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Freshwater and Society Module 1, part A. Developed by: Svendsen Updated: 12-2003 U1-m1a-s2 Content of module 1  Beneficial uses of water  Hydrologic.

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Presentation on theme: "Freshwater and Society Module 1, part A. Developed by: Svendsen Updated: 12-2003 U1-m1a-s2 Content of module 1  Beneficial uses of water  Hydrologic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Freshwater and Society Module 1, part A

2 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s2 Content of module 1  Beneficial uses of water  Hydrologic cycle  History of watershed science  Watersheds  Human impacts and impairment of water resources

3 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s3 What are the resources?  More than 3.5 million miles of rivers and streams (including intermittent streams)

4 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s4 What are the resources?  Approximately 40 million acres of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs  The area of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs in the United States converts to about 62,500 square miles  An area larger than many individual states such as Illinois, Georgia, or New York

5 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s5  5,382 miles of Great Lakes shoreline What are the resources?

6 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s6  More than 277 million acres of wetlands such as marshes, swamps, bogs, and fens, including 170 million acres of wetlands in Alaska What are the resources?

7 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s7  How do people use freshwater resources? Beneficial uses of water

8 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s8  Aquatic life and wildlife support  Fish/shellfish consumption  Drinking water supply  Recreation  Agriculture Beneficial uses: Summary

9 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s9 Beneficial uses: Aquatic life and wildlife support  The waterbody provides suitable habitat for survival and reproduction of desirable fish, shellfish, and other aquatic organisms fall02/fish.jpg Don Breneman

10 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s10  The water body supports populations that do not pose a human health risk to consumers:  Fish free from contaminants  Shellfish free from toxicants and pathogens Beneficial uses: Fish and shellfish consumption

11 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s11 Beneficial uses: Drinking water supply  The water body can supply safe drinking water with conventional treatment  Consider possible negative impacts of this beneficial use :  May greatly reduce water quantity in rivers, lakes and groundwater  Rivers and streams may be dammed to store water for dry seasons  Groundwater retrieval may create saltwater intrusions in coastal areas

12 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s12 Beneficial uses: Recreation  Primary contact recreation - Swimming  People can swim in the waterbody without risk of adverse human health effects (such as catching waterborne diseases from raw sewage contamination)  Secondary contact recreation  People can perform activities on the water (such as canoeing) without risk of adverse human health effects from occasional contact with the water

13 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s13 Beneficial uses: Agriculture  Agriculture  The water quality is suitable for irrigating fields or watering livestock dsonly/element/dirtcp3.jpg photos/jul02/k i.jpg

14 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s14 Other beneficial uses  Landscaping  Power generation  Industrial processing and/or cooling

15 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s15 Beneficial uses: Water use and management  Beneficial uses are driven by societal values  Vary geographically due to numerous characteristics  Vary over time  Governs the science and administration of water quality  Guides water quality assessment and monitoring  Results in water quality classifications rp00/graphics/public.jpg

16 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s16 Beneficial uses:  Water quality for the beneficial uses can be degraded by human actions or natural events  The US Environmental Protection Agency is a major federal agency responsible for monitoring and assessing water quality

17 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s17 Beneficial uses: Monitoring program questions  What is the overall quality of waters in the State?  To what extent is water quality changing over time?  What are the problem areas and areas needing protection?  The State must identify impaired waters.  The State should also identify waters that are currently of high quality and should be protected from degradation  What level of protection is needed?  How effective are clean water projects and programs?

18 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s18 Beneficial uses: Five levels of water use 1. Fully supporting overall use  All designated beneficial uses are fully supported 2. Threatened overall use  One or more designated beneficial uses are threatened and the remaining uses are fully supported 3. Partially supporting overall use  One or more designated beneficial uses are partially supported and the remaining uses are fully supported

19 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s19 Beneficial uses: Five levels of water use 4. Not supporting overall use  One or more designated beneficial uses are not supported 5. Not attainable  The State has performed a use-attainability study and documented that use support of one or more designated beneficial uses is not achievable due to natural conditions or human activity that cannot be reversed without imposing widespread economic and social impacts

20 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s20  Introduction to the hydrologic cycle  Brief history of the hydrologic cycle The hydrologic cycle: Understanding the context

21 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s21 The hydrological cycle: What is it?

22 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s22 The hydrologic cycle: Active model

23 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s23 The hydrologic cycle: Water cycle active model  The water cycle includes:  Precipitation events: rain, fog, mist, snow  Infiltration and ground and surface water flow events with eventual discharge into creeks and rivers  Intercepting this process is the vegetation process of root adsorption  Water enters back into the atmosphere in the form of water vapors through transpiration (plants) and evapotransporation (water bodies)  Vapors condense, form clouds, and result in another precipitation event

24 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s24 The hydrologic cycle: 1955 historical

25 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s25 The hydrologic cycle: Global water balance

26 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s26 The hydrologic cycle: Global cycle

27 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s27 The hydrologic cycle: Global water balance

28 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s28 The hydrologic cycle: Global water balance

29 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s29 History of hydrologic cycle and watersheds  900 B.C. - The Chinese develop the concept of the hydrological cycle. Had no influence on Western thought  B.C. - Aristotle & Plato described some portions of the water cycle, but believed rivers arose from deep, dark, cold caves, where air was transformed into water  Louis VI of France issued decree on water and forests  Switzerland community beginning of an era on forest protection  1500’s - Paulini brothers of Venice accounted correctly for the silting and flooding of the lagoons  Bernard Palissy of France published a correct version of the hydrological cycle

30 Developed by: Svendsen Updated: U1-m1a-s30 History of hydrologic cycle and watersheds  1670’s - Pierre Perrault measured and correctly accounted for the major elements of the hydrological cycle; precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and discharge of the Seine River Basin  George Perkins Marsh wrote a book called Man and Nature focusing on the effects of deforestation  New York State report to legislature outlining the negative effects of deforestation: ...”creating vast areas of naked rock, arid sand and gravel unable to retain the bounty of clouds. Streams that now flow icy cold will flow exposed to the sun, heated and impure.”  1890’s - First forest research efforts appear  Forest watershed research begins


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