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Training Managers for 21st Century Fisheries Queenstown, New Zealand December 5-7, 2001 Education and Training Overview: Are we responding to the challenge?

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Presentation on theme: "Training Managers for 21st Century Fisheries Queenstown, New Zealand December 5-7, 2001 Education and Training Overview: Are we responding to the challenge?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Training Managers for 21st Century Fisheries Queenstown, New Zealand December 5-7, 2001 Education and Training Overview: Are we responding to the challenge? Laura W. Jodice Marine Resource Management College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences Gil Sylvia Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station Hatfield Marine Science Center &

2 Section 1- Introduction fisheries managerWhat is a fisheries manager? Major demandsMajor demands on training and education in the 21st Century ResponseResponse in past - workshops Section 2 - Fisheries Management Programs Review MethodsMethods – w/ website intro AnalysisAnalysis – summary of features, case examples ComparisonComparison with other management disciplines Section 3 - Conclusion FindingsFindings Questions for considerationQuestions for consideration

3 Specialist or Generalist ? Section 1 - Introduction What is a fisheries manager? Generalist understands the broad complexity of the system Specialist supports generalists Specialist with some generalist knowledge Generalist with some specialty Breadth or depth?

4 Section 1 - Introduction What is a fisheries manager? Different management niches and levels of responsibility Top level Mid-level leading change innovation, adaptation policy-making strategic planning evaluation of outcomes decisions about implementation implementation Accountability

5 Section 1 - Introduction What is a fisheries manager? Section 1 - Introduction What is a fisheries manager? Range of Institutional models Institutional model Scientific centralized Pluralistic Rights-based Manager Scientifically trained federal manager makes management decisions for national or regional fisheries Resources are federally owned but regionally appointed representatives develop management policies -- significant public participation Owners of user rights/property rights charged with management responsibilities subject to regional and federal oversight

6 Section 1 - Introduction What is a fisheries manager? Focus/Objectives Biologically oriented public and legal mandates sustainability regional or national welfare Private industry organization maximizing profits or quota value improving stability obtaining user rights/privileges meeting regulatory requirements Environmentally related stock preservation habitat protection ecosystem management Management Sector? Public sector Private sector Non profit-based

7 Section 1 - Introduction Major demands on training and education in the 21st Century Increasing complexity and dynamic change Greater need for variety of skills and knowledge, critical thinking, systems thinking, problem solving, conflict resolution, ability to learn, adaptability, leadership More than basic fisheries science or undergraduate

8 More urban? less in touch w/ commercial fishing, rural economy, recreational hunting/ fishing grew up playing at the beach and in love with marine mammals Male:Female ratio - more females? MRM 2001 - Fall 2001 = 7F:1M Fall 2000 = 8F:5M Fall 1999 8F:1M Descendents of Environmental Movement? focus on conservation, preservation, sustainability; managing humans Section 1 - Introduction Students Population in the 21st Century Section 1 - Introduction Students Population in the 21st Century U.S. perspective

9 1968 The Future of the Fishing Industry of the United States - University of Washington College of Fisheries 1978 Fisheries Education in the 1980's - series of fisheries education papers, American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting in Rhode Island 1980 UNESCO/FAO Workshop on university curricula in fishery science, Paris, 1980 Fisheries Education in Alaska: Creating a Program of Excellence, Anchorage, Alaska (ONLINE) 1986 California Sea Grant Workshop, Educating Fisheries Managers, University of California Davis (ONLINE) 1990 55 th North American Wildlife & Natural Resources Conference; Educational Content of University Fish and Wildlife Programs Based on Expressed Needs of Federal and State Agency Employers. 1991 2020 Vision - Meeting the Fish & Wildlife Conservation Challenges of the 21st Century, symposium at the 53rd Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference in Des Moines, Iowa. Section 1 - Introduction Section 1 - Introduction Response: Past workshops

10 1880 Modernization - modern fishing technology from advanced countries -1900 1888 Fisheries Institute founded in Tokyo - fishing techniques, fish-farming, processing, train technical experts in the fishing industry. 1897Imperial Fisheries Institute in Agriculture and Commerce Ministry - technology transfer and development, practical use of large-scale fishing boats, deep-sea fishing; fisheries food-processing; aquaculture. 1949Tokyo University of Fisheries - scientific and technological education, and research. 1964 Masters Degree program started - Marine Science and Technology, Aquatic Biosciences, Food Science and Technology. 1987Doctoral program started - Marine Science and Technology, Aquatic Biosciences, and Food Science and Technology. 1991Masters degree - Fisheries Resource Management 1993Doctoral program - Fisheries Resource Management Historical Overview Tokyo University of Fisheries How have we responded in the past?

11 Section 2 Fisheries Management Programs Review MethodsMethods – w/ website intro AnalysisAnalysis – summary of features, case examples ComparisonComparison with other management disciplines

12 Fisheries Management Programs Review Methods Step 1 - Search for programs: Reviewed lists of programs –fisheries –other marine –other natural resource management –other management (top business, public administration) Web literature only (in English) Focused on... –Graduate programs –Advanced continuing education –Some undergraduate Step 2 - Created web index Step 2 - Created web index - online report

13 WEB SITE DEMOWEB SITE DEMO on hard drive WEB SITE DEMO WEB SITE DEMO online www.coas.oregonstate.edu/mrm/curriculum/TFM21.html Fisheries Management Programs Review Web Index

14 Fisheries Management Programs Review Analysis Data set Programs claiming to train for fisheries management First section of web index 85 programs (47 institutions)Results Part 1 - Organization Part 2 - Curriculum Content Part 3 - Program Quality

15 Fisheries Management Program Review Global Distribution Location of Fisheries Training Programs in Analysis Australia (6)(3) China(1) Japan(5)(4) Indonesia(1) Norway(1) Netherlands(1) Portugal(1) Ireland(2)(1) Scotland (1) UK (9)(4) Canada(8)(4) US(50)(25) Total programs = 86 Total institutions = 48

16 Fisheries Management Programs Distribution of US Fisheries Management Programs in Analysis Humboldt State (2) Oregon State (4) Auburn (5) Cornell(4) Colorado State (2) Florida State U of Alaska Fairbanks & Auke Bay Texas A&M U of Arizona (2) U of Florida (2) U of Georgia U of Washington (4) Utah State (2) VIMS (2) U of Maine Orono U of Maryland UMASS URI (2) U of Miami (2) U of Missouri Virginia Tech U of Vermont (3) Total institutions = 25 Ohio State (2) UDEL

17 Fisheries Management Programs Review Analysis, part 1 - Organization Variation in organization - eg. major, minor, concentration Title of degree - eg. Fisheries Science, Natural Resources Degree level - eg. MS, PhD, Postgrad. Diploma

18 Specialist Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 1 Variation in Organization of Academic Programs Management Management Fisheries and/or Wildlife Management Marine or Natural Resource Management w/ concentration or emphasis in fisheries Marine Affairs/Policy with emphasis in fisheries (UW; Maine) Dual or joint degree - w/ business or public adminScience Fisheries, Aquatic or Marine Science Fisheries Science w/ certificate in management or policy Fisheries Economics or Resource Economics w/ focus on fisheries Ocean and Coastal Law w/ focus on fisheries Generalist

19 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 1 Title of Degree Total Fisheries = 71% f f f

20 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 1 Degree Level in sample Minimum # indicates only those undergraduate programs of significance

21 Mission/goalsMission/goals - key words StrategyStrategy: –Disciplinary foundation - e.g. oceanography, fish & wildlife –Science:Management ratio in required coursework Science coreScience core - key words Management coreManagement core - key words SkillsSkills - key words Fisheries Management Programs Review Analysis, part 2- Curriculum content

22 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Range in Mission/Goals University of Florida, Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences “train graduate students for entry-level, professional positions in areas of fisheries biology, aquatic resource management, and/or aquaculture and provide a solid, scientific foundation for further graduate work leading to the Ph.D. degree. “ University of Georgia Warnell School of Forest Resources “development of scientists and professional resource managers capable of leadership in the identification, analysis, and solution of resource-related problems through understanding and application of biological, economic, social, and analytical principles.”

23 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Mission/Goal Key Words

24 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Strategy - Disciplinary Foundation

25 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Strategy - Science : Management Ratio Science Management

26 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Science Core (course & emphasis) (key words came from literature review)

27 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Management Core (courses & emphasis) (key words came from literature review)

28 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Skills “Team work is very low” Noah Jodice Age 7 Communications Administrative Research Problem-Solving

29 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Courses w/ skill training - Example #1 Forest Administration and Organization. Forest Administration and Organization. (3) Three hour lecture. Hierarchy and land structuring of forest organizations. Legal aspects of administering forest and holdings. Course Objectives: 1. Understand and appreciate who owns forest land, the kinds and structure of forestry organizations that administer forest properties, forms of ownership and how properties are financed. including leadership, motivation, worker 2. Learn about organization theory including leadership, motivation, worker empowerment and communication empowerment and communication. skills in negotiation, team building, group processes, Total Quality Management and professional protocol 3. Learn and develop skills in negotiation, team building, group processes, Total Quality Management and professional protocol. Department of Forestry

30 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Courses w/ skill training - Example #2 Principles of Management Planning, organizing, staffing, and human resources management, directing and supervising, communication, controlling, evaluating and budgeting Principles of Management (3) Basic theories, concepts, principles, and functions of modern management and administration. Planning, organizing, staffing, and human resources management, directing and supervising, communication, controlling, evaluating and budgeting responsibilities in public agencies and private industries, and social and ethical considerations, are among the principal topics emphasized.Papers: 1)2 Memos 1) 2 Memos 2)Leadership 2) Leadership - “gap analysis of the distance between you and your leadership role model” 3)Problem Solving 3) Problem Solving - apply the decision-making framework to a problem you may or have encountered in your professional career

31 Fisheries Management Programs Review - Analysis - part 2 Skill Training - Example #3 Continuing Education - Leadership Program Features: Enhance the productivity and effectiveness Two levels: Level I -Technical Leadership Level I - Technical Leadership - GS 5-11 and entry level various courses focusing on technical skills Level II - Program Leadership Level II - Program Leadership - mid - level managers Leadership and CommunicationLeadership and Communication Natural Resource PolicyNatural Resource Policy Values and EconomicsValues and Economics Program ManagementProgram Management ProjectProject necessary to graduate from Level II = Program Plan

32 Fisheries Management Programs Review Analysis, part 3 - Program Quality Training Capacity –facilities –partnerships –independence Flexibility –required vs. elective courses –degree options (dual degree, flexible -learning, continuing education) Capstone –courses - integrated courses that for systems thinking –opportunities - leadership, team work, decision-making

33 # Institutions = 47 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Training Capacity Facilities Associated Marine Lab 27 (57%) Research or training vessel 25 (53%) Access to Fishing Industry 24(51%) Tokyo Univ. Fisheries OSU RV Wecoma OSU HMSC - Newport Coos Bay, Oregon

34 Government Partnership Florida State University/NMFS Institute for Fishery Resource Ecology vehicle to combine university and agency expertise address marine resource issues of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico that affect Florida, the southeastern United States, and the rest of the nation. Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Training Capacity Partnerships - Example #1

35 University of Tromso, NORWEGIAN COLLEGE OF FISHERY SCIENCE M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management(2 yr) M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management (2 yr)Features: interdisciplinary education - practical aim economics and biology, technology, principles of organization, and law dissertation related to home country Focus on international students - scholarships English Taught Quota Program - certain number of student places for study programmes specially designed for applicants from certain countries (developing countries and some Eastern European countries). NORAD (Norwegian Agency For Development Cooperation) assist developing countries; lasting improvements in political, economic and social conditions for the entire population within the limits imposed by the natural environment and the natural resource base. Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Training Capacity Partnerships - Example #2 Government & International

36 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Training Capacity Independence (or dependence on other departments)

37 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Exclusive Fisheries University Model - China Shanghai Fisheries University, China Multi-discipline, multi-level, fisheries, marine and food sciences Evolved from Jiangsu Provincial Fishery School founded in 1912. Also, for the basics: College of Computer Science College of Human and Basic Sciences College of Marine Fishing technology, International Fisheries and Policy Fishery Resources and Environment Fishery Engineering Facilities College of Economics and Trade Fishery economics and management (672 UG, 5 masters) College of Fishery Aquaculture Science Water Environment Science Biological technology (500 UG, 40 masters) College of Food Science processing & utilization (765 UG, 35 masters) ORGANIZATION

38 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Curriculum Flexibility (Required vs Elective Courses) Level of Flexibility

39 TERM 1 Graduate Certificate in Fisheries Management  Economic Applications  Fisheries Management  Fisheries Biology and Ecology  + 1 Elective Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Degree Option Flexibility - Example #1 Australian Maritime College -“MBA in Marine Resource Management” Distance/Accelerated Courses Administrative Law Coastal Zone Management Conflict, Environment & Social Impact Economic Applications Environmental Management Systems Environmental Policy TERM 2 Graduate Diploma in Fisheries Management  Recreational Fisheries Management  Information Processing  Introduction to Law  + 1 Elective TERM 3 = 1 year total Masters (Coursework) + Research Project Marine Policy Fish Ecology 2 nd Year Masters (Research) + Thesis Working professionalWorking professional Model for Stakeholder training or continuing educationModel for Stakeholder training or continuing education

40 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Degree Option Flexibility - Example #2 Dual Degree Features: M.B.A. and M.S. in Natural Resources/Environment. Highly selective 3-year dual degree program private and public leadersdevelops future private and public leaders possessing the requisite mix of scientific literacy, global vision, entrepreneurial creativity, and management skills needed to achieve sustainable commerce and governance. complex social, ecological and economic interdependenciestrained to deal with complex social, ecological and economic interdependencies via an emphasis on transdisciplinary approaches, systems thinking, public-private partnerships, and experiential learning in the field. Rated by World Resources Institute as "Cutting Edge"Rated by World Resources Institute as "Cutting Edge" Corporate Environmental Management Program

41 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Capstone Opportunities

42 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Capstone Opportunities Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Capstone Opportunities - Example Synthesis team project MSPPM Systems Synthesis Projectscapstone experience MSPPM Systems Synthesis Projects capstone experience Working in a group for a real clientWorking in a group for a real client tackle a real issue"synthesizes" their first year courseworkstudents will tackle a real issue that "synthesizes" their first year coursework in economics, statistics, management science, financial analysis, professional writing and speaking. guided-and challenged-by a faculty advisor and an advisory board of professionals in the field. propose a project, frame the problem, conduct the analysismake recommendations and present their findingsStudents propose a project, frame the problem, conduct the analysis, make recommendations and present their findings-just like they'll do in every job they have after graduating from the Heinz School. stimulating, frustrating, edifying, and exciting best professional preparationStudents will find systems stimulating, frustrating, edifying, and exciting. It will be the best professional preparation they could hope for.

43 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Learning from other top management programs The Learning Model ability to analyze and reflectobserving and interacting learning from these encounters Success in business comes from experience and knowledge, from the ability to analyze and reflect, from observing and interacting with others, and learning from these encounters. inductive learning that goes beyond facts and theories how to manage organizations, but also how to continually grow and learn throughout life. architects of their own future. It's a process of inductive learning that goes beyond facts and theories—a process that teaches individuals not only how to manage organizations, but also how to continually grow and learn throughout life. A process that empowers our students to be architects of their own future.

44 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Comparison with other Management Programs Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Comparison with other Management Programs Learning from other top management programs The Case Method at HBS Bringing real-life business problemsBringing real-life business problems into the classroom: this is at the heart of the Harvard Business School experience and the essence of the case method. primary form of instruction greatest challenges confronting leading companiespresents the greatest challenges confronting leading companies today constraints and incomplete informationcomplete with the constraints and incomplete information found in a real business situation student in the role of the decision makerplaces the student in the role of the decision maker

45 Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Comparison with other Management Programs Fisheries Management Programs - Analysis - part 3 Comparison with other Management Programs Learning from other top management programs Social Enterprise option Social Enterprise option: Leadership roles in nonprofit organizations and other social enterprises.Electives: Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector Business Leadership in the Social Sector Effective Leadership of Social EnterprisesEffective Leadership of Social Enterprises - exploring the key determinants of superior performance and sustainability in established social enterprises through cases, lectures, and class visitors; four modules: Mission, Strategy and Structure; Leadership and Management of Human Resources; Governance, Financial Management and Performance Measurement; Leading Change in Social Enterprise Institutions; build skills in leading and reinventing institutions Field Studies in Social Enterprise

46 Summary and Findings We Reviewed: Eighty five “Fishery Management” Programs Thirty “Management” Programs in other fields We found (in the fishery management programs): Significant diversity in structure Strong foundation in traditional fishery science Courses in varied fields Relatively little integrative experience Not ambitious: less emphasis on critical thinking, leadership, systems approaches, decision science

47 Remaining Questions If we are devolving from highly centralized management, are we providing the right curriculum/training for managers and stakeholders? Reviewed many programs with many courses, but are they: Integrated with effective capstone experiences? High quality and rigor or a hodge-podge curriculum? Teaching skills emphasized in leading MBA, Forestry and and Public Administration programs: problem solving, leadership, strategic behavior, lifelong learning, systems thinking, institutional analysis and design?

48 Significant variety of structures and alternative approaches? Is that variety ideal -- or does it represent inadequate understanding of effective educational needs? Are programs developing intellectual leaders and policy entrepreneurs who can “break out” of institutional barriers? Are these programs effectively educating managers for creating, accessing and analyzing the most vital information, knowledge, and ideas? Remaining Questions

49 Should programs and curriculum focus more on ocean management issues? Relatively few PhD programs – Is there a need? What about dual degree programs? Should these programs teach “internal” organization management parallel with “external” resource management? Remaining Questions


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