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TRIM Workshop Arco van Strien Wildlife statistics Statistics Netherlands (CBS)

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What is TRIM? TRends and Indices for Monitoring data Computer program for the analysis of time series of count data with missing observations Loglinear, Poisson regression (GLM) Made for the production of wildlife statistics by Statistics Netherlands (Jeroen Pannekoek / freeware / version 3.0) Introduction

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Why TRIM? To get better indices? No, GLM in statistical packages (Splus, Genstat...) may produce similar results But statistical packages are often unpractical for large datasets TRIM is more easy to use Introduction

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The program of this workshop Aim: a basic understanding of TRIM basic theory of imputation how to use TRIM to impute missing counts and to assess indices etc. basic theory of weighting procedure to cope with unequal sampling of areas & how to use TRIM to weight particular sites Introduction

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INDEX: the total (= sum of al sites) for a year divided by the total of the base year

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Missing values affect indices Theory imputation

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How to impute missing values? ESTIMATION OF SITE 2 IN YEAR 2? SITE 1 SUGGESTS: TWICE THE NUMBER OF YEAR 1 (site & year effect taken into account) Theory imputation

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Another example.. ESTIMATION OF SITE 2 IN YEAR 2? SITE 1 SUGGESTS: TWICE THE NUMBER OF YEAR Theory imputation

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And another example... ESTIMATION OF SITE 2 IN YEAR 2? SITE1 SUGGESTS: THREE TIMES AS MANY AS IN YEAR Theory imputation

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Try this one….. THERE IS NOT A SINGLE SOLUTION (TRIM will prompt an ERROR) Theory imputation

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Difficult to guess missings here.. Theory imputation

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Estimating missing values by an iterative procedure (REQUIRED IN CASE OF MORE THAN A FEW MISSING VALUES) Theory imputation

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RECALCULATE THE MARGIN TOTALS AND REPEAT ESTIMATION OF MISSING First estimate of site 2, year 2: 1 X 4/7 = 0.6 >>0.6 >>4.6 >>1.6 >>7.6 Theory imputation

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REPEAT AGAIN: MISSING VALUE = 1.22, 1.40, 1.54 ETC. … >> 2 2nd estimate of site 2, year 2: 1.6 X 4.6/7.6 = 0.96 Theory imputation

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To get proper indices, it is necessary to estimate (impute) missings Missings may be estimated from the margin totals using an iterative procedure (taking into account both site effect as year effect) (Note: TRIM uses a much faster algorithm to impute missing values). Assumption: year-to-year changes are similar for all sites (assumption will be relaxed later!) Test this assumption using a Goodness-of-fit (X 2 test) Theory imputation

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(2.8) (4.2) (1.2) (1.8) X 2 : COMPARE EXPECTED COUNTS WITH REAL COUNTS PER CELL X 2 IS SUMMATION OF (COUNTED - EXPECTED VALUE) 2 / EXP. VALUE (2-1.8) 2 /1.8 + (4-4.2) 2 /4.2 ETC. >> X 2 = 0.08 WITH A P-VALUE OF 0.78 >> MODEL NOT REJECTED (FITS, but note: cell values in this example are too small for a proper X 2 test) Theory imputation

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Imputation without covariate (X 2 = 18 and p-value = 0.18) Theory imputation

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Using a covariate: better imputa- tions & indices, X 2 = 1.7 p = 0.99 Theory imputation

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What is the best model? < not rejected <<< rejected < not rejected Both model 2 and 3 are valid Theory imputation

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Summary imputation theory To get proper indices, it is necessary to impute missings Assumption: year-to-year changes are similar for all sites of the same covariate category Test assumption using a GOF test; if p-value < 0.05, try better covariates If these cannot be found, the resulting indices may be of low quality (and standard errors high). See also FAQ’s! Theory imputation

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The program of this workshop Aim: a basic understanding of TRIM basic theory of imputation how to use TRIM to impute missing counts and to assess indices etc. basic theory of weighting procedure to cope with unequal sampling of areas & how to use TRIM to weigh particular sites Using TRIM

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several statistical models (time effects, linear model) statistical complications (overdispersion, serial correlation) taken into account Wald tests to test significances model versus imputed indices interpretation of slope Using TRIM

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Time effects model (skylark data) without covariate Using TRIM

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Time effects model with covariate 0 = total 1= dunes 2 = heathland Using TRIM

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Lineair trend model ( uses trend estimate to impute missing values) Using TRIM

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Lineair trend model with a changepoint at year 2 Using TRIM

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Lineair trend model with changepoints at year 2 and 3 Using TRIM

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Lineair trend model with all changepoints = time effects model Use lineair trend model when: data are too sparse for the time effects model one is interested in testing trends, e.g. trends before and after a particular year (or let TRIM stepwise search for relevant changepoints) But be careful with simple linear models! Using TRIM

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Statistical complications: Serial correlation: dependence of counts of earlier years (0 = no corr.) Overdispersion: deviation from Poisson distribution (1 = Poisson) Using TRIM Run TRIM with overdispersion = on and serial correlation = on, else standard errors and statistical tests are usually invalid

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Running TRIM features trim command file output: GOF (as X 2 ) test and Wald tests output (fitted values, indices) indices, time totals overall trend slope Frequently Asked Questions different models (lineair trend model, changepoints, covariate) Using TRIM

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Both 2 and 3 are valid. Model 3 is the most sparse model. What is the best model?

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Model choice The indices depend on the statistical model! TRIM allows to search for the best model using GOF test, Akaikes Information Criterion and Wald tests In case of substantial overdispersion, one has to rely on the Wald tests Using TRIM

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Wald tests Different Wald-tests to test for the significance of: the trend slope parameters changes in the slope deviations from a linear trend the effect of each covariate Using TRIM

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TRIM generates both model indices and imputed indices Using TRIM

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Imputed vs model indices Imputed indices: summation of real counts plus - for missing counts - model predictions. Closer to real counts (more realistic course in time) Model indices: summation of model predictions of all sites. Often more stable Using TRIM Usually Model and Imputed Indices hardly differ!

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TRIM computes both additive and multiplicative slopes Additive + s.e. Multiplicative + s.e Relation: ln(1,0497) = Using TRIM Multiplicative parameters are easier to understand

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Interpretation multiplicative slope Slope of 1.05 means 5% increase a year Using TRIM Standard error of means a confidence interval of 2 x = Thus, slope between and Or, 2% to 8% increase a year = significant different from 1

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Summary use of TRIM: choice between time effects and linear trend model include overdispersion & serial correlation in models use GOF and Wald tests for better models and indices & to test hypotheses choice between model and imputed indices use multiplicative slope Using TRIM

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The program of this workshop Aim: a basic understanding of TRIM basic theory of imputation how to use TRIM to impute missing counts and to assess indices etc. basic theory of weighting procedure to cope with unequal sampling of areas & how to use TRIM to weight particular sites Weighting

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Unequal sampling due to stratified random site selection, with oversampling of particular strata. Weighting results in unbiased national indices site selection by the free choice of observers, with oversampling of particular regions & attractive habitat types. Weighting reduces the bias of indices. Weighting

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To cope with unequal sampling. stratify the data, e.g. into regions and habitat types strata are to be expected to have different indices & trends weigh strata according to (1) the number of sample sites in the stratum and (2) the area surface of the stratum or weigh by population size per stratum Weighting

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Weighting factor for each stratum Weighting factor for stratum i = total area of i / area of i sampled Weighting or 10 or 5

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Another example.. Weighting factor for stratum i = total area of i / area of i sampled Weighting 100/5= 20 (or 4) 50/10=5 (or 1)

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Weighting in TRIM include weight factor (different per stratum) in data file for each site and year record weight strata and combine the results to produce a weighted total (= run TRIM with weighting = on and covariate = on) Weighting

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Indices for Skylark unweighted (0 = total index 1= dunes 2 = heath-land) Weighting

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Indices for Skylark with weight factor for each dune site = 10 (0 = total index 1= dunes 2 = heathland) Weighting

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Final remarks To facilitate the calculation of many indices on a routine basis TRIM in batch mode, using TRIM Command Language (see manual) Option to incorporate TRIM in your own automation system (Access or Delphi or so) (not in manual)

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That’s all, but: if you have any questions about TRIM, see the manual, the FAQ’s in TRIM or mail Arco van Strien Success!

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