Presentation on theme: "Gerald M. Muchemi Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.o Box."— Presentation transcript:
Gerald M. Muchemi Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.o Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Kenya.
Livestock and wildlife grazing together Wildlife-livestock interface defines the interaction between free ranging wildlife and livestock and livestock husbandry practices. This occurs when domestic and wild animals utilize the same or bordering ecosystems or when they share resources.
In the past the interface was largely transient such as pastoralist livestock passing through wildlife concentration areas in search of pasture and water, but changes have occurred that have led to livestock and wildlife utilizing the same resources in common.
Cattle and warthog in Northern Kenya This has led to wildlife and livestock sharing sometimes very limited grazing pastures and common watering points.
Interacting along fences: as shown in the picture, cattle grazing next to buffaloes on the opposite sides of the Aberdare's National Park fence boundary.
Elephants next to Aberdares N.P. fence Sharing boundaries with wildlife protected areas.
Livestock predation mainly by lions, leopards, and hyenas
PICTURE SHOWING A ZONKEY IN A HERD OF ZEBRAS IN KIKOPEY AREA IN NAKURU
Climatic and environmental changes which include: drought, flooding, variation in climatic elements such as, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction over the years have led to seasonal and annual fluctuations in wildlife and livestock movements.
As a result, this has led to habitat changes and environmental degradation. With increased human population in a fixed land mass and inherent changes in land use and land tenure, crop farmers and pastoralists have now invaded areas that were formerly wildlife range.
There is also increased sharing of diseases and parasite vectors between wildlife and livestock. Wildlife/livestock interface diseases may be: 1. Linear eg. Along a fence line 2. Patchy- reflecting habitat preferences of host. 3. Focal at shared water points 4. Diffuse where range and resources are shared.
The disease problems encountered are frequently bi- directional at the wildlife/livestock interface Veterinary regulatory authorities have now to deal with emerging sylvatic foci diseases Examples include: - Bovine tuberculosis (Lion/Buffalo) - Bovine brucellosis (Cattle/Buffalo) - Rinderpest (Cattle/Buffalo)
Poultry keeping in a pastoral community in Northern Kenya There is also manifestation of sociocultural changes such as sedenterization of pastoral communities and the inherent adaptation practices.
Coping strategies for these environmental and climatic changes have included: pastoral livestock movement through protected areas exposing livestock to predation and diseases moving livestock to areas unsuitable for their health and production.
Development of adaptable policies on livestock and wildlife management. Sustainable natural resource management strategies to address these challenges. Approaches could include: - ecotourism -community based wildlife sanctuaries such as Ilngwesi and Naibunga conservancies in Laikipia and Namunyak in Samburu.
NAIBUNG’A 17 MAP SHOWING NAIBUNG’A AND NAMUNYAK CONSERVANCIES NAMUNYAK
Dr. Stephen Chege (KWS) Dr. Edward Kariuki (KWS) Mr. Simon Wachiuri (KWS) Dr. Joseph Olesarioyo (KMC) Mr. David Mbugua (BSc. Wildlife Management) Mr. Alfred Mainga (PHPT)