Wildlife Food Shown here are examples of various wild berries, nuts, and seeds. Can you identify what they are? What wildlife would you suggest would eat this food? How do you think we could promote greater production of these foods?
Objectives Explain how habitat growth is classified. Describe the relationships of wildlife populations to habitat. Identify earth changes that impact habitat. Discuss the role of climate and weather in habitat production. Explain the production of plants as food sources.
Terms Atmosphere Birth rate Browse Climate Climax stage Crust Cyclical changes Death rate Diurnal species Dormancy Equinox Forb Habitat community Herbage Hibernation Mast
Terms Nocturnal species Perennial Population Revolution Rotation Troposphere Vertical stratification Weather
How is habitat growth classified? Habitat growth is usually specific when it comes to a development sequence. Habitat layers influence the physical environment and diversity of the wildlife species. Habitat stages are based on growth succession. Plant, animal, and other organisms interact in the environment to form a habitat community.
Habitat Layers The physical nature of an area is often organized into layers or strata, known as vertical stratification. There are usually two layers in a simple grassy field area: ground and herbaceous.
Habitat Layers In more complex community there can be up to six layers: ground, herbaceous, low shrubs, low tree and high shrub, lower canopy, and upper canopy. The growth of native species is supported by water and soil to form these layers.
Habitat stages are based on growth succession. Many years are required from progression through the habitat stages. There are six stages of plant succession, these stages occur with different vegetation types. Grasses and forbs provide a few inches or feet of vertical strata. Forbs are low-growing broadleaf plants.
Habitat stages are based on growth succession. The climax stage is the final stage where the vegetation tends to be stable and remain present for extended periods of time. Disturbances can be caused by natural factors or human activity.
Habitat Community A habitat community is all the living things in an area. Many interactions are related to the presence of wildlife. Pattern is the distribution of all factors in a community. Structure is the physical makeup of the area. Size is measured in acres and relates to the needs of species. Layers are the heights of plants in a forest.
What are the relationships of wildlife compared to habitat? Habitat provides important affects on wildlife populations. Population Population response
Population Population refers to the number of organisms in an area or it could also refer to the combined number of all species or to the number of one specific species.
Population Population density is influenced by the number of new organisms added to the population and by the number that leave.
Population Birth rate is important when talking about population density. Birth rate is the number of young produced per unit of population over a given time.
Population The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand population each year. Both the birth rate and the death rate form a population curve. It shows populations declining due to lack of food, hunting, disease, and other conditions.
Population Response In some habitats, a small population may undergo a large, rapid increase. This increase will continue until the upper limits are reached. Some populations will decline due to starvation, disease, or other means. Some population densities reach the maximum carrying capacity of the habitat.
What are some earth changes that impact wildlife habitat? Wildlife has to find ways to adapt to whatever the types of changes that occur. Cyclical changes Revolution of the earth resulting in seasons. Unpredictable changes
Cyclical Changes Cyclical changes are those that occur on a regular basis and follow a predictable pattern. These changes involve the movement of Earth and the solar system on a regular basis.
Cyclical Changes Rotation is the turning of Earth on an imaginary axis. This crates day and night for us on a 24 hour basis.
Cyclical Changes Many wildlife organisms adjust to their survival depending on the earth’s rotations. Nocturnal species are species that are most active at night, but rest during the day. (ex. Bats, owls, and raccoons) Diurnal species are species that are active during the day and rest at night. (ex. Squirrels, turkey, and cardinals)
Cyclical Changes Wildlife plants need both light and dark. The light is needed for plants to carry out photosynthesis. Darkness is needed for plants to rest.
Revolution of Earth—Seasons A revolution is the time it takes Earth to move around the Sun. This creates one year for us – 365.24 days The seasons we experience on Earth are dependent on the position of Earth during the revolution. The angle at which Earth is tilted toward or away from the Sun creates cool and warm seasons.
Revolution of Earth—Seasons Each fall and spring the Sun is directly over the equator. This is called the equinox. During the equinox, night and day are exactly the same number of hours.
Revolution of Earth—Seasons The seasons strongly influence wildlife. Squirrels and chipmunks, for example, store their food to get ready for winter. Other animals such as bears and some turtles hibernate; which is the rest a variety of animals get that lasts all winter long.
Unpredictable Changes Solid materials are often pushed around by mother nature. The kind and amount of solid materials in the earth’s crust influence wildlife. The crust is the surface of the earth, such as fields, mountains, swamps, and rivers.
Unpredictable Changes Some changes take a long time, while others may occur suddenly, such as volcanic action or earthquakes. Animals depend on the top of the crust. Determines plant growth. Determines where water will travel. Determines what animals can survive in those conditions.
What is the role of climate and weather in habitat production? Everything is affected by climate and weather. The atmosphere is the air that surrounds Earth and is made of five layers. Climate is governed by the weather. Climate is the weather that is generally present in a location.
The Atmosphere The atmosphere is the air that surrounds Earth and is made of five layers. Humans and wildlife alike can only survive in the troposphere. The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere that is closes to Earth and it is approximately 10 miles from the earth’s surface.
The Atmosphere Air is a mixture of gases, the majority being nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). This is primarily air, water vapor, and various particulate. Pollutants can alter the composition of the air. Above the troposphere is the ozone layer which protects the earth from the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation.
Climate is governed by the weather. Weather is the current condition in the atmosphere. This includes moisture, wind, temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Depending on the weather fronts, different kinds of conditions can accompany the troposphere such as rain, snow, sleet, temperature change, and hazardous storms.
Climate is governed by the weather. All wildlife organisms are affected by the weather. If there are sudden changes in the weather, such as extreme temperatures, animals can suffer the consequences.
Climate is the weather that is present in a location. Oftentimes, average measurements of temperature, precipitation, and other traits of the weather are used to describe climate. In most cases temperature controls the climate. Polar climates are cold year round. Temperate climates are moderate. Tropical climates are warm year round.
Climate is the weather that is present in a location. Native wildlife species are accustom to the climate in which they live. Sometimes efforts to bring in non- native species to a particular place fail because people do not consider the climate needed by the wildlife.
How does the production of plants serve as food for wildlife? Wildlife animals must have food. Three common types of plant food are: Browse Herbage Mast
Browse Browse is the tender growth of shrubs and trees. Most animals that eat browse enjoy the small trees with leaves, shoot, and stems near the ground. Most shrubs have easily accessible growth with many branches low the the ground.
Browse Many ruminants gorge on browse because their several compartments make the best use of browse. (ex. Deer) Some browse grow as perennials. Perennial browse plants can live for several years. During the winter, much browse goes dormant. Dormancy is a time when the plant is not growing.
Herbage Herbage is the succulent non-woody leaves and stems of herbaceous plants. These plants are small to medium in height and do not grow woody stems. Common types include grasses, vines, and weeds. Ruminant digestive systems usually make the best of herbage because of the bacteria in their digestive system the lower quality grasses are converted to higher quality food materials.
Mast Mast is the fruits and nuts of trees and shrubs eaten by animal wildlife. Common nuts include acorns and hickory nuts. Common fruits include wild plums, blackberries, and pokeweed berries. The nutrient materials are more concentrated in mast. Usually monogastric animals such as rabbits and squirrels like to eat mast.
Review / Summary How is habitat growth classified? What are the relationships of wildlife populations compared to habitat? What are some earth changes that impact wildlife habitat? What is the role of climate and weather in habitat production? How does the production of plants serve as food sources for wildlife?