Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 – The Pacific World Section Notes Australia and New Zealand The Pacific Islands Antarctica Video Impact of Nonnative Wildlife Images Geography."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 29 – The Pacific World Section Notes Australia and New Zealand The Pacific Islands Antarctica Video Impact of Nonnative Wildlife Images Geography Focus on Culture: Australian Sports Villagers on Tanna Island Antarctic Exploration Quick Facts Chapter 29 Visual Summary Maps The Pacific World: Political The Pacific World: Physical Settling the Pacific The Pacific Islands: Political The Pacific World Australia and New Zealand: Climate World Almanac Ethnic Groups in Australia and New Zealand Close-up Maori Culture
Australia and New Zealand The Big Idea Australia and New Zealand share a similar history and culture but have unique natural environments. Main Ideas The physical geography of Australia and New Zealand is diverse and unusual. Native peoples and British settlers shaped the history of Australia and New Zealand. Australia and New Zealand today are wealthy and culturally diverse countries.
Main Idea 1: The physical geography of Australia and New Zealand is diverse and unusual. Australia Australia is surrounded by water, but is considered a continent and not an island. The western half of Australia is covered by a huge, flat, and dry plateau. Eastern Australia has low mountains, valleys, and a major river system. Fertile plains lie along Australia’s coasts. The Great Barrier Reef— the world’s largest coral reef—is off Australia’s northeastern coast. New Zealand New Zealand includes two main islands, North Island and South Island. North Island is covered with hills and coastal plains. South Island has a large mountain range—the Southern Alps—fertile hills, and rich plains. Fjords create many natural harbors on both islands.
Climate Australia Much of Australia has desert and steppe climates. Temperatures are warm and rainfall is limited. The coast has a temperate climate. New Zealand New Zealand has a marine climate. New Zealand is mild and wet. Much of the country receives plentiful rainfall and mild temperatures.
Wildlife and Resources Australia Australia is home to many unique animals (example: the kangaroo and koala). Australia is rich in resources –World’s top producer of bauxite, lead, diamonds, and opals –Energy resources include coal, natural gas, and oil. –Farms and ranches raise wheat, cotton, and sheep. New Zealand New Zealand is home to many unique animals (example: the kiwi). New Zealand has few mineral resources. Its main resources are wool, timber, and gold. New Zealand has a great deal of fertile land.
Australia New Zealand The Aborigines were the first humans to live in Australia. The Aborigines likely migrated from Southeast Asia at least 40,000 years ago. Early Aborigines were nomads—fishers and hunters—who believed it was their duty to preserve the land. New Zealand’s first settlers came from other Pacific islands around 1,200 years ago. The Maori—descendants of the early settlers—settled throughout New Zealand. The Maori were mainly fishers and hunters, but also farmed. Main Idea 2: Native peoples and British settlers shaped the history of Australia and New Zealand.
The Arrival of the Europeans Australia In 1770 James Cook landed in Australia and claimed it for Britain. Many of the first British settlers were prisoners. British settlers took over the Aborigines land and many Aborigines died from diseases that the British introduced. Gained its independence in the early 1900s Member of the British Commonwealth of Nations New Zealand In 1769 James Cook explored the main islands of New Zealand. British settlers began to arrive in the early 1800s. Became a part of the British Empire in Tensions between the Maori and British settlers led to land wars. Gained its independence in the early 1900s Member of the British Commonwealth of Nations
Australia’s Government New Zealand’s Government British monarch is the head of state. Prime minister and Parliament run the government. Federal type of system like that of the United States British monarch is the head of state. Prime minister and Parliament run the government. A Bill of Rights protects the individual rights of citizens. Main Idea 3: Australia and New Zealand today are wealthy and culturally diverse countries.
Economy Australia Rich and economically developed country Agriculture is an important industry. One of the world’s top producers of wool Exports meat and dairy products Mining is an important industry—bauxite, gold, and uranium in the Outback. Other industries—steel, heavy machines, and computers New Zealand Rich and economically developed country Agriculture is an important industry. One of the world’s top producers of wool Exports meat and dairy products Other industries—processed food, clothing, and paper products Banking, tourism, and insurance are important industries.
People Australia Most of British ancestry Native Aborigines—small percentage of the total population –Challenge to improve the economic and political status of Aborigines Most Australians live in urban areas. About 85 percent of the population lives in large cities along the coasts. New Zealand Most of British ancestry Native Maori—small percentage of the total population –Challenge to improve the economic and political status of Maori Most New Zealanders live in urban areas. A majority of the population lives on the North Island.
The Pacific Islands The Big Idea The Pacific Islands have tropical climates, rich cultures, and unique challenges. Main Ideas Unique physical features, tropical climates, and limited resources shape the physical geography of the Pacific Islands. Native customs and contact with the western world have influenced the history and culture of the Pacific Islands. Pacific Islanders today are working to improve their economies and protect the environment.
Main Idea 1: Unique physical features, tropical climates, and limited resources shape the physical geography of the Pacific Islands. The Pacific Islands are divided into three regions— Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Micronesia—2,000 small islands just east of the Philippines Melanesia—stretches from New Guinea in the west to Fiji in the east Polynesia—means “many islands,” and includes Tonga, Samoa, and the Hawaiian Islands
Physical Features The Pacific Islands differ greatly. Some islands are high islands. – High islands are mountainous and rocky. – High islands can be volcanic or formed from continental rock. – Examples of high islands include the islands of Tahiti and Hawaii. Some islands are low islands. – Low islands are typically much smaller than high islands. – Many low islands are atolls, or small, ring-shaped coral islands that surround a lagoon. – Wake Island is an example of a low island atoll.
Humid tropical climate Most islands have humid tropical climate. Rain falls all year. Temperatures are warm. Tropical savanna climate Exists in a few places (example: New Caledonia) Has a rainy and dry season Climate Cool highland climate Found in the mountains of New Guinea
Resources in the Pacific Islands Vary Widely Low Islands Thin soils and little vegetation Few trees Few mineral or energy resources Low populations High Islands Volcanic soils provide fertile farmland and dense forests. Crops—coffee, cocoa, bananas, and sugarcane Some high islands have mineral resources.
Main Idea 2: Native customs and contact with the western world have influenced the history and culture of the Pacific Islands. Early History Began to be settled at least 35,000 years ago Europeans first encountered the Pacific Islands in the 1500s. By the late 1800s European powers such as Spain, Great Britain, and France controlled most of the Pacific Islands. Modern History Guam became a U.S. territory in Witnessed a lot of fighting during World War II After World War II the United Nations placed some islands under the control of the United States and other Allies. Many Pacific Islands gained their independence in the 1900s. Several countries still have territories in the Pacific Islands.
Pacific Island Culture Some culture traits are common throughout the Pacific Islands (example: fishing). Other culture traits are only found on a specific island or island chain. People –Nine million people live in the Pacific Islands today. –Most Pacific Islanders are descendants of the region’s original setters. –Large numbers of ethnic Europeans and Asians also call the Pacific Islands home. –Most Pacific Islanders are Christian. Traditions –Many people continue to practice traditional customs. –People continue to live in ancient villages. –Pacific Islanders practice customary art styles and traditional dances.
Main Idea 3: Pacific Islanders today are working to improve their economies and protect the environment. The countries of the Pacific Islands have developing economies. Key industries include fishing, tourism, and agriculture. Although some countries do export minerals and timber, their isolation limits trade. Environmental issues are a concern for many Pacific Islanders. –Nuclear testing grounds from 1940s to 1990s –Global warming and rising ocean levels
Antarctica The Big Idea Antarctica’s unique environment has made it an important site for research. Main Ideas Freezing temperatures, ice, and snow dominate Antarctica’s physical geography. Exploration in the 1800s and 1900s led to Antarctica’s use for scientific research. Research and protecting the environment are key issues in Antarctica today.
Main Idea 1: Freezing temperatures, ice, and snow dominate Antarctica’s physical geography. THE LAND Ice covers 98 percent of the continent of Antarctica. This ice sheet contains more than 90 percent of the world’s ice. Antarctica has huge ice shelves—ledges of ice that extend over the water. In the waters surrounding Antarctica float huge icebergs. In western Antarctica, the Antarctic Peninsula extends north of the Antarctic Circle.
Climate Resources Most of Antarctica’s interior is dominated by a freezing ice-cap climate. – Temperatures can drop below −120ºF. – Polar desert—a high-latitude region that receives very little precipitation The continent is in almost total darkness during the winter months. In the summer, the sun shines around the clock. Plant life exists only in the ice-free tundra areas. Insects are the only land animals. Penguins, seals, and, whales live in Antarctica’s water. Antarctica has many mineral resources, including iron ore, gold, copper, and coal. Climate and Resources
Main Idea 2: Exploration in the 1800s and 1900s led to Antarctica’s use for scientific research. In 1775 James Cook first sighted the Antarctic Peninsula. In the 1800s explorers first investigated Antarctica. –Many explorers wanted to discover the South Pole. –In 1911 a team of Norwegian explorers reached the South Pole. Several countries claim parts of Antarctica. In 1959 the International Antarctic Treaty was signed to preserve the continent “for science and peace.” –Military activity is banned. The entire continent is set aside for research.
Main Idea 3: Research and protecting the environment are key issues in Antarctica today. Scientific Research Antarctica is the only continent without a permanent human population. Scientists use the continent to conduct research and to monitor the environment. Several countries maintain bases on Antarctica for their research teams. Antarctica research covers a wide range of topics. –The continent’s plant and animal life –Earth’s ozone layer –Weather conditions Environmental Threats People are concerned about Antarctica’s environment. –Trash and sewage left by researchers and tourists –Oil spills –Fear that mining in Antarctica will result in more environmental problems A new international agreement reached in 1991 forbids most activities that do not have a scientific purpose.