealand today are wealthy and culturally diverse countries. Australia’s GovernmentBritish monarch is the head of state.Prime minister and Parliament run the government.Federal type of system like that of the United StatesNew Zealand’s GovernmentBritish monarch is the head of state.Prime minister and Parliament run the government.A Bill of Rights protects the individual rights of citizens.
9Economy Australia New Zealand Rich and economically developed country Agriculture is an important industry.One of the world’s top producers of woolExports meat and dairy productsMining is an important industry—bauxite, gold, and uranium in the Outback.Other industries—steel, heavy machines, and computersNew ZealandRich and economically developed countryAgriculture is an important industry.One of the world’s top producers of woolExports meat and dairy productsOther industries—processed food, clothing, and paper productsBanking, tourism, and insurance are important industries.
10People Australia Most of British ancestry Native Aborigines—small percentage of the total populationChallenge to improve the economic and political status of AboriginesMost Australians live in urban areas.About 85 percent of the population lives in large cities along the coasts.New ZealandMost of British ancestryNative Maori—small percentage of the total populationChallenge to improve the economic and political status of MaoriMost New Zealanders live in urban areas.A majority of the population lives on the North Island.
11The Pacific Islands The Big Idea The Pacific Islands have tropical climates, rich cultures, and unique challenges.Main IdeasUnique physical features, tropical climates, and limited resources shape the physical geography of the Pacific Islands.Native customs and contact with the western world have influenced the history and culture of the Pacific Islands.Pacific Islanders today are working to improve their economies and protect the environment.
12Main Idea 1: Unique physical features, tropical climates, and limited resources shape the physical geography of the Pacific Islands.The Pacific Islands are divided into three regions—Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.Micronesia—2,000 small islands just east of the PhilippinesMelanesia—stretches from New Guinea in the west to Fiji in the eastPolynesia—means “many islands,” and includes Tonga, Samoa, and the Hawaiian Islands
13Physical Features The Pacific Islands differ greatly. Some islands are high islands.High islands are mountainous and rocky.High islands can be volcanic or formed from continental rock.Examples of high islands include the islands of Tahiti and Hawaii.Some islands are low islands.Low islands are typically much smaller than high islands.Many low islands are atolls, or small, ring-shaped coral islands that surround a lagoon.Wake Island is an example of a low island atoll.
14Humid tropical climate Tropical savanna climate Most islands have humid tropical climate.Rain falls all year.Temperatures are warm.Tropical savanna climateExists in a few places (example: New Caledonia)Has a rainy and dry seasonCool highland climateFound in the mountains of New Guinea
15Resources in the Pacific Islands Vary Widely Low IslandsThin soils and little vegetationFew treesFew mineral or energy resourcesLow populationsHigh IslandsVolcanic soils provide fertile farmland and dense forests.Crops—coffee, cocoa, bananas, and sugarcaneSome high islands have mineral resources.
16Main Idea 2: Native customs and contact with the western world have influenced the history and culture of the Pacific Islands.Early HistoryBegan to be settled at least 35,000 years agoEuropeans first encountered the Pacific Islands in the 1500s.By the late 1800s European powers such as Spain, Great Britain, and France controlled most of the Pacific Islands.Modern HistoryGuam became a U.S. territory inWitnessed a lot of fighting during World War IIAfter World War II the United Nations placed some islands under the control of the United States and other Allies.Many Pacific Islands gained their independence in the 1900s.Several countries still have territories in the Pacific Islands.
17Pacific Island Culture Some culture traits are common throughout the Pacific Islands (example: fishing).Other culture traits are only found on a specific island or island chain.PeopleNine million people live in the Pacific Islands today.Most Pacific Islanders are descendants of the region’s original setters.Large numbers of ethnic Europeans and Asians also call the Pacific Islands home.Most Pacific Islanders are Christian.TraditionsMany people continue to practice traditional customs.People continue to live in ancient villages.Pacific Islanders practice customary art styles and traditional dances.
18Main Idea 3: Pacific Islanders today are working to improve their economies and protect the environment.The countries of the Pacific Islands have developing economies.Key industries include fishing, tourism, and agriculture.Although some countries do export minerals and timber, their isolation limits trade.Environmental issues are a concern for many Pacific Islanders.Nuclear testing grounds from 1940s to 1990sGlobal warming and rising ocean levels
19Antarctica The Big Idea Antarctica’s unique environment has made it an important site for research.Main IdeasFreezing temperatures, ice, and snow dominate Antarctica’s physical geography.Exploration in the 1800s and 1900s led to Antarctica’s use for scientific research.Research and protecting the environment are key issues in Antarctica today.
20Main Idea 1: Freezing temperatures, ice, and snow dominate Antarctica’s physical geography. THE LANDIce covers 98 percent of the continent of Antarctica.This ice sheet contains more than 90 percent of the world’s ice.Antarctica has huge ice shelves—ledges of ice that extend over the water.In the waters surrounding Antarctica float huge icebergs.In western Antarctica, the Antarctic Peninsula extends north of the Antarctic Circle.
21Climate and Resources Climate Most of Antarctica’s interior is dominated by a freezing ice-cap climate.Temperatures can drop below −120ºF.Polar desert—a high-latitude region that receives very little precipitationThe continent is in almost total darkness during the winter months. In the summer, the sun shines around the clock.Plant life exists only in the ice-free tundra areas.Insects are the only land animals.Penguins, seals, and, whales live in Antarctica’s water.ResourcesAntarctica has many mineral resources, including iron ore, gold, copper, and coal.
22Main Idea 2: Exploration in the 1800s and 1900s led to Antarctica’s use for scientific research. In 1775 James Cook first sighted the Antarctic Peninsula.In the 1800s explorers first investigated Antarctica.Many explorers wanted to discover the South Pole.In 1911 a team of Norwegian explorers reached the South Pole.Several countries claim parts of Antarctica.In 1959 the International Antarctic Treaty was signed to preserve the continent “for science and peace.”Military activity is banned.The entire continent is set aside for research.
23Environmental Threats Main Idea 3: Research and protecting the environment are key issues in Antarctica today.Scientific ResearchAntarctica is the only continent without a permanent human population.Scientists use the continent to conduct research and to monitor the environment.Several countries maintain bases on Antarctica for their research teams.Antarctica research covers a wide range of topics.The continent’s plant and animal lifeEarth’s ozone layerWeather conditionsEnvironmental ThreatsPeople are concerned about Antarctica’s environment.Trash and sewage left by researchers and touristsOil spillsFear that mining in Antarctica will result in more environmental problemsA new international agreement reached in 1991 forbids most activities that do not have a scientific purpose.