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Developed by the Arizona Game and Fish Department Updated December 2010.

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1 Developed by the Arizona Game and Fish Department Updated December 2010

2  The purpose of this program is to provide you with some of the major topics you can expect to encounter during the wildlife portion of the Arizona Envirothon.  This program will NOT provide all of the answers. Instead, it will introduce you to the major topics you should understand.  Each topic will consist of two slides. The first will have questions for you to consider as you prepare for the competition. The second slide will provide links that will help you answer those questions.  Remember: this program is just a starting point! You should be familiar with many of the issues facing Arizona wildlife and conservation today. 2

3  What is the role of the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) in wildlife management and outdoor recreation?  What is the mission of the AGFD?  How is AGFD funded? How is this different than other state agencies  How are the roles and responsibilities of federal and state wildlife agencies similar and different? 3

4  Inside AGFD:  AZ Revised Statues – Title 17 – Game and Fish:  Arizona’s State Wildlife Action Plan:  AGFD Heritage Program:  We are Arizona Game and Fish video:  Protecting Arizona Wildlife video:  Heritage Grant video:  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: 4

5  What are the differences between birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and fish?  Why do animals interact with each other? What are the different ways that animals interact with each other (i.e., predator/prey, food chains and webs, and symbiosis)? Name some common Arizona examples.  What are the similarities and differences between herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores?  What factors affect the wildlife population sizes (i.e., carrying capacity, birth and death rates, etc.)?  How does Arizona’s diverse habitats affect physical and behavioral adaptations of wildlife? 5

6  Desert Animal Survival:  Life in the Desert video: adaptations-video.htm 6

7  What are the components of habitat?  What biotic communities can be found in Arizona? What are the characteristics of these communities, especially the Sonoran Desert and the Sky Islands?  What are the current and potential threats to Arizona’s habitats, both natural and human-caused?  What is habitat fragmentation? How does it impact wildlife in Arizona? 7

8  Biotic Communities of Arizona:  Biotic Communities of the Colorado Plateau: 8

9  What are the benefits and detriments of dams to humans and wildlife in Arizona?  What are the benefits and detriments of water catchments (a.k.a. drinkers, guzzlers)? What role do they have in wildlife management?  Which Arizona waterways are natural and non- dammed? Which have been restored? What is their status and health? How are they used? 9

10  San Pedro River Conservation video:  Arizona Fossil Creek fishing video:  Building Water Catchments video:  Grand Canyon Dam Colorado River Flooding video:  Fossil Creek video: 10

11  How do highways and roads affect wildlife populations and their movements?  What are wildlife linkages? What is habitat connectivity?  What projects are currently being implemented in Arizona to help link habitats? Who is involved in these projects? 11

12  Arizona’s Wildlife Linkages:  Highway 93 video:  Elk Crossing video: 12

13  Why is wildlife management important?  What is the role of sportsmen and women in wildlife conservation?  How does the public affect wildlife policy?  Who owns wildlife and does that affect wildlife management decisions?  How does land ownership affect wildlife management?  What tools and techniques are used to help manage wildlife? What role does science play? 13

14  North American Model of Wildlife Conservation:  Bighorn Sheep Translocations video:  Wild Turkey Relocation video:  Building Fish Habitat video:  Safe Harbor Frogs video: 14

15  What are native, non-native, invasive, and exotic species? Based on the criteria you’ve identified, how would you classify the following species: a. wild horse and burro, b. pigeon, c. tumbleweed?  What are some common Arizona aquatic and terrestrial invasive plant and animal species?  What are the economic, recreational, and biological impacts of invasive species to Arizona? Provide examples. 15

16  Arizona Invasive Species Advisory Council:  Protect Your Waters:  AZ Nonindigenous Aquatic Species: =%5BGroup%5D,Genus,Species,SubSpecies&submit2=Submit  Arizona’s Invasive Species: port%20low%20res.pdf  Arizona’s 10 Most Unwanted Invasive Species:  Arizona Center or Invasive Species: 16

17  How does outdoor recreation affect Arizona’s economy?  How do each of the following impact wildlife: a. ohv, b. boating, c. hunting, d. fishing, e. wildlife watching, f. shooting sports? 17

18  Economic Impact:  Fishing Worth Millions:  Outdoor Recreation: 18

19  What are the definitions of endangered, threatened, species of special concern, and reintroduced? Identify an Arizona wildlife species for each one.  What are the economic, biological, and political effects of Mexican grey wolf reintroduction, California condor, and black-footed ferret in Arizona? 19

20  Heritage Data Management System:  Mexican Wolf Reintroduction and Management:  California Condor Recovery:  Black-footed Ferret:  Black-footed Ferret Recovery video: 20

21  How do (and might) each of the following issues impact Arizona’s wildlife management: Wildlife diseases (CWD, Avian influenza, rabies) Quagga mussels Wild horse and burro Renewable energy Decline of hunters Border security Climate change 21

22  Wildlife Diseases:  Quagga Mussels:  Slow the Quagga Mussel Spread video:  Alamo Burros:  Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy:  Commission Opposes Wild Horse and Burro: 22

23  Interpret data and maps  Use binoculars  Understand techniques used to identify animals from pictures, replicas, or live specimens  Use common field guides to identify birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, tracks, scat, and skulls. Know how its organized (by color, family)  Be familiar with basic GPS operation 23 In addition to the information presented, you need to be familiar with a variety of wildlife-related skills. You should be able to:

24 24 Learning to identify animals can be frustrating. Practice helps develop your observation skills. In addition, it helps you become familiar with your equipment and field guides. If possible, going out with an experienced individual will sharpen your skills.

25  Adjust the barrels of the binoculars to fit the width of your eyes. You should see a single image and no black areas.  Learn proper cleaning.  Learn the visual limits of the binoculars - distance both near and far and its ability to collect light.  Binoculars come in various sizes. An example is 10 x 42. The first number is the magnification and the second number is the diameter of the large lens in millimeters.  To use, first look at the object without the binoculars. Then, without moving your head, raise the binoculars to your eyes and adjust the focus. 25

26  The front of the field guide will give tips on observation and how to use the guide.  Understand how the field guide is organized (by color, family, etc.) 26

27  Observe the animal, then take notes. You may only have a few seconds to observe before the animals leaves. Then, look at the field guide.  Get the major field marks, then look for details if you have the time. 27

28  Size - Compare it to something you are familiar with, like a soda can or book bag. Is it larger than a soda can or smaller?  Shape - Short, squat, ball-shaped, slender, tall, oblong or football-shaped  Overall color - dark, light, solid, patterned  General habitat – describe the common habitat or plant communities (i.e., desert, scrub, pinyon-juniper, pine, chaparral, riparian, grassland) 28

29  Markings – stripes, spots, eye ring, coat color, leg color, tail strips, beak color, wing bars, etc.  Posture – upright, squat, round, tail visible or not, leaning forward  Behavior - tail flicks, head bobbing, constantly moving, still, retreating, aggressive, secretive, what time of day are they active, if it is eating what kind of food and how it gets its food  Cover – open, bushy, large leafy trees, grass, edge, woodland, shore, riparian 29

30  Bill shape – cone, short, long, narrow, curved, hooked, flat  Feet – webbed, lobbed, talons, long toes, short toes  Wings – rounded, pointed, long, short  Tail – long, short, forked, rounded, square  Eye color – can change with age  Plumage color – can change with age  Song and call - whistled, flutelike, raspy, mechanical, short notes, long notes, pattern, rhythm  Flight pattern - up and down, straight, circle, quick beats, long beats, glide 30

31  Coat pattern  Eye color  Tracks and scat – see additional slides  Feeding patterns – look for signs on plants, flesh, or bones 31

32  Color on the sides or underneath  Behavior - head bobbing, push ups  Eye color 32

33  Shape and size of scales  Fin placement  Tail shape  Mouth shape  Eye color  Remember the water will distort what the fish looks like. 33

34  Size  Shape  Number of toes  Presence or absence of toe nails  Foot type – hooved, webbed, front, hind  Gate or stride – walking, running, standing  Tail drag 34

35  Shape –segmented, pointed, rounded, log shaped, pellets  Size  Distribution – piled, scattered, perched on top of something else  Smell – feline, canine  Content – fur, seeds, bones, smooth, grassy 35

36  Type of teeth - omnivore, carnivore, herbivore  Number of teeth  Position of the eyes – predator, prey  Size of the eyes - nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular  Size of the nasal cavity – the importance of smell  Sagittal crest – strength of the jaw muscles. 36

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