Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Conservation of Coral Reefs in Kuwait Arabian Gulf Marin Conservation Forum Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 11-14 September 2006 Adel H. Alsaffar Mariculture.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Conservation of Coral Reefs in Kuwait Arabian Gulf Marin Conservation Forum Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 11-14 September 2006 Adel H. Alsaffar Mariculture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conservation of Coral Reefs in Kuwait Arabian Gulf Marin Conservation Forum Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates September 2006 Adel H. Alsaffar Mariculture and Fisheries Department Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research Hani Al-Tamimi Living Resources Department Environment Public Authority By

2 Coral Reefs in Kuwait are found:  Associated with the Coral Islands (Kubbar, Qaro and Um Al- Maradem)  As Patch and platform reefs

3 Kubbar Island and surrounding Reef

4 Terns breeding at Kubbar Island

5 Qaro Island and surrounding Reef

6

7

8 Umm Al-Maradem Island and surrounding Reef

9 Patch and Platform Reefs

10 Coral Species  A total of 35 coral species have been recorded in Kuwait reefs. Of these, 29 species are hermatypic (reef- building corals), and 6 species are ahermatypic (non-reef building) corals.

11  124 fish species were recorded in the coral reef communities, about 35 percent of the total number of fish species (337 species) recorded in Kuwait. Fish Species Associated with Coral Reefs

12 Conservation Themes  Legislation Applicable to the Conservation of Coral Reefs,  Research, Monitoring and Documentation,  Education and Public awareness,  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs.

13  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs  Law No. 21 of 1995 & Law No. 16 of 1996 about establishing the “Environment Public Authority (EPA)”: With regard to Coral Islands and Coral Reefs: Objectives : Objectives : To develop coral islands and exploit them as natural reserves, recreational facilities and as a fish resource.To develop coral islands and exploit them as natural reserves, recreational facilities and as a fish resource. To conserve the coral reefs around coral islands and submerged reefs and declare them as protected areas and to conserve fish breeding sites.To conserve the coral reefs around coral islands and submerged reefs and declare them as protected areas and to conserve fish breeding sites.

14  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs With regard to Coral Islands and Coral Reefs (cont.): ● Policies and Procedures: Utilising available expertise in the regional and international levels in selecting and management of marine protected areas,Utilising available expertise in the regional and international levels in selecting and management of marine protected areas, Providing trained personnel and management facilities,Providing trained personnel and management facilities, Applying the legislations concerning such reserves and monitoring visitors conduct,Applying the legislations concerning such reserves and monitoring visitors conduct, Promoting public awareness on the importance of the marine reserves and ways of utilising them, and establish economic, social and environmental indicators to be used for determining the success of the protection program.Promoting public awareness on the importance of the marine reserves and ways of utilising them, and establish economic, social and environmental indicators to be used for determining the success of the protection program.

15  Decision No. 210 / 2001, regarding the executive law of the establishment of EPA, states in article (81)that: It is prohibited to hunt, kill, catch, gather or harm all marine and terrestrial wildlife species or to temper with its young, eggs, nests or refuges to the duration of two years starting at the date of issuance….. It is prohibited to hunt, kill, catch, gather or harm all marine and terrestrial wildlife species or to temper with its young, eggs, nests or refuges to the duration of two years starting at the date of issuance….. It is conclusively prohibited to pluck, remove or harm corals or any other coral reef organisms.  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs

16 ● EPA has two committees related to coral reefs: ● ‘The National Committee for Biodiversity’: Duties:  Study the Convention on Biodiversity and follow up on execution of its obligations on the state,  Follow up with other related conventions,  Indicate problems with biodiversity and suggest solutions,  Provide strategic plans to conserve biodiversity in the state.  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs

17 ● ‘The National Committee for Biodiversity’:  Proposed a law for the establishment of protected areas (land and marine) in 1997.

18  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs This law is still pending at the “Department of Legal Advice and Legislations” at the Council of Ministers. In this law, all coral reef areas were recommended to be protected

19  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs The National committee for Trade in Endangered Species. The National committee for Trade in Endangered Species.  Hundreds of corals species are listed in Appendix II of the CITES Convention, which means that international trade in these species is regulated and monitored.  Decision No. 210/2001 regarding the executive law of the establishment of EPA states in Article 85 that:  It is prohibited to trade in endangered wild life species or in their parts and products listed by decision of EPA by agreement with concerned parties, also those listed on CITES text and other current international agreements. Exception are permitted by concerned parties pending the agreement of EPA for scientific, therapeutic, zoo and exhibition purposes.

20  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs  Resolution No. 93/2003 regarding the regulation of sale and trade in endangered wildlife species:  It is prohibited to exchange, sell or trade in endangered wild life species or in their parts and products, listed in the Appendices of the above resolution (coral is listed in these Appendices), in local markets or in private farms, without obtaining required permits and adhering to the conditions listed in the above resolution.

21 Gaps in legislation: Weak enforcement of existing laws and violators are not being punished, Weak enforcement of existing laws and violators are not being punished, Slow process of passing the legislation for the establishment of protected areas, Slow process of passing the legislation for the establishment of protected areas, Overlapping in responsibilities among different authorities leads to ineffective enforcement of the laws, Overlapping in responsibilities among different authorities leads to ineffective enforcement of the laws, Lack of specialists in international environmental law, Lack of specialists in international environmental law, Weak cooperation among government and non- government organizations in matters of coral reef conservation, Weak cooperation among government and non- government organizations in matters of coral reef conservation, Weak cooperation with regional organizations, Weak cooperation with regional organizations, Lack of guidelines for eco-tourism, Lack of guidelines for eco-tourism, Lack of knowledgeable enforcement officers and transportation means Lack of knowledgeable enforcement officers and transportation means  Legislations Applicable to the Conservation of Coral reefs

22

23  Research, Monitoring and Management  Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Comprehensive study in mid 1980’s, Comprehensive study in mid 1980’s, Reports describing corals, coral fishes and environment, as well as charting of major coral reefs (5 volumes)Reports describing corals, coral fishes and environment, as well as charting of major coral reefs (5 volumes) Proposed coral islands and reefs as protected areas and provided management guidelinesProposed coral islands and reefs as protected areas and provided management guidelines Major study in 1995 Major study in 1995 A report describing coral reef environment, eco-experiments and coral spawning,A report describing coral reef environment, eco-experiments and coral spawning, Book: The Coral and Coral Reef Fishes of Kuwait (160 pg).Book: The Coral and Coral Reef Fishes of Kuwait (160 pg). PhD work at present by PhD candidate; Mr. Shaker Alhazeem. PhD work at present by PhD candidate; Mr. Shaker Alhazeem. PhD dissertations on the ecology of Kuwait coral reefs (in preparation).PhD dissertations on the ecology of Kuwait coral reefs (in preparation).

24  Environment Public Authority (EPA): Funding of KISR’s research and studies,Funding of KISR’s research and studies, Assessment of coral reefs after the Gulf Crisis by IUCN,Assessment of coral reefs after the Gulf Crisis by IUCN, Participated in regional work shops organized by ROPME on the subject of coral reefs,Participated in regional work shops organized by ROPME on the subject of coral reefs, Cooperate with IUCN to build national capacity for monitoring coral reefs,Cooperate with IUCN to build national capacity for monitoring coral reefs, Establishment of Internal project to monitor coral reefs (coral reef team),Establishment of Internal project to monitor coral reefs (coral reef team), Cooperation with University of Miami,Cooperation with University of Miami, Cooperation with NCWCD (Saudi Arabia),Cooperation with NCWCD (Saudi Arabia), Participated in Remote Sensing Training WorkshopsParticipated in Remote Sensing Training Workshops (RS Applications in Marine Areas) organized by: Kuwait University, Kuwait University, ROPME. ROPME.  Research, Monitoring and Management

25  Kuwait Environment Protection Society (KEPS)(Kuwait Dive team): Documentation of coral reef species through photography and videography Documentation of coral reef species through photography and videography  Research, Monitoring and Management

26 Coral Reefs Book Coral Reefs Book Coral Reefs Poster Coral Reefs Poster Coral Reefs Booklet Coral Reefs Booklet  Education and Public Awareness  Prints:

27  Photography exhibits and contests on the subject of coral reef environment by: Kuwait Environment Protection Society (e.g. competition of best photograph), Kuwait Environment Protection Society (e.g. competition of best photograph), Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) (e.g. Open Day), Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) (e.g. Open Day), Environment Public Authority Environment Public Authority (e.g. International Day of Biodiversity).  Education and Public Awareness

28  Articles in periodicals and local newspapers: KEPS KEPS EPA EPA KISR KISR Science Club. Science Club.  Education and Public Awareness

29  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs  Debris Removal Efforts: Yearly cleaning campaigns are being conducted jointly by: (Participant, Financial and Equipments)Yearly cleaning campaigns are being conducted jointly by: (Participant, Financial and Equipments) Environmental Public Authority, Environmental Public Authority, Kuwait Environment Protection Society (Kuwait Dive Team), Kuwait Environment Protection Society (Kuwait Dive Team), Kuwait Centre for Volunteer work, Kuwait Centre for Volunteer work, Kuwait Science club, Kuwait Science club, Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait Oil Company, Coast Guard, Coast Guard, Ministry of Communication, Ministry of Communication, Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Dive Clubs, Dive Clubs, Private Companies Specialised in Environmental Issues, Private Companies Specialised in Environmental Issues, British Petroleum company, British Petroleum company, Students from governmental and private schools, Students from governmental and private schools, And many other governmental and non governmental agencies. And many other governmental and non governmental agencies.

30  Steel bars  Anchors  Drink Cans  Batteries  Cables  Toys  Glass bottles  Etc… (Total weight about 120 tons) The debris could consist of:  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

31  Drifting fishing nets: Removal of 17 fishing nets with a total weight of 14 tons By efforts of the Kuwait Dive Team.  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

32  Dismantling and removing old jetties at coral islands  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

33  Kuwait municipality had put rubbish containers on the coral island and removes rubbish periodically.  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

34 As part of the efforts of the Kuwait Dive Team to compensate destruction in natural coral reefs, Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs is a continuous project since 1995 to establish  Artificial Reefs: Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs artificial reefs by deployment of concrete blocks of different shapes and sizes, mainly in areas adjacent to coral reefs (Total weight 950 tons, in 20 areas).  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

35  The establishment of artificial reefs also aims to: Enable settlement of coral species and create new coral reefs that would compensate destroyed natural coral reefs, Enable settlement of coral species and create new coral reefs that would compensate destroyed natural coral reefs, Increases the habitats for certain coral reef associated species (fish, sea urchins, algae ….etc, Increases the habitats for certain coral reef associated species (fish, sea urchins, algae ….etc, Stop drifting fishing nets from covering natural reefs, Stop drifting fishing nets from covering natural reefs, Help in reducing erosion of coral cays, Help in reducing erosion of coral cays, Provide additional diving sites (relieves the pressure on natural reefs). Provide additional diving sites (relieves the pressure on natural reefs).  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

36  We need to determine the practicality of artificial reefs, and how do they effect and interact with Kuwait’s natural reefs by long term studies. GAPS:  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

37  Establishment and maintenance of anchor Buoys: They have been deployed by Kuwait Dive Team since 1995, mostly funded by EPA, around coral islands and patch reefs reaching 88 in numbers, They have been deployed by Kuwait Dive Team since 1995, mostly funded by EPA, around coral islands and patch reefs reaching 88 in numbers, They minimize anchor damage to coral reefs, They minimize anchor damage to coral reefs, Stop drifting fishing nets from reaching the reef. Stop drifting fishing nets from reaching the reef.  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

38  Anchor Buoys: Drawbacks: Some are lost due to lack of maintenance, Some are lost due to lack of maintenance, Funding for instillation and maintenance has to be budgeted annually and it is not certain, Funding for instillation and maintenance has to be budgeted annually and it is not certain, Deployment and maintenance is only carried out by unpaid volunteers. However, this activity should be the responsibility of a government agency. Deployment and maintenance is only carried out by unpaid volunteers. However, this activity should be the responsibility of a government agency.  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

39  Diving institutes / Societies: Encourage voluntary work, Encourage voluntary work, Establish national cadres (staff) specialised in different fields of coral reefs, Establish national cadres (staff) specialised in different fields of coral reefs, Organize the public effort for a more effective field conservation work. Organize the public effort for a more effective field conservation work.  Practical Conservation of Coral Reefs

40 National Needs to Improve Coral Reef Conservation  It is important to enforce bylaws concerning the establishment of EPA,  Strengthen legislation for coral reef conservation and for protected areas,  Better enforcement of existing legislation,  Speed up the process of marine protected area declaration,  Oil companies and other agencies should adopt regulations that minimize their adverse effects on the environment,

41  Develop capacity for coral reef monitoring by training for coral reef monitoring methods. (e.g. Reef Check, Remote Sensing, etc..),  Identify and implement methods of coral reef conservation and management,  Build capacity for research and study of coral reefs,  Include coral reef value and the benefit of its conservation in public awareness and educational programs,  Integrate the conservation efforts of government and non- government organizations,  Building capacity for a national coral reef database. National Needs to Improve Coral Reef Conservation (contd.)

42


Download ppt "Conservation of Coral Reefs in Kuwait Arabian Gulf Marin Conservation Forum Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 11-14 September 2006 Adel H. Alsaffar Mariculture."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google