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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Barbara Woodworth Saigo Saiwood Biology Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Barbara Woodworth Saigo Saiwood Biology Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Barbara Woodworth Saigo Saiwood Biology Resources

2 CHAPTER 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

3 What is Environmental Science? Environment Environmental Science History of Environmental Science –utilitarian conservation –altruistic preservation

4 CURRENT CONDITIONS Planet Earth Environmental Dilemmas –population –food shortages –energy –pollution

5 A DIVIDED WORLD Rich vs. Poor North vs. South Developed countries vs. undeveloped countries –First, Second, Third and Fourth World Countries

6 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Human Development Index Developmental Discrepancies –basic social services education health care –agrarian reform –employment –civil rights –sustainable resource use Sustainable Development

7 ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES Neo-Malthusian Technological optimists/Promethean environmentalism “Cornucopian Fallacy” Lessons from the Past

8 CHAPTER 2 TOOLS FOR BUILDING A BETTER WORLD

9 Environmental Ethics and Philosophy Universal Ethical Principles –Relativists –Nihilists –Utilitarians Modernism & Postmodernism

10 Values, Rights & Obligations Morals Animal Rights Inherent Value Instrumental Value

11 Worldviews and Ethical Perspectives Domination Stewardship Biocentrism Ecofeminism

12 Environmental Justice Environmental racism Toxic colonialism Is Nature fragile or resilient?

13 Science as a Way of Knowing Scientific Method Hypotheses Testing Indirect Scientific Evidence Technology and Progress Appropriate Technology

14 CHAPTER 3 MATTER, ENERGY, AND LIFE

15 From Atoms to Cells Atoms –ions –atomic number Molecules –compound Organic Compounds –carbon Cells

16 Energy Types and Qualities Kinetic Energy –heat –temperature Potential Energy Chemical Energy Conservation of Matter Thermodynamics –1st law –2nd law

17 Energy for Life Solar Energy Photosynthesis –Chlorophyll –cellular respiration

18 From Species to Ecosystems Population Communities –biological community Ecosystems

19 Food Chains Productivity/biomass Food chain/food web Trophic level –producers –consumers Organisms –herbivores –carnivores –omnivores

20 Material Cycles and Life Processes Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Sulfur Cycle

21 CHAPTER 4 BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES AND SPECIES INTERACTION

22 Critical Factors, Who Lives Where? Temperature Moisture levels Nutrient supply Soil chemistry Water chemistry

23 Natural Selection Adaptation Evolution HABITAT

24 SPECIES INTERACTIONS AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS

25 Predation Predators –parasites –Pathogens Prey

26 Competition Intraspecific competition Interspecific competition Territoriality

27 Symbiosis Commensalism Mutualism

28 Community Properties Productivity Abundance and Diversity Complexity and Connectedness Resilience and Stability Structure Edges and Boundaries

29 Ecological Succession Primary Succession Secondary Succession Pioneer Species Ecological Development Climax Community Introduced Species and Community Change

30 CHAPTER 5 BIOMES, LANDSCAPES, RESOTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

31 Terrestrial Biomes Deserts Grasslands –Prairies –Savannas Tundra Conifer Forests Evergreen Forests Tropical Forests Tropical Seasonal Forests

32 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater and Saline Ecosystems Estuaries and Wetlands Shorelines and Barrier Islands –Coral reefs

33 Landscape Ecology Patchiness & Heterogeneity Landscape Dynamics

34 Restoration Ecology Rehabilitation Remediation Reclamation Re-creation Nature, self-healing

35 CHAPTER 6 POPULATION DYNAMICS

36 Population Growth Exponential Growth Geometric Growth Arithmetic Growth J Curve

37 Population Oscillations and Irruptive Growth Dieback Overshoot Irruptive or Malthusian growth

38 Growth to a Stable Population Logistic growth Environmental resistance

39 Strategies of Population Growth Malthusian Strategies Logistic Strategies

40 Factors affecting Population Natality, Fecundity, and Fertility Immigration Mortality and survivorship Age Structure Emigration Education

41 Factors Affecting Birth and Fertility Rates Education/affluence Importance of children to family labor force Urbanization Cost - raising and educating children Education & Employment opportunity - women Infant mortality rate Average marriage age Availability - pension Birth control Religious beliefs, tradition and culture

42 Factors Affecting Death Rate Nutrition Fewer infant deaths and increased longevity Health and technology

43 Teen Pregnancy in the USA Migration Immigration

44 Population Age Structure –Ways of classifying Pre-reproductive age Reproductive age Post-reproductive age

45 Solutions Influencing Population –Controlling Migration –Reducing Birth Rates Economic development Family planning Economic rewards Empowering women –Population Control Studies India China

46 Population Distribution –Urbanization and Growth The future is urban Hyper-urbanization - LDCs The United States and other MDC’s Spatial patterns of development

47 CHAPTER 7 HUMAN POPULATIONS

48 Population Growth Birth Rates Over-population Technology and Ingenuity

49 Limits to Population Growth Malthusian checks Karl Marx Neo-Malthusian –Technology solutions? –Can More people be Beneficial?

50 Human Demography Fertility Birthrate Zero population growth Mortality and death rates Population growth rates Life span and life expectancy –dependency ratio Emigration and Immigration

51 Population Growth: Opposition Pronatalist/Social Pressures Birth Reduction Pressures –Education –Birth control –Economics

52 Demographic Transition Improved living conditions Development and Population Optimistic View Pessimistic View Social Justice View Ecojustice View Infant Mortality Women’s Rights

53 Family Planning & Fertility Control Birth Control –Celibacy –Mechanical barriers –Surgery –Chemicals –Implantation of physical controls –Abortion

54 CHAPTER 8 ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS

55 Classical Economics Diminished Returns Demand Supply Market Equilibrium Marginal Costs Price Elasticity

56 Neoclassical Economics –Karl Marx –E. F. Schumacher Ecological Economics –steady-state economy

57 Resources, Capital and Reserves Resource Types –Capital –Resource –Nonrenewable resources –Renewable resources –Intangible resources

58 Economic Resource Categories Proven resources Known resources Undiscovered resources Recoverable resources

59 Population, Technology, and Scarcity Market Efficiencies Increasing Environmental Carrying Capacity Economic Models Why Not Conserve Resources?

60 Natural Resource Accounting Gross National Product (GNP) Human Development Index (HDI) Non-market Values Cost/Benefit Ratios Green Business Jobs and the Environment

61 Sustainability Sustainable Development

62 CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY

63 Health Hazards Infectious Diseases Respiratory diseases –pneumonia –tuberculosis –influenza –whooping cough

64 Malaria Parasitic Mematodes Schistosomiasis Onchocerciasis (river blindness) Trachoma STD’s

65 Toxic Chemicals Irritants Respiratory fibrotic agents Asphyxiants Allergens Neurotoxins Mutagens Teratogens Carcinogens

66 Natural and Synthetic Toxin Physical Agents –radiation Trauma –stress Diet

67 Chemical Hazards and Toxicology Dose and response –LD5O factor Acute effect Chronic effect Types –toxic substances –hazardous –carcinogens –mutagens –teratogens

68 Movement, Distribution and Fate of Toxins Solubility Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Persistence Chemical Interactions

69 Minimizing Toxic Effects Metabolic Degradation Excretion Repair Mechanisms

70 Measuring Toxicity Animal Testing Toxicity Ratings Acute vs. Chronic Doses and Effects Detection Limits

71 Assessment Risks Acceptable risks??

72 Risk Analysis –Identifying Risks –The Greatest Risks –Problems - Risk Assessment –Risk-Benefit Analysis –Managing Risks

73 CHAPTER 10 FOOD, HUNGER AND NUTRITION

74 Human Nutrition Energy Needs –undernourishment –over-nourishment Nutritional Needs –proteins –carbohydrates –lipids and oils –minerals –vitamins

75 World Food Resoureces Major Crops –wheat –rice –corn –potatoes Meat and Milk Croplands

76 Increasing Food Production Green Revolution –Technology –Genetic Engineering –Increased Farm Output New Food Sources Blue Revolution –Aqua-culture

77 Agricultural Economics Food Supplies Food Subsidies Agricultural Aid International Food Trade Cash Crops

78 World Hunger –Famines –Food Shortages

79 CHAPTER 11 SOIL RESOURECES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

80 What is soil? Soil, a renewable resource Soil composition –humus Soil organisms Soil profiles –top soil –sub-soil –parent material –bedrock

81 Use and Abuse of Soil Land Resources Land Degradation

82 Erosion Types of erosion –sheet erosion –rill erosion –gully erosion –streambank erosion Erosion in the United States Erosion in other countries

83 Agricultural Resources Water Fertilizer Climate Energy Crop Diversity

84 Soil Conservation Managing Topography –contour plowing –strip-farming –tied ridges –terracing Providing Ground Cover –cover crops –mulch Reduced Tillage Systems

85 CHAPTER 12 PEST CONTROL

86 What are Pest and Pesticides? Biological Pests –Insects –Large animals Botanical Pests –Weeds Pesticides –Insecticides Herbicides –Fungicides

87 Pest Controls Early Controls –Botanical –Chemical Modern Controls –Synthetic chemicals DDT

88 Pesticide Types Inorganic pesticides Natural organic pesticides –botanicals Fumigants Chlorinated hydrocarbons Organophosphates Carbamates Microbial agents

89 Pesticide Benefits Disease control Crop protection Increased crop production

90 Pesticide Problems Effects on Nontarget Species Pesticide Resistance/Pest resurgence Creation of New Pests Persistence and Mobility in the Environment Human Health Problems

91 Alternative Pesticide Uses Crop rotation Biological controls –predatory insects –pathogens Herbivorous insects Genetic and bioengineering

92 Reducing Pesticide Exposure Regulation –EPA –USDA Personal Safety

93 CHAPTER 13 BIODIVERSITY

94 Biodiversity and Species Concept What is Biodiversity? What are species? –Number of species

95 Benefits of Biodiversity Food Drugs Medicine Ecological Benefits Aesthetic and Cultural Benefits

96 Threats to Biodiversity Extinction Natural Causes Mass Extinction

97 Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity Habitat Destruction Hunting and Fishing Commercial products and Live Specimens Predator and Pest Control Exotic Species Introductions Disease Pollution Genetic Assimilation

98 Biodiversity Protection Hunting and Fishing Laws Endangered Species Act Recovery Plans Private Land and Critical Habitat Minimum Viable Populations Habitat Protection International Wildlife Treaties Zoos Botanical Gardens Captive Breeding Programs

99 CHAPTER 14 LAND USE: FORESTS AND RANGELANDS

100 World Land Use Forest, 30% Range and pasture, 26% Cropland, 1% Other, 33 –tundra –desert –wetlands –urban areas

101 World Forests Forest Distribution –Closed canopy –Open canopy –Woodland

102 Forest Products Industrial Timber Fuelwood

103 Tropical Forests Diminishing Forests Swidden Agriculture Logging and Land Invasions Forest Protection –Reforestation Debt-for-Nature Swaps

104 Temperate Forests Ancient forest/old growth forests Wilderness Protection Wildlife Protection Harvesting old growth forests –clear-cutting –strip-cutting –selective-cutting Fire Management

105 Rangelands Range Management Overgrazing and Land Degradation –desertification Forage Conversion Harvesting Wild Animals

106 Rangelands in the U.S. Bureau of Land Management State of the Range –feral animals Grazing Fees

107 Land Ownership Who owns what? Land Reform Indigenous Lands

108 CHAPTER 15 PRESERVING NATURE

109 Parks and Nature Preserves Origins and History Natural Landscaping

110 North American Parks –Existing Systems –U.S. National Park System –Park Problems Over crowding Roads Commercialism Pollution –Wildlife –New Directions –New Parks

111 World Parks and Preserves Biosphere Reserves Protecting Natural Heritage Size and Design of Nature Preserves –recreation areas –historic areas –conservation areas –pristine research areas Conservation and Economic Development Indigenous Communities

112 Wilderness Areas Wildlife Refuges –Refuge Management –International Wildlife Preserves poaching

113 Wetlands, Floodplains, & Coastal Regions Wetland Values Wetland Destruction Floods and Flood Control –Floodplains Beaches, barrier Islands, and Estuaries

114 CHAPTER 16 EARTH AND ITS CRUSTAL RESOURCES

115 Earth, A Dynamic Sphere Earth’s Layers –Crust –Mantle –Outer Core –Inner Core Tectonic Processes –Tectonic Plates –Magma Shifting Continents

116 Rock Types & How They Formed Igneous Rock Weathering Sedimentation Sedimentary Rock Biogenic Sedimentation Metamorphic Rock

117 Mineralogy Metals Nonmetal Minerals Strategic Minerals

118 Environmental Effects of Resource Extraction Mining –tunneling –water leakage –strip mining Processing –water pollution –chemical emissions

119 Conserving Mineral Resources Recycling –Aluminum & Platinum –Steel & Iron Substituting New Materials for Old Ones

120 Geologic Hazards Earthquakes –Tsunami Volcanoes Floods

121 CHAPTER 17 AIR, CLIMATE, AND WEATHER

122 The Atmosphere, Composition & Structure Gas Mixture Layered Envelope –Troposphere –Stratosphere –Mesosphere –Thermosphere –Ionosphere

123 Weather Engine Solar Radiation/ Heat –Albedo (reflectivity) –“Greenhouse effect” Convection Currents –Water vapor

124 Weather Energy Balance in the Atmosphere Convection Cells Prevailing Winds Jet Streams Frontal Weather –cold and warm fronts Cyclonic Storms –hurricanes and tornadoes Seasonal Winds –monsoon Weather Modification

125 Climate Climatic Catastrophes –Ice Ages Driving Forces & Patterns in Climatic Changes –Milankovitch Cycles El Niño

126 Human-caused Global Climate Change Greenhouse Gases –Carbon Dioxide –Aerosols Sources –Burning Fossil Fuels –Industrial Processes –Deforestation –Agriculture

127 Effects of Climate Change Temperature Changes Impact on Plants and Animals Rising Sea Levels impacting Coastlines Melting Ice Packs Possible Increase of Disease

128 Cutting Emissions United Nations “Earth Summit” Kyoto Protocol Developed Nations Developing Nations

129 CHAPTER 18 AIR POLLUTION

130 Natural Sources of Air Pollution Volcanoes Emissions from vegetation

131 Human-Caused Air Pollution Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants Fugitive emissions

132 Conventional or “Criteria” Pollutants Sulfur compounds Nitrogen Compounds Carbon Oxides Metals and Halogens Particulate Materials Volatile Organic Compounds Photochemical Oxidants

133 Unconventional Pollutants Emissions & emissions standards Unconventional or noncriteria pollutants Aesthetic degradation Indoor air Pollution –smoke

134 Climate, Topography, & Atmospheric Processes Inversions Dust Domes and Heat Islands Long Range Transport Stratospheric Ozone –chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

135 Effects of Air Pollution Human Health –bronchitis –emphysema Plant Pathology Acid Deposition –pH and atmospheric acidity –aquatic effects –forest damage –buildings and monuments –visibility reduction

136 Air Pollution Control Moving Pollution to Remote Areas Particulate Removal –filters Sulfur Removal –fuel switching and fuel cleaning –limestone injection/fluidized bed combustion –flue gas desulfurization –sulfur recovery processes Nitrogen Oxide Control Hydrocarbon Controls

137 Clean Air Legislation Clean Air Act of 1963 Amendments of 1970 Amendments of 1990 –Acid rain –Urban smog –Toxic air pollutants –Ozone protection –Marketing pollution rights –Toxic organic compounds EPA

138 CHAPTER 19 WATER USE AND MANAGEMENT

139 Water Resources Hydrologic Cycle –Evaporation/Sublimation –Saturation Point –Relative humidity –Condensation –Dew Point Rainfall & Topography –Rain Shadow Desert Belts Balancing the Water Budget

140 Major Water Compartments Oceans Glaciers, Ice, & Snow Ground Water –infiltration –water table –aquifers Rivers and Streams Lakes and Ponds Wetlands The Atmosphere

141 Water Availability and Use Water Supplies Drought Cycles Types of Water Use –Withdrawal –Consumption –Degradation Quantities of Water Use Use by Sector

142 Freshwater Shortages A Scarce Resource Depleting Groundwater –subsidence –sinkholes

143 Increasing Water Supplies Seeding Clouds &Towing Icebergs Desalination Dams, Reservoirs, Canals, & Aqueducts Environmental Costs –Evaporation, Leakage, and Siltation –Loss of Free-Flowing Rivers

144 Water Management & Conservation Watershed Management Domestic Conservation Industrial and Agricultural Conservation Price Mechanisms

145 CHAPTER 20 WATER POLLUTION

146 Water Pollution Point Sources Non-point Sources Atmospheric Deposition

147 Types and Effects of Water Pollution Infectious Agents Oxygen-Demanding Wastes Plant Nutrients & Cultural Eutrophication Toxic Inorganic Materials –Heavy Metals –Nonmetallic Salts –Acids and Bases Organic Chemicals Sediments Thermal Pollution

148 Water Quality Today Surface Water in the U.S. & Canada Surface Water in other Countries Groundwater and Drinking Water Supplies Ocean Pollution

149 Water Pollution Control Source Reduction Non-point Sources and Land Management –Agriculture –Urban runoff –Construction sites –Land disposal

150 Human Waste Disposal –Natural Processes –Municipal Sewage Treatment Primary treatment Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment –Low-Cost Waste Treatment effluent sewerage

151 Water Legislation Clean Water Act Clean Water Act Reauthorization Other Important Water Legislation –Safe Drinking Water Act –Superfund –Great lakes Water Quality Agreement

152 CHAPTER 21 CONVENTIONAL ENERGY

153 Energy A Brief History Current Energy Sources –Fossil fuels –Nuclear power –Hydroelectric –Solar Per Capita Consumption Energy Use

154 Coal Coal Resources and Reserves Mining Air Pollution

155 Oil Oil Resources and Reserves Oil Imports and Domestic Supplies Oil Shales and Tar Sands

156 Natural Gas Natural Gas Resources and Reserves Unconventional Gas Sources –Methane hydrate

157 Nuclear Power Nuclear Reactors: How They Work? Types of Reactors Alternative Reactor Designs Breeder Reactors

158 Radioactive Waste Management Ocean Dumping Land Disposal –high-level waste repository –monitored, retrievable storage Decommissioning Old Nuclear Plants

159 Changing Fortunes of Nuclear Power Changing Public Opinion Nuclear Fusion –Magnetic confinement –Inertial confinement

160 CHAPTER 22 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

161 Conservation Utilization Efficiencies Energy Conversion Efficiencies –net energy yield Negawatt programs Co-generation

162 Tapping Solar Energy A Vast Resource Passive Solar Heat Active Solar Heat –Eutectic Chemicals

163 High-Temperature Solar Energy Solar Cookers Promoting Renewable Energy Photovaltaic Solar Energy –Photovoltaic Cells Storing Electrical Energy

164 Energy from Biomass Burning Biomass Fuelwood crisis in LDCs Dung and Methane as Fuels Alcohol from Biomass –gasohol Crop Residues, Energy Crops and Peat

165 Energy from the Earth’s Forces Hydropower –Dams and Hydro Generators Wind Energy –Wind Farms Geothermal Energy Tidal and Wave Energy –Tidal Stations Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion

166 CHAPTER 23 SOLID, TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTE

167 Solid Waste Waste Stream –Paper, 38% –Yard waste, 17% –Metals, 8% –Plastics, 8% –Glass, 7% –Food, 7% –Miscellaneous, 14%

168 Waste Disposal Methods Open Dumps Ocean Dumpings Landfills Export Waste Incineration and Resource Recovery –Types of incinerators refuse-derived fuel mass burn –Incinerator Cost and Safety

169 Reducing the Waste Stream Recycling Composting Energy from Waste Reuse Producing Less Waste –Photodegradable plastics –Biodegradable plastics

170 Hazardous and Toxic Wastes Hazardous Waste Disposal Superfund Hazardous Waste Management –Produce Less Waste –Convert to Less Hazardous Substances Physical treatments Chemical treatments Bioremediation –Store Permanently Retrievable Storage Secure Landfills

171 CHAPTER 24 URBANIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE CITIES

172 Urbanization What is a city? –Rural area –Urban area –Village –City –Megacity –Core region World Urbanization

173 Causes of Urban Growth Immigration Push Factors Immigration Pull Factors Government Policies

174 Urban Problems The Developing World –Traffic and Congestion –Air Pollution –Sewer Systems and Water Pollution –Housing Slums Shantytowns Squatter Towns

175 The Developed World –Urban Problems –Urban Renewal –Noise

176 Transportation and City Growth Transportation methods –horse & buggy –automobiles Roads/freeways

177 City Planning History Garden Cities and New Towns Cities of the Future –technopolis Urban Redesign Design for Open space –conservation

178 Urban Redesign –Limit size –Development areas –Shopping malls into city centers –Convenience for shopping and services –Job location –Exercise areas –Diverse housing –“Superblocks” –Self-sustainable food and waste centers –Public participation

179 CHAPTER 25 WHAT THEN SHALL WE DO?

180 Environmental Education Environmental Literacy Environmental Careers

181 Individual Accountability Shopping for Green Products –precycling –Non toxic products –recyclable products –natural products –Environmentally friendly products Blue Angels and Green Seals Limits of Green Consumerism Paying Attention to What’s Important

182 Collective Actions Student Environmental Groups Mainline Environmental Organizations Broadening the Environmental Agenda Deep or Shallow Environmentalism Radical Environmental Groups Anti-environmental Backlash

183 Global Issues Public Opinions and Environmental Protection –“Post materialist” values Sustainable Development International Nongovernmental Organizations

184 Green Government and Politics Green Politics –“Green” Parties Green Plans National Legislation Courts Executive Branch Environmental Impact Statements International Environmental Treaties and Conventions


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