Presentation on theme: "Conservation of Biodiversity and Wildlife “Every time we lose a species we break a life chain which has evolved over 3.5 billion years.” - Jeffrey McNeely."— Presentation transcript:
Conservation of Biodiversity and Wildlife “Every time we lose a species we break a life chain which has evolved over 3.5 billion years.” - Jeffrey McNeely
2 Biological Diversity TEXT BOOK It refers to the totality and variety of life on earth. It includes : Genetic diversity with species. Variety among species. The range of ecosystems within which life exists and interacts.
3 Continued…….. NET Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems.
6 Species Distribution The density of species is very high in the Southern Hemisphere. 70% of the world’s species is found in just 12 countries They are – Australia, Brazil, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Peru and Congo. The Hindu-Kush-Himalayas have at least 25,000plant species that is 10% of the world’s flora.
7 FLORA - The plants of a particular area FAUNA - All the animals living in an area WHAT IS FLORA AND FAUNA ?
8 WHAT IS WILDLIFE ? TEXT BOOK Wildlife is not only forests it is everywhere. It includes all non-domesticated flora and fauna native to an area. The flora and fauna are mutually dependent on each other. Wildlife is seen as a part of the biodiversity of plants and animals, and micro-organisms.
9 Continued…….. NET Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms. It can be found in all ecosystems, Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas, all have distinct forms of wildlife. It also refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities.
10 THE VARIOUS TYPES OF ANIMALS --- WILDLIFE
11 HOW ARE THE FLORA AND FAUNA DEPENDENT ON EACH OTHER ? The flora and fauna of an area are mutually dependent and have to be considered together. The animals need plants for food and shelter. In turn, animals and birds provide their waste as manure for the plants. They propagate the seeds of plants.
12 LOSS OF WORLD’S BIODIVERSITY The world is losing its biodiversity at an alarming rate. The current loss of biodiversity is faster than ever before in human history and there is no sign of this process slowing down. Many animal and plant populations have declined in numbers and geographical spread.
13 Continued…….. There is a rate of disappearance of species called the background rate of extinction. Now, human activities have increased the extinction rate by times compared to the background rate.
14 WHY DO WE LOSS BIODIVERSITY ? Population explosion Deforestation Poaching Genetic Pollution Destruction of habitat Hybridization Climate Change Clearing of land for agriculture Bio Piracy Unsustainable use of natural resources Mass Hunting Plain Cruelty
15 THE POACHING MENANCE
16 THE HEAT OF DEFORESTATION
17 Habitat Fragmentation and loss Conflict over Habitat management Human disturbance of Wildlife THREATS TO WILDLIFE
18 HABITAT FRAGMENTATION AND DESTRUCTION OF GREAT APE IN CENTRAL AFRICA.
19 CLASSIFICATION OF THREATHENED SPECIES Critically Endangered - The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future. They are about to be wiped out of existence. Endangered - The species is not critically endangered but is facing a risk of extinction in the wild in the coming future. Vulnerable - The species is not in the first two categories but is facing high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future.
20 THREATHENED SPECIES IN INDIA Critically Endangered Jenkin's Shrew Malabar Large-spotted Civet Namdapha Flying Squirrel Pygmy Hog Salim Ali's Fruit Bat Sumatran Rhinoceros Wroughton's Free-tailed Bat
FRUIT BAT Namdapha Flying Squirrel CRITICALLY ENDANGERED
22 Continued…….. Endangered Asiatic Lion Asiatic Black Bear Desert Cat Great Indian Rhinoceros Nilgiri Leaf Monkey Indian Elephant or Asian Elephant Chiru (Tibetan Antelope) Ganges River Dolphin
23 Continued…….. Endangered Indus River Dolphin Nicobar Shrew Nilgiri Tahr Particolored Flying Squirrel Red Panda Snow Leopard Tiger Wild Water Buffalo
24 ENDANGERED ASIATIC LION NILGIRI GREEN LEAF MONKEY
25 SNOW LEOPARD THE ENDANGERED ONE
26 Continued…….. Vulnerable Asiatic Wild Dog Brown Bear Dugong GreyIndian Wolf Himalayan Musk Deer Asiatic Black Bear Asiatic Wild Ass Barasingha Blackbuck
28 VULNERABLE ROYAL BENGAL TIGER BARAHSINGHA SLOTH BEAR
29 HUNTING TEXT BOOK Hunting is a deliberate killing of wild animals for pleasure and should be banned. It should be allowed when there is a valid reason such as an animal posing grave danger to people or other animals in that area.
30 Continued…….. NET Hunting is the practice of pursuing living animals (usually wildlife) for food, recreation, or trade. The species which are hunted are referred to as game and are usually large or small mammals or migratory or non-migratory game birds.
31 POACHING TEXT BOOK Poaching is illegal hunting. It is primarily done to make money. Due to poaching many species have become threatened and has led to heavy loss of biodiversity around the world. Poaching generally happens when a animal may be protected or may be in a protected area.
32 CAT FAMILY IS MOSTLY POACHED FOR ITS SKIN
33 Continued…….. NET Poaching is the illegal hunting, fishing, or eating of wild plants or animals contrary to local and international conservation and wildlife management laws. Violations of hunting laws and regulations are normally punishable by law and, collectively, such violations are known as poaching.
34 CRUELTY TOWARDS ANIMALS Harsh hunting that causes pain and suffering : Whales are hunted with harpoons, clubbing Seals to death, catching Wild animals with steel jaw traps. Transportation: long travel over seas and land in packed containers and trucks is stressful for the animals. Keeping in confined spaces: animals in zoos do not have enough space to roam about as they have in the wild.
35 Continued…….. Experimentation: students and scientists perform experiments and test medicines on animals which is very painful and stressful.
36 CRUELTY TOWARDS ANIMALS
37 BIOPIRACY TEXT Bio piracy is the exploitation of indigenous knowledge without proper compensation. It leads to the loss of biodiversity.
38 NET Bio piracy is a negative term for the appropriation of legal rights over indigenous knowledge - particularly indigenous biomedical knowledge - without compensation to the indigenous groups who originally developed such knowledge. Continued……..
39 WHEN CAN ONE SAY THAT IT IS A CASE OF BIO PIRACY ? Traditional communities all over the world posses extensive knowledge of local plant species and their medicinal value. A pharmaceutical company may collect such knowledge about a plant and make a patented drug out of it. If the company sells the drug without making any payment to the community that shared its knowledge, then it would be made a case of BIOPIRACY.
40 TYPES OF CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY In-Situ (on-site) conservation tries to protect species where they are living, i.e. in their natural habitat. Ex-Situ (off-site) conservation attempts to preserve and protect the species in a place away from their natural habitat.
41 IN-SITU Conservation It identifies and protects natural areas that have high biodiversity. It includes the establishment of NNatural parks – in these parks, dwellings and private ownership of land are not permitted. Traditional activities like grazing and fuel wood collection are a also prohibited. SSanctuaries – in sanctuaries only some specific high class activities, which do not harm the biodiversity, are permitted.
42 Continued…….. Natural Reserves – these are larger areas in which the wild flora and fauna are protected. However, people are allowed to lie in the same area and are also allowed to carry on their traditional practices and activities.
43 THE OBJECTIVE BEHIND IT ? The main objective behind In-Situ Conservation is to preserve large areas undeveloped land so that ecosystems and biodiversity can continue to flourish and evolve.
44 NATIONAL PARKS (INDIA) Kaziranga National Park, Assam Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Rajasthan Sunderban National Park, West Bengal Nanda Devi National Park, Uttaranchal
45 ONE OF THE TIGERS OF THE SUNDERBAN NATIONAL PARK
46 THE FAMOUS RHINOS OF THE KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK
47 BIOSPHERE RESERVES(INDIA) Nilgiri, Western Ghats Kerala and Karnataka Nanda Devi, Uttaranchal Manas, Assam Sunderbans, West Bengal Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu Similipal, Orissa Dehang Debang, Arunachal Pradesh Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh
48 AN EXAMPLE OF THE RICH BIODIVERSITY OF GULF OF MANNAR
49 EX-SITU Conservation It is impossible to preserve all biodiversity by the In-Situ Conservation. Given the population and other pressures, we cannot set aside the required huge land area. So, where the population of a species has dwindled to extremely low levels, Ex-Situ Conservation is the way.
50 Continued…….. In this type of conservation we conserve biodiversity in an artificial setting. This includes the storage of seeds in banks, breeding of captive animal species in zoos, and setting up botanical gardens, aquariums and research institutes.
51 HOW DO ZOOS HELP IN CONSERVING WILDLIFE ? Along with many other animals, zoo also preserves a few who are critically endangered species. If an animal breeds in captivity, the zoo may ultimately reintroduce the species into protected reserves. The public tends to support the savings of large or popular species like the tiger, elephant and panda.
52 Continued…….. There is not much interest in protecting smaller or less attractive species, even if they are known to be very important for the ecosystem. But the people who understand there importance, provide good financial aid to the zoos.
53 CAPTIVE BREEDING OF THREATEND SPECIES Captive breeding is the reproduction of threatened animals in captivity. Captive breeding could prevent the species from going extinct. Individuals are bred in zoos or special centres.
54 ENDANGERED SPECIES OF IGUANAS (Lizard) IN CAPTIVE BREEDING
55 WHAT DOES THIS METHOD OF CAPTIVE BREEDING INCLUDE ? The individuals of a species in a breeding programme serves as a genetic reservoir for the species. When the population stabilizes and the threat to the species is reduced, the captive breeding program releases the individuals into the habitat of the species. This method has been successfully used in the case of many threatened species. The most famous is the captive breeding of giant pandas in china.
56 CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY The convention on biological diversity (CBD) was approved in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and came into force in About 190 countries including India are parties to the Convention. The convention has 3 main goals:- Convention on biodiversity, Sustainable use of the components of the biodiversity Sharing the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way.
57 INDIAN LAWS FOR THE PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE Biodiversity Act Of 2002 Wildlife protection Act Of 1972 And Prevention Of Poaching PETA(People for the Ethical Treatment Of Animals) People For Animals Beauty Without Cruelty SPCA(Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals) Blue Cross Of India
58 SAVING THE ENDANGERED AFRICAN ELEPHANT In 1989, the African elephant was declared as an endangered species. The elephants were decreasing primarily due to the ivory trade. By 2000, however the elephant population had recovered in Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. This is one of the success stories of CITES, the convention on international trade in endangered animal and Plant species.
59 SAVE THE ENDANGERED AFRICAN ELEPHANT
60 CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY BY BHUTAN With its thick forest cover and immense biodiversity, the small Himalayan country of Bhutan is called the ‘oxygen tank’ of the world. Out of an area of 40,000 sq km, 72 % is under forest cover. Thus, this ecosystem supports 7000 species of plants, 165 of mammals, and 700 species of birds. So, the Bhutanese Government has taken very positive steps to conserve its rich biodiversity. Currently, 35% of Bhutan is protected. The government, is determined to maintain a forest cover of at least 60%.
61 SAVING SNAKES AND CROCODILES Romulus Whitaker, who came to India when he was 7 learnt the art of snake-catching from the Irulas of Tamil Nadu and Crocodile catching from the natives of Papua New Guinea. In 1972, Whitaker and some of his friends set up the Madras Snake Park. Most of the keepers in the park are Irula tribals. The park has many species of snakes, crocodiles and turtles. Many endangered snake species have been breed in captivity in the snake park. The offspring have been either released in to the wild or made available to zoos.
62 Continued…….. The park gets hundreds of visitors and it tries to remove wrong ideas people have about snakes. Whitaker had also set up a Crocodile Bank, which breeds crocodiles in captivity and releases them into the wild. WHITAKER PERSUADING SNAKES